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was procured of the emperor by means of Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, with the assistance of the friends of Peter Mongus and Peter Trullo. The sting of this edict lies here; that it repeats and confirms all that has br?en enacted in the councils of Nice, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon, against the Allans, Nestorians, and Eutychians, without making any particular mention of the councilof Chalcedon. It is in the form of a letter, addressed by Zeno to the bishops, priests, monks, and people of Egypt and Libya. It was opposed by the Catholics, and condemned in form by pope Felix II.
HENRICIANS, a sect so called from Henry, its founder, who, though a monk and hermit, undertook to reform the superstition and vices of the clergy. For this purpose he left Laasanne, in Switzerland, and, removing from different places, at length settled at Tholouse, in the year 1147, and there exercised his ministerial function; till, being overcome by the opposition of Bernard, abbot of Clairval, and condemned by pope Eugenius III. at a council assembled at Rheims, he was committed to a close prison in 1148, where he soon ended his days—This reformer rejected the baptism of infants, severely censured the corrupt manners of the clergy, treated the ft-stivals and ceremonies of the church with the utmost contempt, and held private assemblies for inculcating his peculiar doctrines.
HERACLEONITES.asectofChristians, the followers of Heracleon, who refined upon the Gnostic divinity, and maintained that the world was not the immediate production of the Son of God, .but that he was only the occasional cause of its being created by the dcmiurgus. The Heracleonites denied the authority of the prophecies of the Old Testament; maintained that they were mere random sounds in the air; and that St. John the Baptist was the only true voice that directed to the Messiah. HERESIARCH.an arch heretic, the founder or inventor of an heresy; or a chief of a sect of heretics.
HERESY. This word signifies sect or choice; it was not in its earliest acceptation conceived to convey any reproach, since it was indifferently used either of a party approved, or of one disapproved by the writer. See Acts v. 17. xv. 3. Afterwards it was generally used to signify some fundamental error adhered to v> ith obstinacy, 2 Pet. ii. l.Gal. v. 20.
According to the laws of this kingdom, heresy consists in a denial of some
of the essential doctrines of Christianity, publicly and obstinately avowed. It must be acknowledged, however, that particular modes of belief or unbelief, not tending to overturn Christianity, or to sap the foundations of morality, are by no means the object of coercion by the civil magistrate. What doctrines shall therefore be adjudged heresy, was left by our old constitution to the determination of the ecclesiastical judge, who had herein a most arbitrary la'itude allowed him; for the general definition of an heretic, given by Lyndewode, extends to the smallest deviations from the doctrines of the holy church: "Hereticus est qui dubilat de fide catholica, et qui negligit snrvare ea qua Romana ecclesia ttatuit, seu servare decreverat:" or, as the statute, 2 Hen. IV. cap. 15, expresses it in English, "teachers of erroneous opinions, contrary to the faith and blessed determinations of the holy church." Very contrary this to the usage of the first general councils, which defined all heretical doctrines with the utmost precision and exactness; and what ought to have alleviated the punishment, the uncertainty of the crime, seems to have enhanced it in those days of blind zeal and pious cruelty. The sanctimonious hypocrisy of the Canonists, indeed, went, at first, no farther than enjoining penance, excommunication, and ecclesiastical deprivation, for heresy; but afterwards they proceeded boldly to imprisonment by the ordinary, and confiscation of goods in fiioa usus. But in the mean time they had prevailed upon the weakness of bigoted princes to make the civil power subservient to their purposes, by making heresy not only a temporal but even a capital offence; the Romish ecclesiastics determining, without appeal, whatever they pleased to be heresy, and shifting off to the secular arm the odium and drudgery of executions, with which they pretended to be too tender and delicate to intermeddle. Nay, they affected to intercede on behalf of the convicted heretic, well knowing that at the same time they were delivering the unhappy victim to certain death. See Act Of Faith.— Hence the capitalpunishments inflicted on the ancient Donatists and Manichxans by the emperors Theodosius and Justinian; hence, also, the constitution of the emperor Frederic, mentioned by Lyndewode, adjudging all persons, without distinction, tobe burnt with fire, who were convicted of heresy by the ecclesiastical judge. The same emperor, in another constitution, ordained,
same reign, our lands were delivered from the slavery of military tenures; our bodies from arbitrary imprisonment by the habeas eorfius act: and our niinds from the tvranr.v of superstitious bigotry, by demolishing this last badge of persecution in the English law. Every thing is now less e xcep'ionable with respect to the spiritual cognizance and spiritual punishment of heresy . unless, perhaps that the crime ought to be more stricth defined, and no prosecution permitted, even in the eolesiastical courts, till the tmets in question are bv ptoper authority previously de clared to be heretical. Under these restrictions, som* think it necessary, for the support of he na ional religion, tha. the officers of the church should have power to censure heretics; yet not to harass them wih temporal penalties, much less to exterminate or destroy them. The legislature has, indeed, thought it proper that the ci\il magistrate should interpose with regard to one species of heresy, verv prevalent in modern times; forby stat. 9 and 10 W. III. c. .V2. if am person, educated in the Christian religion or professing the same, shall, bv writing, printing, teaching, or advised speaking, deny any one of the persons in the Holy Triniti to be God, or maintain that there are more Gods than one, he shall undergo the same penalties and incapacities hich were inflicted on apostacy by the same st itute.' Enc. Brit. Dr. Post r arid Slebbingon Hersey; Hallett's Discourses va\. iii. No 9. p. 358, 408; Dr. CamhbelFs Prel. Die to the Gosflets.
HERETIC, a general name for all such persons under any religion, but especially the Christian, as profess or teach opinions contrary to the establish ed faith, or to what is made the standard of orthodoxy. See last article, and Lar-.lner's History of the Heretics of the first ttoo Centuries.
HERMIANI, a sect in the second century; so called from their leader Hermias. One of their distinguishing tenets was, that God is corporeal; another, that Jesus Christ did not ascend into heaven with his body, but left it in the sun.
HERMIT, a person who retires into soli'ude for the purpose of devotion. Who were the first hermits cannot easily be known; though Paul, surnamed the hermit, is generally reckoned the first. The persecu'ions of Decius and Valerian were supposed to have occasioned their first rise.
HERMOGEN1 \NS, a sect of ancient heretics; denominated from their
| leader Hermogenes, who lived towards the close ot the second century. Hermogenes established matter as his first principle; and regarding matter as the fountain of all evil, he maintained, that the world, and every thing contained in it, as also the souls of men and other spirits, were formed by the Deity from an uncreated and eternal mass of corrup. matter. The opinions of Hermogenes with regard to the origin of the world, and the nature of the soul, were warmly opposed by Tertullian. HERNHUT1ERS. See Mohavi
HERODIANS. a sect among the Jews, at the 'ime of our Saviour, Matt, xxii. 16 Mark iii. 6. The critics and commentators are very much divided with regard to the Herodians. St. Jerome, in his dialogue against the Luciferians, takes the name to have been given to such as owned Herod for the Messiah; and Tertullian and Epiphanius are of the same opinion. But the same Jerome, in his comment on St. Matthew, treats this opinion as ridiculo.is and maintains thv the Pharisees gave this appellation, by way of ridicule, Io Herod's soldiers, who paid ttibute to the Romans agreeable to which the Si rian interpre ers render the word bv the domestics of Herod, i. e. "his courtiers." M. Simon, in his notes on the -'2d chapter of Matthew, advances a 'iiore probable opinion : the name Herodian he imagines to hai e been given to such as adhered to Her d's party and interest, and wee for preserving the government in hi* family, about which were g-eat divisions among the Jews, F. Ha;douin will have the Herodians and Sadducees to have been the same. Dt Pndeaux is of opinion that they derived their name from Herod the Great ; and that thev were distinguished from the other Jews by their concurrence with Herod's scheme of subjecting himself and his dominions to the Romans, and likewise by complying with many of their heathen usages and customs. This symbolizing with idolatry upon views oi interest and worldly policy was probably that leaven of ilerod, against which our Saviour cau'ioned his disciples. It is further probable that they were chiefly of the sect of the Sadducees; because the leaven of Herod is also denominated the leaven of the Sadducees.
HETERODOX, something that is contrary to the faith or doctrine established in the true church. See OrThodox.
HEXAPLA, a Bible disposed in six columns, containing the text and divers versions thereof, compiled and published by Origen, with a view of securing the sacred text from future corruptions and to correct those that had been already introduced. Eusebius relates, that Origen, after his return from Rome under Caracalla, applied himself to learn Hebrew, and began to collect the several versions that Imd been made of the sacred writings, and of these to compose his I'etraplaand Hexapla; others, however, will not allow him to have begun till the time of Alexander, after he had retired into Palestine, about the year 231. To conceive what this Hexapla was, it must be observed, that, besides the translation of the sacred writings, called the Septuagint, made under Ptolemy Philadelphus above 280 years before Christ, the Scripture had been since translated into Greek by other interpreters. The first of those versions, or (reckoning the Septuagint) the second, was that of Aquila, a proselyte Jew, the first edition of which he published in the 12th year of the emperor Adrian, or about the year of Christ 128 , the third was that of Symmachus, published, as is commonly supposed, under Marcus Aurelius, but, as some say. under Septimius Seve-us, about the year 200; the fourth was that of Theodotion, prior to that of Symmachus, under Com modus, or about the year 175. These Greek ver-ions, says Dr. Kennicott, were made by the Jews from their corrupted copies of the Hebrew, and were designee! to stand in the place of the Seventy, against which they were prejudiced, because it seemed to favour the Christians. The fifth was found at Jericho, in the reign of Caracalla, about the year 217: and the sixth was discovered at Nicopolis, in the reign of Alexander Severus, about the year 228; lastly,-Origen himself recovered part of a seventh, containing only the Psalms. Now, ()rigen, who Tiad held frequent dispula'ions with the Jews in Egypt and Palestine, observing that the> always objected to those passages of Scripture quoted against them, appealed to the Hebrew text, the better to vindicate those passages, and confound the Jews, by showing that the Seventv had given the sense of the Hebrew; or rather to show, by a number of different versions, what the real sense of the Hebrew was, undertook to reduce all these several versions into a body, along with the Hebrew text, so as they might be easilv confronted, and afford a mutual light to each other. He made the Hebrew text bis standard; and allowing that cor
ruptions might have happened, and that the old Hebrew copies might and did read differently, he contented himself with marking such words or sentencesas were not in his Hebrew text, nor the later Greek versions, and adding such words or sentences as were omitted in the Seventy, prefixing an asterisk to the additions, and an obelisk to the others. In order to this, he made choice of eight columns; in the first he made the Hebrew text, in Hebrew characters; in the second, the same text in Greek characters; the rest were filled with the several versions above-mentioned; all the columns answering verse for verse, and phrase for phr.se; and in the Psalms there was a ninth column for the seventh version. This work Origen called 'e£*s-a«, Hexapla, q. d. nextufile, or work of six columns, as only i egarding the first six Greek versions St. Epi
fihanius, taking in likewise the two coumns of the text, ca'ls the work Oclafila, as consisting ot eight columns. This celebrated work, which Montfaucon imagines consisted of sixty large volumes, perished long ago; probably with the libiary at Catsarea, where it was preserved in the year 653; though several ot the ancient writers have presented us pieces thereof, particularly St. Chrysostom on the Psalms, Phileponus in his Hexameron, &c. Some modern writers have earnestly endeavoured to collect fragments of the Hexapla, particularly Flaminius, Nobilius, Drusius, and F. Montfaucon, in two folio volumes printed at Paris in 1713
HIERACITES, heretics in the third century, so called from their leader Hierax, a philosopher, of Egypt, who taught that Melchisedec was ihe Holy Ghost; denied the resurrection and condemned marriage.
HIERARCHY, an ecclesiastical establishment. The word is also used in reference to the subordination some suppose there is among the angels: but whether they are to be considered as having a government orhierarchy among themselves, so that one is superior in office and dignity to others; or whether they have a kind of dominion over one another: or whether some are made partakers of privileges others are deprived of, cannot be determined, since Scripture is silent as to this matter.
HIGH CHURCHMEN, a term first given to the non-jurers, who refused to acknowledge William III. as their lawful king, and who had very proud notions of church power; but it is now commonly used in a more extensive signification, and is applied to all these £ c ^who, though far from being non-jurors, yet form pompous and ambitious conceptions of the authority and jurisdiction of the church.
HISTORY, ECCLESIASTICAL. See Ecclesiastical History.
HOFFMAN1STS, those whoespoused the sentiments of Daniel Hoffman, professor in the university of Helmstadt, •who in the year 1598 taught that the light of reason, even as it appears in the ■writings of Plato and Aristotle, is adverse to religion ; and that the more the human understanding is cultivated by philosophical study, the more perfectly is the enemy supplied with weapons of defence.
HOLINESS, freedom from sin, or the conformity of the heart to God. It does not consist in knowledge, talents, nor outward ceremonies of religion, but hath its seat in the heart, and is the effect of a principle of grace implanted by the Holy Spirit, Eph. ii. 8,10. John iii. 5. Rom. vi. 22. It is the essence of happiness and the basis of true dignity, Prov. iii. 17. Prov. iv. 8. It will manifest itself by the propriety of our conversation, regularity of our temper, and uniformity of our lives. It is a principle progressive in its operation, Prov. iv. 18. and absolutely essential to the enjoy ment of God here and hereafter, Heb. xii. 14. See Sanctification, Works.
HOLINESS OF GOD, is the purity and rectitude of his nature. It is an essential attribute of God, and what is the glory, lustre, and harmony of all his other perfections. Ps. xxvii. 4. Exod. 5cv. 11. He could not be God without it, Deut. xxxii. 4- It is infinite and unbounded; it cannot be increased or diminished. Immutable and invariablr, Mai. iii. 6. God is originally holy; he is so of and in himself, and the author and promoter of all holiness among his creatures. The holiness of (Jod is visible by his works; he made all things holy, Gen. i. 31. By his providences, all ■which are to promote holiness in the end, Heb. xii 10. By his grace, which influences the subjects of it to be holy. Tit. ii. 10,12. By his word, which commands it, 1 Pet. i. 15. By his ordinance/:, ■which he hath appointed for that end, Jer. xliv. 4,5. By the punishment of sin in the death of Christ, Is. liii. and by the eternal punishment of it in wicked men. Matt. xxv. last verse. See AttriButes.
HOLOCAUST, formed from c*«, "whole," and x*/», "I consume with fire ," a kind of sacrifice wherein the whole burnt offering is burnt or consumed by fire, as an acknowledgment that
God, the Creator, Preserver, and Lord of all. was worthy of all honour and worship, and as a token of men's giving themselves entirely up to him. It is called in Scripture a burnt offering. Sacrifices of this sort arc often mentioned by the heathens as well as Jews. They appear to have been in use long before the institution of other Jewish sacrifices by the law of Moses, Job i. 5. Job xlii. 8. Gen. xxii. 13. Gen. viii. 20. On this account, the Jews, who would not allow the Gentiles to offer on their altar any other sacrifices peculiarly enjoined by the law of Moses, admitted their, by the Jewish priests to offer holocausts, because these were a sort of sacrifices prior to the law, and common to all nations. During their subjection to the Komans, it was no uncommon thing for those Gentiles to offer sacrifices to the God of Israel at Jerusalem. Holocausts were deemed by the Jews the most excellent of all their sacrifices. See SaCrifice.
HOLY DAY, a day set apart by the church for the commemoration of some saint, or some remarkable particular in the life of Christ. It has been a question agitated by divines, whether it be proper to appoint or keep any holy days (the sabbath excepted) The advocates for holy days suppose that they have a tendency to impress the minds of the people with a greater sense of religion; that if the acquisitions and victories of men be celebrated with the highest joy, how ninch more those events which relate to the salvation of man, such as the birth, death, and resurrection of Christ, 8cc. On the other side it is observed, that if holy days had been necessary under the present dispensation, Jesus Christ would have observed something respecting them, whereas he was silent about them ; that it is bringing us again into that bondage to ceremonial laws from which Chnst freed us; that it is a tacit reflection on the Head of the church in not appointing them; that such days, on the whole, are more pernicious than useful to society, as they open a door for indolence and profanenos; yea, that Scripture speaks against such days, Gal. iv. 9—11. Cave's Prim. Christ. Nelson's Fasts and Feasts; Robinson's History and Mystery of Good Friday, and Lecture* en Nonconformity ; A Country Vicar's Sermon on Christmas day, 1753; Brown's Nat and Rev. Reiig. p. 535; Ncale's History of the Puritans, vol. ii. p. 116, qu,
HOLY GHOST, the third person in the Trinity.