« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
I. The Holy Ghost is a real and distinct person in the Godhead. 1. Personal powers of rational understandingand will are ascribed to him, 1 Cor. ii.
30, 11. 1 Cor. xii. 11. Eph. iv. 3.-2. He is joined with the other two divine persons, as the object of worship and fountain of blessings, Matt, xxviii. 19. 2 Cor. xiii. 14. 1 John v. 7.-3. In the Greek, a masculine article or epithet is joined to his name Pneuma, which is naturally of the neuter gender, John xiv. 26. xv. 26. xvi. 13. Lph. i. 13.—4. He appeared under the emblem of a dove, and of cloven tongues of fire, Matt. iii. Acts ii.—5. Personal offices of an intercessor belong to him, Rono. viii. 26.—6. He is represented as performing a multitude of personal acts; as teaching, speaking, witnessing, &C. Mark xiii. 11. Acts xx. 23. Rom. viii. 15, 16. 1 Cor. vi. 19. Acts xv. 28. xvi. 6, 7, &c. Sec. &c.
II. It is no less evident that the Holy Ghost is a divine person equal in power and glory with the Father and Son. 1. Names proper only to the Most High God are ascribed to him; as Jehovah, Acts xxviii. 25. with Is. vi. 9. and Heb. iii. 7,9. with Exod. xvii.7. Jer. xxxi.
31, 34. Heb. x. 15, 16. God, Acts v. 3, 4. Lord. 2 Cor. iii. 17, 19. "The Lord, the Spirit."—2. Attributes proper only to the Most High God are ascribed to him; as Omniscience, 1 Cor. ii. 10, 11. Is. xl. 13, 14. Omnipresence. Ps. exxxix. 7. Eph. ii. 17. 18. Rom. viii. 26, 27. Omnipotence, Luke i. 35. Eternity, Heb. ix. 1*—3. Divine works are evidently ascribed to him, Gen. i. V.. Job xxvi. 13. Ps. xxxiii 6. Ps. civ. 30.—4. Worship, proper only to God, is required and ascribed to him, Is. vi. 3. Acts xxviii. 25. Rom. ix. 1. Rev. i. 4. 2 Cor. xiii. 14. Matt, xxviii. 19.
III. The agency or work of the Holy Ghost is divided by some into extraordinary and ordinary. The former by immediate inspiration, making meii prophets, the latter by his rtgenerating and sanctifying influences making men saints, ft is only the latter which is now to be expected. This is more particularly displayed in. 1. Conviction of sin, John xvi. 8, 9.—2. Conversion, 1 Cor. xii. Eph i. 17, 18. 1 Cor.ii. 10, 12. John iii. 5, 6.-3. Sanctiftcation, 2 Thess. ii. 13. 1 Cor vi. 11. Rom. xv. 16.—4. Consolation. John xiv. 16, 26.— 5. Direction, John xiv. 17. Rom. viii. 14. —6. Confirmation, Rom. viii. 16, 26. 1 John ii. 24. Eph. i. 13, 14. As to the gift of the Holy Spirit, says a good writer, it i* not expected to be bestowed in answet to our prayers, to inform us im
mediately, as by a whisper, when either awake or asleep, that we are the children of God ; or in any other way, than by enabling us to exercise repentance and faith and love to God and our neighbour. 2. We are not to suppose that he reveals any thing contrary to the written word, or more than is contained in it, or through any other medium. 3. We are not so led by, or operated upon by the Spirit as to neglect the means of grace. 4. The Holy Spirit is not promised nor given to render us infallible. 5. Nor is the Holy Spirit given in order that we may do any thing, which was not before our duty. See Trinity, and Scott's Four Sermons on Repentance, the Evil of Ski, Love to God, and the Promise of the Holy Spirit, p. 86—89. Hawker's Sermons on the Holy Ghost; Pearson on the Creed, 8th article; Dr. Owen on the Spirit; Hurrion's 16 Sermons on the Spirit.
HOLY GHOST, PROCESSION OF. See Procession.
HOMILY, a sermon or discourse upon some point of religion delivered in a plain manner, so as to be easily understood by the common people. The Greek homily, says M. Fleury, signifies a familiar discourse like the Latin sermo, and discourses delivered in the church took these denominations, to intimate that they were not harangues, or matters of ostentation and flourish, like those of profane orators, but familiar and useful discourses, as of a master to his disciples, or a father to his children. All the homilies of the Greek and Latin fathers are composed by bishops. We have none of Teriullian, Clemens Alexandrinus, and many other learned persons, because in the first ages none but bishops were admitted to preach. The privih ge was not ordinarily allowed to p< tests till toward the fifth century. St. Chrysostom was the first presbvter that preached statedly, Origen and St. Augustine also preached, but it was by a peculiar licence or privilege.
Pliottus ditinguishes homily from sermon, in that the homily was perfoimed in a more familiar manner; the pi elate interrogating and talking to the people, and they in their turn answering and interrogating him, so that it was properly a conversation; whereas the sermon was delivered with more form, and in the pulpit, after the manner of the orators. The practice of compiling homilies which were to be committed to memory, and recited by ignorant or indolent priests, commenced towards the close of the eighth century; when Charlemagne ordered Paul, Deacon, and Alcuin, to form homilies or discourses upon the Gospels and Epistles from the ancient doctors of the church. This gave rise to that famous collection entitled the Homiliarium of Charlemagne; and which bein^ followed as a model bv many productions of the same kind, composed bv private persons, from a principle of pious zeal, contributed much (says Mosheim) to nourish the indolence and to perpetuate the ignorance of a wothless clergy. There are still extant several fine homilies composed by the ancient fathers, particularly St. Chrysostom and St. Gregory. — The Clementine homili' a are nineteen homilies in Greek, published by liotelerius, with two letters prefix, d one of them written in the name of Peter, the other in the name of Clement, to James, bishop of Jerusalem; in which last letter they are entitled Clement's Epitome of the breaching and Travels of Peter. According to Le Clerc, these homilies were composed by an Ebionite, in the second century; but Montfaucon supposes that they were forged long after the age of St. Athanasius. Dr. Lardner apprehends that the Clementine homilies were the original or first edition of the Recognitions; and that they are the same with the work censured by Eusebiu.s under the title of Dialogues of Peter and Appion.—Homilies of the Church of England are those which were composed at the reformation to be read in churches, in order to supply the defect of sermons. See the quarto edition of the Homilies, with notes, by a divine of the Church of England.
HONESTY is that principle which makes a person prefer his promise or duty to his passion or interest. See Justick.
HONOUR, a testimony of esteem or submission, expressed by words and an exterior behaviour, by which we make known the veneration and respect we entertain for any one, on acco int of his dignity or merit. The word is also used in general for the esteem due to virtue, glory, reputation, and probi;y; as also tor an exactness in performing whatever we have promised; and in this last sense we use the term, a man of honour. It is also applied to two different kinds of virtue, bravery in men, and chastity in women. In every situation of life, religion only forms the true honour and happiness of man. • "It cannot," as one observes, *' arise from riches, dignity of rank or office, nor from what are often called splendid actions of heroes, or civil accomplish
ments; these may be found among men of no real integrity, and may create considerable fame , but a distinction must be made between fame and true honour. The former is a loud and noisy applause; the later a more silent and internal homage. Fame floats on the breath of the multitude; honour rests on the judgment of the thinking. In order, then, to discern whe- e true honour lies, we must not look to anv adventitious circumstance, not to any single sparkling quality, but to the "hole ot what forms a man; in a word, we must look to the soul. It will discover itself by a mind superior to fear, to selfish interest, and corruption; by an ardent love to the Supreme Being, and by a principle of uniform rectitude. It will make us neither afraid nor ashamed to discharge our duty, as it relates both to God and man. It will influence us to be magnanimous without being proud; humble without being mean; just without being harsh; simple in our manner,, but manly in our feelings. This honour, thus formed by religion, or the love of God, is more independent and more complete, than what can be acquired by any other means. It is productive of higher felicitv, and will be commensurate with eternity itself; while that honour, so called, which arises from any other principle, will resemble the feeble and twinkling flame of a taper, which is often clouded by the smoke it sends forth, but is always wasting, and soon dies totally awav." Barrow's Works, vol. i. ser. 4; Blair's Sermons, vol. iii. ser. 1. Watts's Sermons, ser. 30. vol. ii. Ryland's Cont. vol. i. p. 343; Jortin'a Sermons, vol. iii. ser. 6.
HOPE is the desire of some good, attended with the possibility, at least of obtaining it; and is enlivened wi hjoy greater or less, according to the probabilitv there is of possessing the object of our hope. Scarce any passion seems to be more natural to man than hofie; and, considering the many troubles he is encompassed wiih. none is more necessary; for life, void of all hope, would be a heavy and spiritless tning, very little desirable, perhaps hardly to be borne; whereas hope infuses strength in'o the mind, and by so doing, lessens the burdens of life. If our condition be not the best in the world, vet we hope it will be better, and this helps us to support it with patience. The hope of the Christian is an expectation of all necessary good both in time and eternity, founded on the promises, relations, and perfections of God, and on the offices, righteousness, and intercession of Christ. It is a compound of desire, expectation, patience, and joy, Rom. viii. 24, 25. It may be considered, 1. As fiure, 1 John iii. 2, 3. as it is resident in that heart 'which is cleansed from -in.—2. \sgood, 2 Thess. ii. 16. (in distinction from the hope of the hypocrite) as deriving its origin from God, and centring in him. —3. It is called lively, 1 Pet. i. 3. as it proceeds from spiritual life, and renders one active and lively in good works.— 4. It is courageous. Kom. v. 5. 1 Thess. v. 8. because it excites fortitude in all the troubles of life, and yields support in the hour of death, Prov. xiv. 32.—5. Sure, Heb. vi. 19. because it will not disappoint us, and is fixed on a sure foundation.—6. Joyful Rom. v. 2. as it produces the greatest felicity in the anticipation of complete deliverance from all evil. Campbell's Pleasures of Hope; Grove's Moral Phil. vol. i. p381 , Giirs Body of Dtv. p. 82. vol. hi.; No. 471, S/iect.; Jay's Sermons, vol. ii. ser. 2.
HOPKINSIANS, so called from the Rev. Samuel Hopkins, D. D. an American divine, who in his sermons and tract- has made several additions to the sentiments first advanced by the celebrated Jonathan Edwards, late president of New Jersey College.
The following is a summary of the distinguishing tenets of the Hopkinsians together with a few of the reasons they bring forward in support of their sentiments.
1. That all true virtue, or real holiness, consists in disinterested benevolence. The object of benevolence is universal being, including God and all intelligent creatures. It wishes and seeks the good of every individual, so far asis consistent with the greatest good of the whole, which is comprised in the glory of God and the perfection and happiness of his kingdom. The law of God is the standard of all moral rectitude or holiness. This is reduced into love to God, and our neighbour as ourselves . and universal good-will comprehends all the love to God, our neighbour, and ourselves, required in the divine law, and therefore must be the whole of holy obedience. Let any serious person think what are the particular branches of true piety; when he has viewed each one by itself, he will find that disinterested friendly affections, is its distinguishing characteristic. For instance, all the holiness in pious fear, which distinguishes it from the fear of the wicked, consists in love. Again; holy gratitude is nothing but good-will to God and our neighbour, in which we
ourselves are included; and correspondent affection, excited by a view of the good-will and kindness of God. Universal good-will also implies the whole of .he duty we owe to our neighbour, for justice, truth, and faithfulness, are comprised in universal benevolence; so are temperance and chastity. For an undue indulgence of our appetites and passions is contrary to benevolence, as tending to hurt ourselves or others, and so opposite to the general good, and the divine command, in which all the crime of such indulgence consists In short, all virtue is nothing but benevolence acted out in its propc- n iture and perfection; or love to God a'id our neighbour, made perfect in all its genuine exercises and expressions.
II. That all sin consists in selfishness. By this is meant an interested, selfish, affection, by which a person sets himself up as supreme, and the only object of regard; and nothing is good or lovely in his view, unless suited to promote his own private interest. This self-love is in its whole nature, and every degree of it, enmity again-1 God: it is not subject to the law of God, and is the only affection that can. oppose it. It is the foundation of all spiritual blindness, ;.nd therefore the source of all the open idolatry in the hea hen world, and false religion under the light of '.he Gospel; all this is agreeable to that self-love which opposes God's true character. Under the influence of this principle, men depart from truth ; it being itself the greatest practical lie in nature, as it sets up that which is comparatively nothing above universal existence Selilove is the source of all profaneness and impiety in the world, and of all pride and ambition among men, which is nothing but selfishness, acted out in this particular way. This is the foundation of all covetousness and sensuality, as it blinds people's eyes, contracts their hearts, and sinks them down, so that they look upon earthly enjoyments as the greatest good. This is the source of all falsehood, injustice, and oppression, as it excites mankind by undue methods to invade the property of others. Self-love produces all the violent passions; envy, wrath, clamour, and evil speaking: and every thing country to the divine law is briefly comprehended in this fruitful source of all iuiqui'y self-love.
III. That there are no promises of regenerating grace made to the doings of the un re gene rate. For as far as men act from self love, they act from a bad end: for those who have no true love to God, really do no duty when they attend on the externals of religion. And as the unregenerate act from a selfish principle, they do nothing which is commanded: their impenitent doings are wholly opposed to repentance and conversion; therefore not implied in the command to repent, 8cc. so far from this, ihey are altogether disobedient to the command. Hence it appears that there are no promises of salvation to the doings of the unregenerate.
IV. Tnat the impotency of sinners, with respect to believing in Christ, is not natural, but moral; for it is a plain dictate of common sense, that natural impossibility excludes all blame. But an unwilling mind is universally considered as a crime, and not as an excuse, and is the very thing wherein our wickedness consists. That the impotence of the sinner is owing to a disaffection of heart, is evident from the promises of the Gospel. When any object of good is proposed and promised to us upon asking, it clearly evinces that there can be no impotence in us with respect to obtaining it, besidesthe disapprobation of the will: and that inability which consists in disinclination, never renders any thing improperly the subject of precept or command.
V. That, in order to faith in Christ, a sinner must approve in his heart of the divine conduct, even though God should cast him off for ever; which, however, neither implies love of miseiy, nor hatred of happiness. For if the law is good, death is due to those who have broken it. The Judge of all the earth cannot but do right. It would bring everlasting reproach upon his government to spare us, considered merely as in ourselves. When this is felt in our hearts, and not till then, we shall be prepared to look to the free grace of God, through the redemption which is in Christ, and to exercise faith in his blood, who is set forth to be a firofiiriation to declare God's righteousness, that he might be just, and yet be the justifier of him who believeth in Jesus.
VI. That the infinitely wise and holy God has exerted his omnipotent power in such a manner as he purposed should be followed with the existence and entrance of moral evil into the system.— For it must be admitted on all hands, that God has a perfect knowledge, foresight, and view of all possible existences and events. If that system and scene of operation, in which moral evil should never have existed, was actually preferred in the divine mind, certainly the Deity is infinitely disappointed in
the issue of his own operations. Nothing can be more dishonourable to God than to imagine that the system which is actuallv formed by the divine hand, and which was made for his pleasure and glory, is yet not the fruit of wise contrivance and design.
VII. That the introduction of sin is, upon the whole, for the general good. For the wisdom and power of the Deity are displayed in carrying on designs of the greatest good; and the existence of moral evil has undoubtedly occasioned a more full, perfect, and glorious discovery of the infinite perfections of the divine nature, than could otherwise have been made to the view of creatures. If the extensive manifes ationsof the pure and holv nature of God, and his infinite aversion to sin, and all his inherent perfections, in their genuine fruits ana effects, is either itself the greatest good, or necess-irily contains it, it must necessarily follow that the introduction of sin is for the greatest good.
VIII. That repentance is before faith
in Christ By this is not intended, that
repentance is before a speculative belief of the being and perfections of God, and of the person and character of Christ; but only that true repentance is previous to a saving faith in Christ, in which the believer is united to Christ, and entitled to the benefits of his mediation and atonement. That repentance is before faith in this sense, appears from several considerations. 1. As repentance and faith respect different objects, so they are distinct exertises of the heart; and therefore one not only may, but must be prior to the other.— 2. there may be genuine repentance of sin without faith in Christ, but there cannot be true faith in Christ without repentance of sin; and since repentance is necessary in order to faith in Christ, it must necessarily be prior to faith in
Christ 3. John the Baptist, Christ and
his apostles, taught that repentance is before faith. John cried, Hefient, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand; intimating that true repentance was necessary in order to embrace the Gospel of the kingdom. Christ commanded, Refient ye, and believe the Gosfiel. And Paul preached repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ.
IX. That though men became sinners by Adam, according to a divine constitution, yet they have and are accountable for no sins but personal; for, 1. Adam's act, in eating the forbidden fruit, was not the act of his posterity; therefore they did not sin at the same time he did.—2, The sinfulness of that act could not be trans/trred to them afterwards, because the sinfulness of an act can no more be transferred from one person to another than an act itself. —3. I heretore Adam's act, in eating the forbidden fruit, was not the count-, but only the occasion of his posterity's being sinners. God was pleased to make a constitution, that, if Adam re maincd holy through his state of trial, his posterity should in consequence be holy also; but if he sinned, his posterity should in consequence be sinners likeWise. Adam sinned, and now God brings his posterity into the world sinners. By Adam's sm we are become sinners, not for it; his sin being only the occasion, not the cause of our committing sins.
X. That though believers are justified through Christ's righteousness; yet his righteousness is not transjerred to ihem. For, 1. Personal righteousness can no more be transferred from one person to another, than personal sin—l. It Christ s personal righteousness were transferred to believers, they would be as pei fectly hoh as Christ; and so stand in no need of forgiveness.—J. But believers are not conscious of having Christ's personal righteousness, but feel and bewail much
indwelling sin and corruption 4. The
Scripture represents believers as receiving only the benefits of Christ s righteousness in justification, or their being pardoned and accepted lor Christ's righteousness sake: and this . is the proper Scripture notion of imputation. Jonathan's righteousness was imputed to Mephibosheth when David showed kindness to him for his father Jonathan's sake.
1 he Hopkinsians warmly contend for the doctrine of the divine decrees, that of particular election, total depravity, the special influences of the Spirit of God in regeneration, justification by faith alone, the final perseverance of the saints, and the consistency between entire freedom and absolute dependence , and therefore claim it as their just due, since the world will make distinctions, to be called Hopkinsian Calvinists. Adam's View of Mtligions; Hopkins on Holiness; Edwards on the Will, p. 234, s>82, Jidwards on Virtue; West's Essay on Moral Agency, p. f 70, 181; Spring's JVature oj Duty, 23; Moral Disquisitions, p. 40.
HORROR, a passion excited by an object which causes a high degree of fear and detestation. It is a compound of wonder and fear. -Sometimes it ha. a mixture of pleasure, from which, it
predominant, it is denominated a pleasing horror. Such a horror seizes us at the view of vast and hanging precipices, a tempestuous ocean, or wild and solitary places. This passion is the original of superstition, as a wise and well tempered awe is of religion. Horror and terror seem almost to be synonymous; but the former, I think, refi rs more to what disgusts; the latter to that which alarms us.
HOSANNA, in the Hebrew ceremonies, a prayer which they rehearsed on the several days of the feast of tabernacles. It signifies, "save us now." or "save us, we pray." There are divers of these hosanvai; the Jews call them hoschannoth, i.e. hosannahs.—Some are rehearsed on the first day, others on the second, &c. which they call hosanna of the first day, hosanna of the second day, 8cc Hosanna Rabba, or Grand Hosanna, is a name they give to their feast of tabernacles, which lasts eight days; because during the course thereof, they are frequently calling for the assistance of God, the forg'neness of their sins, and his blessing on the new year; and to that purpose they make great use of the prayers above mentioned. The Jews also apply the terms hosanna rabba in a more peculiar manner to the seventh day of the feast of tabernacles, because they apply themselves more immediately on that day to invoke the divine blessing, &c.
HOSPITALITY, kindness exercised in the entertainment of strangers. This virtue, we find, is explicitly commanded by, and makes a part of the morality of the New Testament Indeed, that religion which breathes nothing but charity, and whose tendency is to expand the heart, and call forth the benevolent exertions of mankind, must evidently embrace this practice.—If it be asked, of whom isthis required?" is answered.that the principle isrequired of all. though the duty itself can only be practised by those whose circumstances will admit of it. Dr. Stennet, in his discourse on this subject (Domestic Duties, ser. 10,) justly observe*, '• that hospitality is a species of charity to which e\erv one is not competent. But the temper fmm which it proceeds, I mean a humane, generous, benevolent temper, that ought to prevail in every breast. Some are miserably poor, and it is not to be expected that their doors should be thrown open to entertain strangers; yet the cottage of a peasant may exhibit noble specimen-, of hospitality. Here distress has often met with pity, and the persecuted an asylum. Nor is there a man who