« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
Has a house to sleep in, but may be benevolent to strangers.—But there are persons of certain characters and stations, who are more especially obliged to it: as particularly magistrates and others in civil offices, who would forfeit the esteem of the public, and- greatly injure their usefulness, were-they not to observe the rites of hospitality. Ministers also, and such Christians as are qualified by their particular offices in the church, and their affluent circumstances, may be eminently useful in this •way. The two grand virtues which ought to be studied by every one, in order that he may have it in his power to be hospitable, are, industry and economy. Bui it may be asked again, to whom is this duty to be practised? The answer is. to strangers: but here it is necessary to observe, that the term strangers hath two acceptations. It is to be understood of travellers, or persons who come from a distance, and •with whom we have littl- or no acquaintance, and more generally of all who are not of our house—strangers, as opposed to domestics. Hospitality is especially to be practised to the poor: thev who have no houses of their own, or possess few of the conveniences of life, should occasionally be invited to our hoises, and refreshed at our tables, Luke xiv. 13, 14. Hospitality also may be practised to those who are of the same characer and of the same community *ith ourselves. As to the various offices of hospitality, and the manner in which they should be rendered, it must be observed, that the entertainments should be plentiful, frugal, and cordial. (Jen xviii. 6. 8. John xii 3 Luke xv. 17. The obligatiuns to this duty arise f-om l\\c filnr-ss and reasonableness of it; it brings its own reward. Acts xx. 35. It is expressly commanded by God, Lev. xxv. 3S, 38. Luke xvi. 19. xiv. 13, 14. Rom. xii. Heb. xiii. 1, 2. 1 Pet. iv. 9. We have m.iny striking examples of hospitality on divine record: Abraham, Gen xviii. 1,8. Lot, Gen. xix. 1, 3. Job xxxi. 17, 22. Shunamite, 2 Kings iv. 8,10. The hospitable man mentioned in J idges xix. 16. 21. David, 2 Sam. vi. 19. Obadiah, 1 Kings xviii. 4. Nehemiah, Neh. v. 17, 18. Martha, Luke x. 38. Mary, Matt, xxvi. 6, 13. The primitive Christians, Acts ii. 4i, 46. Priscilla and Iquila, Acts xviii. 26. Lydia, Acs xvi. 15, Sec. &c. Lastly, what should have a powerful effect on our minds, is the consideration of divine hospitality.—(Jod is good to all, and his tender mercies are over all bis works. His sun shines and
| his rain falls on the evil as well as the good. His very enemies share of his bounty. He gives liberally to all men, and upbraids not; but especially we should remember the exceeding riches of his grace, in his kindness towards us through Christ Jesus. Let us lay all these considerations together, and then ask ourselves whether we can find it in our hearts to be selfish, parsimonious, and inhospitable?"
HOST, in the church of Rome, a name given to the elements used in the eucharist, or rather to the consecrated wafer, which they pretend to offer up every day. as a new host or sacrifice for the sins of mankind. They pay adoration to the host upon a false presumption that the elements are no longer bread and wine, but transubstantiated into the real body and blood of Christ. See Transubstantiation.—--Pope Gregory IX. first decreed a bell to be rung, as the signal for the people to betake themselves to the adoration of the host. The vessel wherein the hosts are kept is called the cibory, being a large kind of covered chalice.
HUGUENO 1'S, an appellation given by way of contempt to the reformed or protestant Calvimsts of France. The name had its rise in 1560, but authors are not agreed as to the origin and occasion thereof. Some derive it from the following circumstance:—One of the gates of the city of Pours is called the gate of Fourgon, by corruption from Jeu Heugon, i. e. the late Hugon. This Hugon was once count of Tours, according to Eginhardus in his life of Charles the Great, and to some other historians. He was, it seems, a very wicked man, who bv his fierce and cruel temper made himself dreadful, so that after his death he was supposed to walk about in the night time, beating all those he met with: this tradition the judicious Thuanas has not scrupled to mention in his history. Davila and other historians pretend that the nickname of Huguenots was first given to the French Protestants, because they used to meet in the night time in subterraneous vaults near the gate of Hugon; and what seems to countenance this opinion is, that they were fir~t called by the name of Huguenots at this city of Tours. Others assign a more illustrious origin to this name, and say that the leaguers gave it to the reformed, because they were for keeping the crown upon the head of the present line descended from Hugh Capet; whereas they were for giving it to the house of Guise, as descended from Charles the
Great. Others again derive it from a
social and benevolent virtues; a fellowfeeling for the distresses of another. It is properly called humanity, because there is little or nothing of it in brutes. The social affections are conceived by all to be more refined than the selfish. Sympathy and humanity are universally esteemed the finest temper of mind; and for that reason the prevalence of Eignots; j the social affections in the progress of 'society is held to be a refinement of our nature. Kaimes'a El. of Crie, p. 104. vol. i; Robinson's Sermons on Christianity a System of Humanity; Pratt's Poem on Humanity.
HUMANITY OF CHRIST, is his possessing a true human body, and a true human soul, and which he'assumed for the purpose of rendering his mediation effectual to our salvation. See Je
HUMILIATION OF CHRIST, is
that state of meanness and distress to which he voluntarily descended, for the purpose of executing his mediatorial work. This appears, 1. In his birth. He was born of a woman—a sinful woman; though At was without sin, Gal. iv. 4. A. floor woman, Luke ii. 7, 24. In a poor country village, John i. 46. In a stable, an abject place, of a nature subject to infirmities, Heb. ii. 9. hunger, thirst, weariness, pain, &c—2. In his circumstances, laid in a manger when he was born; lived in obscurity for a longtime; probably worked at the trade of a carpenter; had not a place where to lay his head; and was oppressed with poverty while he went about
preaching the Gospel 3. It appeared
in his reputation: he was loaded with the most abusive railing and calumny. Is. liii. the most false accusations. Matt. xxvi. 59, 67. and the most ignominious ridicule, Psal. xxii. 6. Matt. xxii. 68. John vii. 35.—4. In his soul he was often tempted, Matt. iv. 1, 8cc. Heb. ii.
j 17, 18. Heb. iv. 15. grieved with the reproaches cast on himself, and with the sins and miseries of others, Heb. xii. 3. Matt. xi. 19. John xi. 35. was burdened with the hidings of his Father's face, and the fears and impressions of
! his wrath, Psal. xxii. 1. Luke xxii. 43.
| Heb. v. 7.—5. In his death, scourged, crowned with thorns, received gall and vinegar to drink, and was crucified between two thieves, Luke xxiii. John xix. Mark xv. 24, 25j—6. In his burial: not only was he born in another man's house, but he was buried in another man's tomb; for he had no tomb of his own, or family vault to be interred in, Is. liii. 10. &c. Matt. xiii. 46. The humiliation of Christ was neses
sary, 1. To execute the purpose of God, and covenant engagements of Christ, Acts ii. 23 24. Psal. xl. 6,7, 8^—2. To fulfil the manifold types and predictions of the Old Testament.—3. To satisfy the broken law of God, and purchase eternal redemption for us, Isa. liii. Heb. ix. 12,15.—4. To leave us an unspotted pattern of holiness and patience under suffering. Gill's Body of Div. p. 66, vol.ii. Brown's j\'at. and Rev. Religion. p. 357; Ridgley's Body of Div. qu. 48. HUMILI Ix, a disposition of mind wherein a person has a low opinion of himself and his advantages. It is a branch of internal worship, or of experimental religion and godliness. It is the effect of divine grace operating on the soul, and always characterises the true Christian. The heathen philosophers were so little acquainted with this virtue, that they had no name for it: what they meant by the word we use, was meanness and baseness of mind. To consider this grace a little more particularly, it may be observed, 1. That humility does not oblige a man to wrong the truth, or himself, by entertaining a meaner or worse opinion of himself than he deserves.—2. Nor does it oblige n. man, right or wrong, to give every body else the preference to himself. A wise man cannot believe himself inferior to the ignorant multitude; nor the virtuous man that he is not so good as those whose lives are vicious.—3. Nor does it oblige a man to treat himself with contempt in his words or actions: it looks more like affectation than humility, when a man says such things in his own dispraise as others know, or he himself believes, to be false: and it is plain, also, that this is often done merely as a bait to catch the praises of others. Humility consists, 1. In not attributing toourselves any excellence or good which we have not.—2. In not over-rating any thing we do.—3. In not taking an immoderate delight in ourselves.—4. In not assuming more of the praise of a quality or action than belongs to us.—5. In an inward sense of our many imperfections and sins.—6. In ascribing all we have and are to the grace of God. True humility will express itself, 1. By the modesty of our appearance. The humble man will consider his age, abilities, character, fuuetion, &c. and act accordingly.—2 By the modesty of our pursuits. We shall not aim at any thing above our strength, but prefer a good to a great name.—3. It will express itself by the modesty of our conversation and behaviour: we shall not be loquacious, obstinate, forward, envious, discontented, or
ambitious. The advantages of humility are numerous: 1. It is well pleasing to God, 1 Pet. iii. 4.—2. It has great influence on us in the performance of all other duties, praying, hearing, converse, 8cc.—3. It indicates that more grace shall be given, James iv. 6. Ps. xxv. 9. —4. It preserves the soul in great tranquility and contentment, Ps. lxix. 32, 33—5. It makes us patient and resigned under afflictions, Job i. £2.—6. It enables us to exercise moderation in every thing. To obtain this excellent sfiirit •cue should remember, 1. The example of Christ, Phil. ii. 6, 7,8.-2. That heaven is a place of humility. Rev. v. 8.—3. That our sins are numerous, and deserve
the greatest punishment. Lam. iii. 39
4. That humility is the way to honour, Prov. xvi. 18.—5. That the greatest promises of good are made to the humble. Is. lvii. 15. lvi. 2. 1 Pet. v. 5. Ps. cxlvii. 6. Matt. v. 5. Grove's Mor. Phil. vol. ii. p. 286; Evan's Christian Temper, vol. i. ser. 1; Watts on Humility; Baxter's Christian Directory, v. 1. p. 496; Hale's Cont. p. HO; Gill's Body of Div. p. 151, vol. iii. Walker's Ser. iv. ser. 3.
HUSBAND, duties of. See MarRiage State.
HUSSITES, a party of reformers, the followers of John Huss.—John Huss, from whom the Hussities take their name, was born in a little village in Bohemia, called Huss, and lived at Prague in the highest reputation, both on account of the sanctity of his manners and the purity of his doctrine. He was distinguished by his uncommon erudition and eloquence; and performed at the same time the functions of professor of divinity in the university, and of ordinary pastor in the church of that city. He adopted the sentiments of Wickliffe and the Waldenses. and, in the year 1407, began openly to oppose and preach against divers errors in doctrine, as well as corruptions in point of discipline, then reigning in the church. Huss likewise endeavoured to the utmost of his power to withdraw the university of Prague from the jurisdiction of Gregory XII. whom the king of Bohemia had hitherto acknowledged as the true and lawful head of the church. This occasioned a violent quarrel between the incensed archbishop of Prague and the zealous reformer, which the latter inflamed and augmented from day to day, by his pathetic exclamations, against the court of Rome, and the corruption that prevailed among the sacerdotal order.
There were other circumstances that contributed to inflame the resentment of the clergy against liim. He adopted the philosophical opinions of the Realists, and vehemently opposed and even persecuted the Nominalists, whose number and influence were considerable in the university of Prague. He also multiplied the number of his enemies in the year 1408, by procuring, through his own credit, a sentence in favour of the Bohemians, who disputed ■with the Germans concerning the number of suffrages which their respective nations were entitled to in all matters that were carried by election in this university. In consequence of a decree obtained in favour of the former, which restored them to their constitutional right of three suffrages usurped by the latter, the Germans withdrew from Prague, and in the year 1409 founded a new academy at Leipsic. This event no sooner happened, than Huss began to inveigh, with greater freedom than he had done before, against the vices and corruptions of the clergy; and to recommend in a public manner the writingsand opinions of Wickliffe, as far as they related to the papal hierarchy, the despotism of the court of Rome, and the corruption of the clergy. Hence an accusation was brought against him in the year 1410, before the tribunal of John XXIII. by whom he was solemnly expelled from the communion of the church. Notwithstanding this sentence of excommunication, he proceeded to expose the Romish church with a fortitude and zeal that were almost universally applauded.
This eminent man, whose piety was equally sincere and fervent, though his zeal was perhaps too violent, and his prudence not always circumspect, was summoned to appear before the council of Constance. Secured, as he thought, from the ra^e of his enemies, by the safe conduct granted him by the emperor Sigismund for his journey to Constance, his residence in that place, and his return to his own country, John Huss obeyed the-order of the council, and appeared before it to demonstrate his innocence, and to prove that the charge of his having deserted the church of Rome was entirely groundless. However, his enemies so far prevailed, that, by the most scandalous breach of public faith, he was cast into prison, declared a heretic, because he refused to plead guilty against the dictates of his conscience, in obedience to the council, and burnt alive in 1415; a punishment which he endured with unparalleled magnanimity and resolution. When he came to the place of execution, he fell
on his knees, sang portions of psalms, looked ste id lastly towards heaven, und repeated these words: "Into thy hands () Lord, do I commit my spirit; thou hast redeemed me, O most good and faithful God. Lord Jesus Christ, assist and help me, that with a firm and present mind, by thy most powerful grace I may undergo this most cruel and ignominious death, to which I am condemned for preaching the truth of thy most holy Gospel." When the chain were put upon him at the stake, he said with a smiling countenance, " My Lord Jesus Christ was bound with a harder chain than this for my sake, and why should I be ashamed of this old rusty one?" When the faggots were piled up to his very neck, the duke of Bavaria was officious enough to desire him to abjure. "No," says Huss "I never preached any doctrine of an evil tendency; and what I taught with my lips, I seal with my blood." He said to the executioner, "Are you going to burn a goose? In one century you will have a swan you can neither roast nor boil." If he were prophetic, he must have meant Luther, who had a swan for his arms. The fire was then applied to the faggots; when the martyr sang a hymn with so loud and cheerful a voice, that he was heard through all the cracklings of the combustibles and the noise of the multitude. At last his voice was cut short, after he had uttered, " Jc-us Christ, thou Son of the living God, have mercy upon me." and he was consumed in a most miserable manner. The duke of Bavaria ordered the executioner to throw all the martyr's cloaths into the flames: after which his ashes were carefully collected, and cast into the Rhine.
But the cause in which this eminent man was engaged did not die with him. His disciples adhered to their master's doctrines after his death, which broke out into an open war. John Ziska, a Bohemian knight, in 1420, put himself at the head of the Hussites, who were now become a very considerable party, and threw off the despotic yoke of Sigismund, who had treated their brethren in the most barbarous manner. Ziska was succeeded by Procopius in the year 1424. Acts of barbarity were committed on both sides. for notwithstanding the irreconcileable opposition between the religious sentiments of the contending parties, they both agreed in this one horrible principal that it was innocent and lawful to persecute and extirpate with lire and sword the enemies of the true religion; and such they reciprocally appeared to each other. Tnesr commotions in a great measure subsided by the interference of the council of Basil, in the year 1433.
The Hussities. who were divided into two parties, viz. the Calixtines and the Taborites, spread over all Bohemia, and Hungary, and even Silesia and Poland; and there are, it is said, some remains of them still subsisting in those parts, Broughton'a Diet. Middleton's Evan. Biog. vol. i. Mosheim's Ecc. Hist.
HUTCHINSONIANS, thefollowers of John Hutchinson, who was born in Yorkshire in 1674. In the early part of his life he served the duke of Somerset in the capacity of steward; and in the course or his travels from place to place employed himself in tollecting fossils. We are told that the large and noble collection bequeathed by Dr. Woodward to the University of Cambridge was actually made by him, and even unfairly obtained from him. In 1724, he published the first part of his curious book, called Moses's Princiftia. in which he ridiculed Dr. Woodward's Natural History of the Earth, and exploded the doctrine of gravitation established in Newton's Principia. In 1727, he published a second part of Moses's Principia, containing the principles of the Scriptuie philosophy. From this time to his death he published a volume every year or two, which, with the manuscripts he left behind, were published in 1748, in 12 volumes, 8vo. On the Monday before his death, Dr. Mead urged him to be bled ; saving, pleasantly, "I will soon send you to Moses," meaning his studies; but Mr. Hutchinson taking it in the literal sense, answered in a muttering tone, "I believe, doctor, you will;" and was so displeased,, that he dismissed him for another physician; but he died in a few days after, August 28, 1737.
It appears to be a leading sentiment of this denomination, that all our ideas of divinity are formed from the ideas in nature,—that nature is a standing picture, and Scripture an application ot the several parts of the picture, to draw out to, as the great things of God, in order to reform our mental conceptions. To prove this point, they allege, that the Scriptures declare the invisible things of God from the formation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things which are made; even his eternal flower and Godhead. Kom.i.20. The heavens must declare God's righteousness and truth in the congregation of the saints, Psal. lxxxix. 5. And in short the whole system of nature, in one voice of analogy, declares and gives us
ideas of his glory, and shews us his handy-work. We cannot have any ideas of invisible things till they are pointed out to us by revelation: and as we cannot know them immediately, such as they are in themselves, after the manner in which we know sensible objects, they must be communicated to us by the mediation of such things as we already comprehend. For this reason the Scripture is found to have a language of its own, which does not consist of words, but of signs or figures taken from visible things: in consequence of which the wo> Id which we now see becomes a sort of commentary on the mind of (iod, and explains the world in which we believe. The doctrines of the Christian faith arc attested by the whole natural world: they are recorded in a language which has never been confounded; they are written in a text which shall never be corrupted.
The Hutchinsonians maintain that the great mystery of the trinity is conveyed to our understandings by ideas-of sense; and that the created substance of the air, or heaven, in its three-fold agency ot fire, light, and spirit, is the enigma of the one essence or one Jehovah in three persons. The unity of essence is exhibited by its unity of substance; the trinity of conditions, tire, light, and spirit. Thus the one substance of the air, or heaven in iis three conditions, shows the unity in trinity; and its three conditions in or of one substance, the trinity in unity. For (says this denomination) if we consult the "writings of the Old and New Testament, we shall find the persons of the Deity represented under the names and chaiacters oi the three material agents, fire, light, and spirit, and their actions expressed by the actions of these their emblems. The Father is called a consuming lire; and his judicial proceedings are spoken of in words which denote the several actions of fire, Jehovah is a consuming fire—Our God is a consuming fire. Deut. iv. 24. Heb. xii. 29. The Son has the name of light, and his purifying actions and offices are described by words which denote the actions and offices of light, He is the true light, which lightetli every man that comcth into the world, John i. 9. Mai. iv. 2. The Comforter has the name of Spirit, and his animating and sustaining I offices are described by words, for the actions and offices of the material spirit. His actions in the spiritual economy are agreeable to his type in the natural economy; such as inspiring, impelling, driving, leading, Matt. ii. 1. The philosophic system of the Hutchinsonians