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Wise: he/imderstands the nature of his I work, and the wants of his people, John I ii. 25.—3. Righteous: for it is founded upon justice and truth, 1 John iii. 5. Heb. vii. 26.—4. Compassionate, Heb. ii. 17. v. 8. Is. lxiii. 9.—5. He is ihe sole advocate, 1 Tim. ii. 5.—6. It is perpetual. Heb. vii. 25.—7. Efficacious, 1 John ii. 1, 2.—8. The u*e we should make of Christ's intercession is this: 1. We may learn the wonderful love of God to man, Rom. v. 10.—2. The durability and safety of the church, Luke xxii. 31, 32. Is. xvii.24.—3..The ground we have for comfort, Heb. ix. 24. Rom. viii. 34.—4. It should excite us to offer up prayers to God, as they are acceptable thrca.gh him, Rev. viii. 3, 4. See Chamock}s Works, vol. ii. p. 1109; Flavel's Works, vol. i. p. 72; Doddridge's Lee. vol. ii. p. 294, 8vo: Gill's Body of Div. vol. ii. p. 126, 8vo. edit. Brown's Nat. and Rev. Rel. p 348; Berry Street Lee. No. 18; Ridgley's Body of Div. ques. 55.

INTERDICT, an ecclesiastical censure, by which the church of Rome forbids the performance of divine service in a kingdom, province, town, &c. This censure has been frequently executed in France, Italy, and ("Germany; and in the year 1170, Pope Alexander III. put all England under an interdict, forbidding the clergy to perform any part of divine service, except baptizing infants, taking confessions, and giving absolution to dying penitents; but this censure being liable to ill consequences, of promoting libertinism and a neglect of religion, the succeeding popes have very seldom made use of it. There was also an interdict of persons, who were de prived of the benefit of attending on divine service. Particular persons were also anciently interdicted of fire and water, which signifies a banishment for some particular offence: by this censure no person was permitted to receive them, or allow them fire or water; and, being thus wholly deprived of the two necessary elements of life, they were, doubtless, under a kind of civil death.

INTEREST IN CHRIST, a term often made use of in the religious world; and implies our having a right to claim him as our mediator, surety, advocate, and saviour, and with him all those spiritual blessings which are purchased and applied by him to those whom he has redeemed. The term, "having a right to claim him," perhaps, is preferable to that often used, "being enabled to claim him," as many have an interest in Christ who are destitute of that assurance which gives them a com

fortable sense thereof. Ridgley's Div. 228. 3d edit. Pike's Cases of Conscience, p. 130.

INTERIM, the name of a formulary, or confession of faith obtruded upon the Protestants, after the death of Luther, by the emperor Charles V. when he had defeated their forces. It was so called, because it was only to take place in the interim, till a general council should decide all the points in question between the Protestants and Catholics. The occasion of it was this: The emperor had made choice of thi ee divines, viz. Julius Phlug, bishop of Naumberg, Michael fielding, titular bishop of Sidon: and John Agi icola, preacher to the elector of Brandenburgh; who drew up a project, consisting of 26 articles, concerning the points of religion in dispute between the Catholics and Protestants. The controverted points were, the state of Adam before and after his fall; the redemption of mankind by Jesus Christ; the justification of sinners; charity and good works; the confidence we ought to have in CJod; that our sins are remitted; the church and its true marks, its power, its authority, and ministers; the pope and bishops; the sacraments; the mass; the commemoration of saints; their intercession; and prayers for the dead.

The emperor sent this project to the pope for his approbation, which he refused: whereupon Charles V. published the imperial constitution, called the Interim, wherein he declared, that "it was his will, that all his Catholic dominions should, for the future, inviolably observe the customs, statutes, and ordinances of the universal church; and that those who had separated themselves from it, should either reunite themselves to it, or at least, conform to this constitution; and that all should quietly expect the decisions of the general council." This ordinance was published in the diet of Augsburgh.May 15, 1548; but this device neither pleased the pope nor the Protestants: the Lutheran preachers openly declared they would not receive it, alleging that it reestablished popery: sonic chose rather to quit their chairs and livings than to subscribe it; nor would the duke of Saxony receive it. Calvin, and several others wrote against it. On the other side, the emperor was so severe against those who refused to accept it, that he disfranchised the cities of Magdeburg and Constance for their opposition.

INTERMEDIATE STATE, a term made use of to denote the state of the soul between death and the resurrection From the Scriptures speaking frequently of the dead as sleeping in thc.irgraves, many have supposed that the soul sleeps till the resurrection, i. e. is in a state of entire insensibility. But against this opinion, and that the soul, after death, enters immediately into a state of reward or punishment, the following passages seem to be conclusive. Matt, xvii 3. Luke xxiii. 42 2 Cor. v. 6. Phil. i. SI. Luke xvi. 22, 23. Rev. v'v. 9. See articles Resurrection. Soul, and FuTure State; Bishofi Law's Appendix to his Theory of Religion; Si-arch's Light of A'alure fiursued; Bennet's Olam Haneshamoth, or View of the Intermediate State; Archibald Campbell's View of the Middle State; Archdeacon Blackburne's Historical View of the Controversy concerning an Intermediate State, and the separate Existence of the Soul between Death and the general Resurrection; in which last the reader will find a large account of the writings on this subject, from the beginning of the Reformation to almost the present time. See also Doddridge's Lectures, lect. 219.


INTERPRETINGOFTONGUES, a gift bestowed on the apostles and primitive Christians, so that in a mixed assembly, consisting of persons of different nations, if one spoke in a language, understood by one part, another could repeat and translate what he said into different languages understood by others, 1 Cor. xii. 10. 1 Cor. xiv. 5, 6,13.

INTOLERANCE is a word chiefly used in reference to those persons, churches, or societies, who do not allow men to think for themselves, but impose on them articles, creeds, ceremonies, &c. of their own devising. See ToleRation. Nothing is more abhorrent from the genius of the Christian religion than an intolerant spirit, or an intolerant church. "It has inspired its votaries with a savage ferocity; has plunged the fatal dagger into innocent blood, depopulated towns and kingdoms; overthrown states and empires, and brought down the righteous vengeance ot heaven upon a guilty world. The pretence of superior knowledge, sanctity, and authority for its support, is the disgrace of reason, the grief of wisdom, and the paroxysm.ot folly. To fetter the conscience, is injustice; to ensnare it, is an act of sacrilege; but to torture it, by an attempt to force its feelings, is horrible intolerance; it is the most abandoned violation of all the maxims of religion and morality. Jesus Christ formea a kingdom purely spiritual: the apostles exercised only a

spiritual authority under the direction of Jesus Christ; particular churches were united only by faith and love ; in all civil affairs they submitted to civil magistracy; and in religious concerns they were governed by the reasoning, advice, and exhortations of their own officers: their censures were only honest reproof's; and their excommunications were only declarations that such offenders, being incorrigible, were no longer accounted members of their communities." Let it ever be remembered, therefore, that no man or men have any authority whatever from Christ over the consciences of others, or to persecute the persons of any whose religious principles agree not with their own. See Lowell's Sermons, ser. 6; Robinson's Claude, vol. ii. p. 227, 299; Saurin's Ser. 3d vol. p. 30, preface; Locke on Government and Toleration.

INTREPIDITY, a disposition of mind unaffected with fear at the approach of danger. Resolution either banishes fear or surmounts it, and is firm on all occasions. Courage is impatient to attack, undertakes boldly, and is not lessened by difficulty. Valour acts with vigour, gives no way to resistance, but pursues an enterprise in spite of opposition. Bravery knows no fear; it runs nobly into danger, and prefers honour to life itself. Intrepidity encounters the greatest points with the utmost coolness, and dares even present death. See Courage, Fortitude.

INVESTITURE, in ecclesiastical policy, is the act of conferring any benefice on another. It was customary for princes to make investiture of ecclesiastical benefices, by delivering to theperson they had chosen a pastoral staff and a ring. The account of this ceremony may be seen at large in Mosheim's £o clcsiastical History, cent. xi. part. ii. chap. 2.

INVISIBLES, a name of distinction given to the disciples of Osiander, Flacius, Illyricus, Swenkfeld, &c. because they denied the perpetual visibility of the church.

INVOCATION, a calling upon God in prayer. It is generally considered as the first part of that necessary duty, and includes, 1. A making mention of one or more of the names or titles of God, indicative of the object to whom we pray. —2. A declaration of our desire and design to worship him. And, 3. A desire of his assistance and acceptance, under a sense of our ownunworthiness. In the church of Rome, invocation also signi • fi.es adoration of, and prayers to the saints. The council of Trent expressly teaches, that the saints who reign with Jesus Christ offer up their prayers to God for men, and condemn those who maintain the contrary doctrine. The Protestants censure and reject this opinion, as contrary to Scripture; deny the truth of the fact; and think it highly unreasonable to suppose that a limited, finite being, should be in a manner omnipresent, and, at one and the same time, hear and attend to the prayers that are offered up to him in England, China, and Peru; and from hence infer, that, if the saints cannot hear their request it is inconsistent with common sense to address anv kind of prayer to them. occasion for them. To be entitled to the privileges of the jubilee, the bull enjoins fasting, alms, and prayers. It gives the priests a full power to absolve in all cases, even those otherwise reserved to the pope; to make commutations of vows, ccc. in which it differs from a plenary indulgence. During the time of jubilee, all other indulgencies are sus pended. One of our kings, viz. Edward III. caused his birth-day to be observed in the manner of a jubilee, when he became fifty years of age, in 1362, but never before nor after. This he did by releasing prisoners, pardoning all offences, except treason, making good laws, and granting many privileges to the people. In 1640, the Jesuits celebrated a solemn jubilee at Rome, that being the centenary, or hundredth year from their institution; and the same ceremony was observed in all their houses throughout the world.

JOAC'HIMITES, the disciples of Joachim, abbot of Flora, in Calabria. Joachim was a Cistercian monk, and a great pretender to inspiration. .He relates of himself, that, being very young, he went to Jerusalem in the dress of a"hermit to visit the holy places: and that, while he was in prayer to God in the church of that city, God communicated to him, by infusion, the knowledge of divine mysteries, and of the Holy Scriptures. He wrote against Lombard, the master of the sentences, who had maintained that there was but one essence in God, though there were three persons; and he pretended, that, since there were three persons there must be three essences. This dispute was in the year 1195. Joachim's writings were condemned by the fourth Late ran council.

His followers, the Joachimites, were particularly fond of certain ternaries. The Father they said operated from the beginning until the coming of the Son: the Son from that time to theirs, viz. the year 1260; and the Holy Spirit then took it up. and was to operate in his turn. They likewise divided every thing relating to men, doctrine, and manner of living, into three classes, according to the three persons of the Trinity. The first ternary was that of men; of whom, the first class was that of married men, which had lasted during the whole period of the Father; the second was that of clerks, which lasted during the time of the Son; and the last was that of monks, wherein was to be an uncommon effusion of grace by the Holy Spirit. The second ternary was that of doctrine, viz. the Old Testament, the New, and the everlasting Gospel; the first they ascribed to the Father, the second to the Son, and the third to the Holy Spirit. A third ternary consisted in the manner of living, viz. under the Father, men lived according to the flesh; under the Son, they lived

according to the flesh and the spirit; and under the Holy Ghost, they were to live according to the spirit only.

JOHN ST. Christians of. See ChrisTians.

JOY, a delight of the mind arising from the consideration of a present or assured approaching possession of a future good. When it is moderate, it is called gladness; when raised on a sudden to the highest degree, it is then exultation or transport; when we limit our desires by our possessions, it is contentment; when our desires are raised high, and yet accomplished, this is called satisfaction; when our joy is derived from some comical occasion or amusement, it is mirth; if it arise from considerable opposition that is vanquished in the pursuit of the good we desire, it is then called triumjih; when joy has so long possessed the mind that it is settled into a temper, we call it cheerfulness; when we rejoice upon the account of any good which others obtain, it may be called sympathy or congratulation. This is natural joy; but there is,—2. A moral joy, which is a self-approbation, or that which arises from the performance of any good actions; this is called peace, or serenity of conscience: if the action be honourable, and the joy rise

high, it may be called glory 3. There

is also a spiritual joy, which the Scripture calls a "fruit of the Spirit," Gal. v. 22. "the joy of faith." Phil. i. 25. and "the rejoicing of hope," Heb.iii. 6. The objects of it are, l.God himself, Ps. xliii. 4. Is. xli. 10.—2. Christ, Phil. iii. 3. 1 Pet i. 8.—3. The promises, Ps. cxix. 162.—4. The administration of the Gospel, and Gospel ordinances, Ps. Ixxxix. 15.—5. The prosperity of the interest of Christ, Acts xv. 3. Rev. xi. 15, 17.—6. The happiness of a future state. Rom. v. 2. Matt. xxv. The nature and properties of this joy: 1. It is or should be constant, Phil. iv. 4.—2. It is unknown to the men of the world, 1 Cor. ii. 14— 3. It is unspeakable, 1 Pet. i. 8.-4. It is permanent, John xvi. 22. Watts oil the Pass. sect. 11; Gill's Body of Div. p. 111. 3d vol. 8vo. edit. Grove's Mor. Phil. vol. i. p. 356.

JOY OF GOD relates, 1. To the delight and complacency he has in himself, his own nature, and perfections.— 2. He rejo'ices in his own works, Ps. civ. 31.—3. In his Son Christ Jesus, Matt, iii. 17.—4. In the work of redemption, John iii. 15.—5. In the subjects of his grace, Ps. cxlvii. 11. Zeph. iii. 17. Ps. cxlix. 4.


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JUDAISING CHRISTIANS: the first rise of this denomination is placed under the reign of Adrian. For when this emperor had at length razed Jerusalem, entirely destroyed its very foundations, and enacted laws of the severest kind against the whole body of the Jewish people, the greatest part of the Christians who lived in Palestine, to prevent their being confounded with the Jews, abandoned entirely the Mosaic rites, and chose a bishop, namely, Mark, a foreigner by nation, and an alien from the commonwealth of Israel. Those ■who were strongly attached to the Mosaic rites, separated from their brethren, and founded at Pera, a,country of Palestine, and in the neighbouring parts, particular assemblies, in which the law of Moses maintained its primitive dignity, authority, and lustre. The body of Judaising Christians, which set Moses and Christ upon an equal footing in point of authority, were afterwards divided into two sects, extremely different both in their rites and opinions, and distinguished by the names of Nazarenes and Ebionites; which see.

JUDAISM, the religious doctrines and rites of the Jews, the descendants of Abraham. Judaism was but a temporary dispensation, and was to give way, at least the ceremonial part of it, at the coming of the Messiah. The principal sects among the Jews were the Pharisees, who placed religion in external ceremony; the Sadducees, who were remarkable for their incredulity; and the Essenes who were distinguished for their austere sanctity. At present, the Jews have two sects. the Caraites, who admit no rule of religion but the law of

Moses; and the Rabbinists, who add to the law the traditions of the Talmud. See those articles, and books recommended under article Jews, in this work.

JUDGING RASH, the act of carelessly, precipitately, wantonly, or maliciously censuring others. This is an evil which abounds too much among almost all classes of men. " Not contented with being in the right ourselves, we must find all others in the wrong. We claim an exclusive possession of goodness and wisdom; and from approving warmly of those who join us, we proceed to condemn with much acrimony, not only the principles, but the characters of those from whom we differ. We rashly extend to every individual the severe opinion which we have unwarrantably conceived of a whole body. This man is of a party whose principles we reckon slavish; and therefore his whole sentiments are corrupted. That man belongs to a religious sect, which we are accustomed to deem bigotted, and therefore he is incapable of any generous and liberal thought. Another is connected with a sect, which we have been taught to account relaxed,,and therefore he can have no sanctity. We should do well to consider, 1. That this practice of rash judging is absolutely forbidden in the sacred Scriptures, Mat. vii. 1.—2. We thereby authorize others to requite us in the same kintl.—3. It often evidences our pride, envy, and bigotry.—4.1targues a wantofcharity, the distinguishing feature of the Christian religion.—5. They who are most forward in censuring others are often most defective themselves. Barrow's Works, vol. i. ser. 20: Blair's Ser. ser. 10. vol. ii; Saurin's Ser. ser. 4. vol. v.

JUDGMENT is that act of the mind whereby one thing is affirmed or denied of another; or that power of the soul which passes sentence on things proposed to its examination, and determines what is right or wrong: and thus it approves or disapproves of an action, or an object considered as true or false, fit or unfit, good or evil. Dr. Watts gives us the following directions to assist us in judging right. 1. We should examine all our old opinions afresh, and enquire what was the ground of them, and whether our assent were built on just evidence; and then we should cast off all those judgments which were formed heretofore without due examination.—2. All our ideas of objects, concerning which we pass judgment, should be clear, distinct, complete, comprehensive^extensivc, and orderly.—3. When we have

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