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of all the world, and surnamed the apostate.

To these instances many more might be added nearer our own times, did our room permit. These, however, are sufficient to show us what a fearful thing it is to fall into the hands of the living God, and how fruitless and awful it is to oppose his designs, and to attempt to stop the progress of his Gospel. " why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh; the Lord shall have them in derision. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them to pieces as a potter's vessel Be wise now, therefore, O ye kings; be instructed, ye judges of the earth. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling." Ps. ii. Jortin's Remarks on Ecclesiastical History, vol. iii. p. 246, &c. Simfison's Key to the Prophecies, 29; JVeivton on the Prophecies, dis. 24; Bryant's Observations on the Plagues of Jiffy fit; Tillem ont, Histoire des Emh. JUDICIUM DEI, or Judgment of God, was a term anciently applied to all extraordinary trials of secret crimes ; as those by arms and single combat; and the ordeals, or those by fire, or red hot plough-shares, by plunging the arm in boiling water, or the whole body in cold water, in hopes that God would work a miracle, rather than suffer truth and innocence to perish. These customs were a long time kept up even among Christians, and they are still in use in some nations. Trials of this sort were usually held in churches, in the presence of the bishop, priest, and secular judges, after three days fasting, confession, communion, and many adjurations and ceremonies, described at large by Du Cange.

JUMPERS, persons so called from the practice of jumping during the time allotted for religious worship. This singular practice began, it is said, in the western part of Wales, about the year 1760. It was soon after defended by Mr. William Williams (the Welch poet, as he is sometimes called) in a pamphlet, which was patronized by the abettors of jumping in religious assemblies. Several of the more zealous itinerant preachers encouraged the people to cry out gogoniant (the Welch word for glory,) amen, &c. &c. to put themselves in violent agitations: and, finally, to jump until they were quite exhausted, so as often to be obliged to fall down on the floor or the field, where this kind of worship was held.

JUSTICE consists in an exact and scrupulous regard to the rights of others,

with a deliberate purpose to preserve them on all occasions sacred and invio late. It is often divided into commutative and distributative justice. The former consists in an equal exchange of benefits; the latter in an equal distribution of rewards and punishments. Dr. Watts gives the following rules respecting justice.—" 1. It is just that we honour, reverence, and respect those who are superiors in any kind, Eph. vi. I, 3. 1 Pet. ii. 17. 1 Tim. v. 17—2. That we show particular kindness to near relations, Prov, xvii. 17.—3. That we love those who love us, and show gratitude to those who have done us good. Gal. iv. 15.—4. That we pay the full due to those whom we bargain or deal with, Rom. xiii. Deut. xxiv. 14 —5. That we help our fellow-creatures in cases of great necessity, Ex. xxiii. 4.— 6. Reparation to those whom we have wilfully injured." Watts's Serm. ser. 24, 25, vol. ii. Berry Street Led. ser.

4. Grove's Mur. Phil p. 332, vol. ii. Wollaston's Relig. of Nature, p. 137, 141 ; Jay's Ser. vol. ii. p. 131.

JUSTICE OF GOD is that perfection whereby he is infinitely righteous and just, both in himself and in all his proceedings with his creatures. Mr. Ryland defines it thus: "The ardent inclination of his will to prescribe equal laws as the supreme governor, and to dispense equal rewards and punish ments as the supreme judge." Rev. xvi.

5. Psal. cxlv. 7. Psal. xcvii. 1.—2. It is distinguished into remunerative and punitive justice. Remunerative justice is a distribution of rewards, the rule of which is not the merit of the creature, but his own gracious promise, James i. 12. 2/Tim. iv. 8. Punitive or vindictive justice, is the infliction of punishment for any sin committed by men, 2 Thess i. 6. That God will not let sin go unpunished is evident, 1. From the word of God, Ex xxxiv. 6, 7. Numb. xiv. 18. Neh. i. 3.—2. From the nature of God, Isa. i. 13, 14. Psal. v. 5. 6. Heb. xii. 29. —3. From sin being punished in Christ, the surety of his people, 1 Pet. iii. 18.— 4. From all the various natural evils which men bear in the present state. The use we should make of this doc trine is this: 1. We should learn the dreadful nature of sin, and the inevitable ruin of impenitent sinners, Ps. ix 17.—2. We should highly appreciate the Lord Jesus Christ, in whom justice is satisfied. 1 Pet iii. 18.—3. We should imitate the justice of God, by cherishing an ardent regard to the rights of God, and to the rights of mankind.—4. We should abhor all sin, as it strikes directlyelaration: To him that vtorketh is the reward of justification, and of eternal

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• life as connected with it; not reckoned of grace, but of debt. But to him that •morketh not, but believeth on Him that justifteth—whom? the righteous? the holy ? the eminently pious? nay, verily, but the ungodly; his faith, or that in which he believes, is counted unto him for righteousness, Rom iv. 4, 5. Gal. ii. 17. Here, then, we learn, that the subjects of justification, considered in themselves, are not only ocstitute of a perfect righteousness, but have performed no good works at all. They are denominated and considered as the ungodly, when the blessing is bestowed upon them. Not that we are to understand that such remain ungodly. "All," says Dr. Owen, " that are justified, were before ungodly: but all that are justified, are, at the same instant, made godly." That the mere sinner, however, is the subject of justification, appears from hence. The Spirit of God, speaking in the Scripture, repeatedly declares that we are justified by grace. But grace stands in direct opposition to works. Whoever, therefore, is justified by grace, is considered as absolutely unworthy in that very instant when the blessing is vouchsafed to him, Kom. iii. "4. The person, therefore, that is justified, is accepted without any cause in himself. Hence it appears, that if we regard the persons who are justified, and their state prior to the enjoyment of the immensely glorious privilege, divine grace appears, and reigns in all its glory.

As to the way and manner in which dinners are justified, it may be observed that the divine being can acquit none without a complete righteousness. Justification, as before observed, isevidently a forensic term, and the thing intended by it a judicial act. So that, were a person to be justified without a righteousness, the judgment would not be according to truth ; it would be a false and unrighteous sentence. That righteousness by which we are justified must be equal to the demands of that law according to which the Sovereign Judge proceeds in our justification. Many persons talk of conditions of justification (see article Condition ;) but the onlycondition isthat of fierfect righteousness;: this the law requires, nor does the Gospel substitute another. But where shall we find, or how shall we obtain a justifying righteousness? Shall we flee to the law for relief? Shall we apply with dili

'gence and zeal to the performance of duty, in order to attain the desired end t

The apostic positively amrms,that thej? is no acceptance with God by the works * of the law ; and the reasons are evident. Our righteousness is imperfect, and' consequently cannot justify. If justifica tion were by the works of men, it could not be by grace: it would not be a righteousness without works.—There would be no need of the righteousness oi Christ; and, lastly, if justification were by the law, then boasting would be en couraged; whereas God's design, in the whole scheme of salvation, is to exclude it, Rom. iii. 27. Eph. ii. 8, 9. Nor is faith itself our righteousness, or that for the sake of which we are justified: for, though believers are said to be justified by faith, yet not for faith: faith can only be considered as the instrument, and not the cause. That faith is not our righteousness.isevident from the following considerations: No man's faith is perfect; and, if it were, it would not be equal to the demands of the divine law. It could not, therefore, without an error in judgment, be accounted a complete righteousness. But the judgment of God, as before proved, is according to truth, and according to the rights of his law. That obedience by which a sinner is justified is called the righteousness of faith, righteousness by faith, and is represented as revealed to faith; consequently it cannot be faith itself. Faith, in the business of justification, stands opposed to all works; to him that worketh not, but believeth. Now, if it were our justifying righteousness, to consider it in such a light would be highly improper. For in such a connection it falls under the consideration of a work; a condition, on the performance of which our acceptance with God is manifestly suspended. If faith itself be that on account of which we are accepted, then some believers are justified by a more, and some by a less perfect righteousness, in exact proportion to the strength or weakness of their faith. That which is the end of the law is our righteousness, which certainly is not faith, but the obedience of our exalted substitute, Rom. x. 4. Were faith itself our justifying righteousness, we might depend upon it before God, and rejoice in it. So that according to this hypothesis, not Christ, but faith, is the capital thing; the object to which we must look, which is absurd. When the apostle says, " faith was imputed to him for righteousness," his main design was to prove that the eternal Sovereign justifies freely, without any cause in tfu creature. Nor is man's obedience to the Gospel

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as to a new -and milder law the matter of his justification before God. It was a notion that some years ago obtained, that a relaxation of the law, and the severities of it, has been obtained by Christ; and a new law, a remedial law, a law of milder terms, has been introduced by him, which it the Gospel; the terms of which are faith, repentance, and obedience; and though these are imperfect, yet, being sincere, they are accepted of by God in the room of a perfect righteousness. But every part of this scheme is wrong, for the law is not relaxed, nor any of its severities abated; there is no alteration made in it, either with respect to its precepts or penalty: besides, the scheme is absurd, for it supposes that thi! raw which a man is now under requires only an imperfect obedience: but an imperfect righteousness cannot answer its demands; for every law requires perfect obedience to its own precepts and prohibitions.

Nor is a profession of religion, nor sincerity, nor good works, at all the ground of our acceptance wiih God, for all our righteousness is imperfect, and must therefore be entirely excluded. By grace, saith the apostle, ye are saved, not ofworks, lest any man should boast, Kph. ii. 8, 9. Besides, the works of sanctification and justification are two distinct things: the one is a work of grace within men; the other an act of grace for or towards men: the one is imperfect, the other complete; the one carried on gradually, the other done at once. See Sanctification.

If, then, we cannot possibly be justified by any of our own performances, nor by faith itself, nor even by the graces of the Holy Spirit, where then shall we find a righteousness by which wc can be justified? The Scripture furnishes us with an answer—" By Jesus Christ all that believe are justified from all things from which they could not be justified by the law of Moses," Acts xiii. 38, 39. "He was delivered for our offences, and raised again for our justification," Rom. iv. 25. "Being justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him," Rom. v. 9. The spotless obedience, therefore, the bitter sufferings, and the accursed death of our heavenly Surety, constitute that very righteousness by which sinners are justified before God. That this righteousness is imputed to us, and that we are not justified by a personal righteousness, appears from the Scripture with superior evidence. "By the obedience of one shall many be made rightedus," Rom. v. 19. "He hath made him to be sin

for us who knew no sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him," 2 Cor. v. 21. "And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ; the righteousness which is of God by faith," Phil. iii. 8. See also Jer. xxiii. 6. Dan. ix. 24. the whole of the 2nd chapter of Galatians. See articles ReconciliaTion, Righteousness.

As to the firofierties of justification: 1. It is an act of God's free grace, without any merit whatever in the creature, | Rom. iii. 24.—2. It is an act of justice as well as grace: the law being perfectly fulfilled in Christ, and divine justice satisfied, Rom. iii. 26. Ps. lxxxv. 10.—3. It is an individual and instantaneous act done at once, admitting of no degrees, John xix. .10.—4. It is irreversible, and an unalterable act, Mai. iii. 6.

As to the time of justification, divines are not agreed. Some have distinguished it into decretive, virtual, and actual. 1. Decretive, is God's eternal purpose tojustify sinners in time by Jesus Christ. —2. Virtual justification has a reference to the satisfaction made by Christ. —3. Actual, is when we are enabled to believe in Christ, and by faith are united to him. Others say it is eternal, because his purpose respecting it was from everlasting: and that, as the Almighty viewed his people in Christ, they were, of consequence, justified in his sight. But it appears to me, that the principle on which the advocates for this doctrine have proceeded is wrong. They have confounded the design with the execution: for if this distinction be not kept up, the utmost perplexity will follow the consideration of every subject which relates to the decrees of God; nor shall we be able to form any clear ideas of his moral government whatever. To say, as one does, that the eternal will of God to justify men is the justification of them, is not to the purpose; for, upon the same ground, we might as well say that the eternal will of God to convert and glorify his people is the real conversion and glorification of them. That it was eternally determined that there should be a people who should believe in Christ, and that his righteousness should be imputed to them, is not to be disputed; but to say that these things were really done from eternity (which we must say if we believe eternal justification,) this would be absurd. It is more consistent to believe, that God from eternity laid the plan of justification ; that this plan was executed by the life and death of Christ; and that the

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KEITHIANS, a party which separated from the Quakers in Pennsylvania, in the year 1691. They were headed by the famous George Keith, from •whom they derived their name. Those who persisted in their separation, after their leader deserted them, practised baptism, and received the Lord's supper. This party were also called Quaker Ba/itists, because they retained the language, dress, and manner of the Quakers.

KEYS, ftower of the, a term made use of in reference to ecclesiastical jurisdiction, denoting the power of excommunicating and absolving. The Romanists say that the pope has the power of the keys, and can open and shut paradise as he pleases; grounding their opinion on that expression of Jesus Christ to Peter—" I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven," Matt, xvi. 19. But every one must see that this is an absolute perversion of Scripture; for the keys of the kingdom of heaven most probably refer to the Gospel dispensation, and denote the power and authority of every faithful minister to preach the Gospel, administer the sacraments, and exercise government, that men may be admitted to or excluded from the church, as is proper. See Absolution.

In St. Gregory we read that it was the custom for the popes to send a golden key to princes, wherein they in

closed a little of the filings of St Peter's chain, kept with such devotion at Rome; and that these keys were worn in the bosom, as being supposed to contain some wonderful virtues! Such has been the superstition of past ages!!

KIRK SESSIONS, the name of a petty ecclesiastical judicatory in Scotland. Each parish according to its extent is divided into several particular districts, every one of which has its own elder and deacons to oversee it. A consistory of the ministers, elders, and deacons of a parish form a kirk session. These meet once a week, the minister being their moderator, but without a negative voice. It regulates matters relative to public worship, elections, catechising, visitations, &c. It judges in matters of less scandal; but greater, as adultery, are left to the presbytery, and in all cases an appeal lies from it to the presbytery.—Kirk sessions have likewise the care of the poor, and poor's funds. See Presbyterians.

KINDNESS, civil behaviour, favourable treatment, or a con.tant and habitual practice of friendly offices and benevolent actions. See Charity, GenTleness.

KNIPPERDOL1NGS, a denomination in the 16th century; so called from Bertrand Knipperdoling, who taught that the righteous before the day of judgment shall have a monarchy on earth, and the wicked be destroyed;

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