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brief, aftottolieal chamber, afiottolical vicar. «c.
APOSTOLICAL CONSTITUTIONS, a collection of regulations attributed to the apostles, and supposed to have been collected by St Clement, whose name they likewise bear. It is the general opinion, however, that they are spurious, and that St. Clement had no hand in them. They appeared first in the fourth century, but have been much changed and corrupted since. There are so many things in them different from and even contrary to the genius and design of the New Testament writers, that no wise man would believe, without the most convincing and irresistible proof, that both could come from the same hand. Grabe's Answer to Whiston; Saurin's Scr. vol. ii. p. 185 ; Lardner1* Cred. vol. iii. p. 11. ch. uli.; Ooddridge'i Led. lee. 119.
APOSTOLIC FATHERS, an ap pellation usually given to the writers of the first century, who employed their pens in the cause of Christianity. Of these writers, Cotelerius, and after him Le Clerc, have published a collection in two volumes, accompanied both with their own annotations, and the remark* of other learned men. See also the genuine epistles of the apostolic fathers by Abp. Wake.
APOSTOL1CI, or Apostolics, a name assumed by different sects on account of their pretending to imitate the practice of the apo»tlcs.
APOTACTIIVE, an ancient sect, who affected to follow the examples of the apostles, and renounced all their effects and possessions. It does not appear that they held any errors at first; but afterwards they taught that the renouncing of all riches was not only a matter of counsel and advice, but of precept and necessity.
APPLICATION, is used for the act whereby our Saviour transfers or makes over to us what he had earned or purchased by his holy life and death. Accordingly it is by this application of the merits of Christ that we are to be justified and entitled to grace and glory.
A/tfilicalion is also used for that part of a sermon in which the preacher brings home or applies the truth of religion to the consciences of his hearers. See Sermon.
APPROBATION, a state or disposition of the mind, wherein we put a value upon, or become pleased with, some person or thing. Moralists are divided on the principle of approbation, or the motive which determines us to approve or disapprove. The Epicureans
will have it to be only self-interest: according to them, that which determines any agent to approve his own action, is its apparent tendency to hi-* pri vate happiness; and even the approbation of another's action flows from no other cause but an opinion of its tendency to the happiness of the approver, eitherimmediately or remotely. Others resolve approbation into a moral sense, or a principle of benevolence, by which we are determined to approve every kind affection eiiher in ourselves or others, and all publicly useful actions which we imagine to flow from such affections, without any view therein to our own private happiness.
But may we not add, that a true Christian's approbation arises from his perception of the will of God? See Obligation.
APPROPRIATION, the annexing a benefice to the proper and perpetual use of some religious house. It is a term also often used in the religious world as referring to that act of the mind by which we apply the blessings of the Gospel to ourselves. This appropriation is real when we are enabled to believe in, feel, and obey the truth; but merely nominal and delusivevflnen there are no fruits of righteousness and true holiness. See Assurance.
AQUARIANS, those who consecrated water in the eucharist instead of wine. Another branch of them approved of wine in the sacrament, when received at the evening: they likewise mixed water with the wine.
ARABICI, erroneous Christians, in the third century who thought that the soul and body died together, and rose again. It is said that Origen convinced them of their error, and that they then abjured it.
ARCHANGEL, according to some divines, means an angel occupying the eighth rank in the celestial hierarchy; but others, not without reason, reckon it a title only applicable to our Saviour. Compare Jude 9. with Daniel xii. I. 1 Thess. iv. 16.
ARCHBISHOP, the chief or metropolitan bishop, who has several suffragans under him. Archbishops were not known in the East till about the year 320; and though there were some soon after this who had the title, yet that was only a personal honour, by which the bishops of considerable cities were distinguished. It was not till of iate that archbishops became metropolitans, and had suffragans under them. The ecclesiastical government of England is divided into two provinces, viz. Canterbury and York. The first archbishop of Canterbury was Austin, appointed by king Ethelbert, on his conversion to Christianity, about the year 598. His grace of Canterbury is the first peer of England, and the next to the royal family, having precedence of all dukes, and all great officers of the crown It is his privilege, by custom, to crown the kings and queens of this kingdom. The archbishop of York has precedence of all dukes not of the royal blood, and of all officers of state except the lord high chancellor. The first archbishop of York was Paulinus, appointed by pope Gregory about the year 62J.
ARCHDEACON, a priest invested with authority or jurisdiction over the clergy and laity, next to the bishop, either through the whole diocese, or only a part of it. There are sixty in England, who visit every two years in three, when they inquire into the reparations and moveables belonging to churches; reform abuses; suspend; excommunicate; in some places prove ■wills . and induct all clerks into benefices within their respective jurisdictions.
ARCHONTICS, a sect about the year 160 or 203. Among many other extravagant notions, they held that the world was created by archangels; they also denied the resurrection ot the body.
ARCH-PRESBYTER, or ArchPriest, a priest established in some dioceses with a superiority over the rest. He was anciently chosen out of the college of presbyters, at the pleasure of the bishop. The arch-presbyters were much of the same nature with outdeans in cathedrals churches
ARRH \BONARII. a sect who held that the. eucharist is neither the real flesh or blood of Christ, nor yet the sign of them, but only the pledge or earnest thereof.
ARI ANS, followers of Arius, a presbyter of the church of Alexandria, about 315, who maintained that the Son of God was totally and essentially distinct from the Father; that he was the first and noblest of those beings whom God had created—the instrument, by whose subordinate operation he formed the universe ; and therefore, inferior to the Father both in nature and dignit\: also, that the Holy Ghost was not God, but created by the power of the Son. The Arians owned that the Son was the Word; but denied that word to have been eternal. They held that Christ had nothing of man in him but the flesh, to which ihe hoyot, or word, wasjoined, which was the same as the soul in us.—
The Arians were first condemned and anathematised by a counsel at Alexandria, in 320. under Alexander, bishop of that city, who accused Arius of impiety, and caused him to be expelled from the communion of the church; and afterwards by 380 fathers in the general council of Nice, assembled by Constantine, in 325. His doctrine, however, was not extinguished; on the contrary, it became the reigning religion, especially in the East. Arius was recalled from banishment by Constantine in two or three years after the council of Nice, and the laws that had been enacted against him were repealed. Notwithstanding this, Athanasius. then bishop of Alexandria, refused to admit him and his followers to communion. This so enraged them, that, by their interest at court, they procured that prelate to be deposed and banished; but the ch.-rcli of Alexandria still refusing to admit Arius into their communion, the emperor sent for him to Constantinople; where upon delivering in a fresh confession of his faith in terms less offensive, the emperor commanded him to be received into their communion; but that very evening, it is said. Arius died as his friends were conducting him in triumph to the great church of Constantinople. Arius, pressed by a natural want, stepped aside, but expired on the spot, his bowels gushing out. The Arian party, however, found a protector in Constantius, who succeeded his father in the East. They underwent various revolutions and persecutions under succeeding emperors; till, at length, Theodosius the Great exerted every effort to suppress them. Their doctrine was carried, in the fifth century, into Africa, under the Vandals; and into Asia under the Goths.—Italy, Gaul, and Spain, were also deeply infected with it; and towards the commencement of the sixth century, it was triumphant in many parts of Asia. Africa, and Europe : but it sunk almost at once, when the Vandals were driven out of Africa, and the Goths out of Italy, by the arms of Justinian. However, it revived again in Italy, under the protection of the Lombards, in the seventh century, and was not extinguished till about the end of the eighth. Arianism was again revived in the West by Servetus. in 1531, for which he suffered death. After this the doctrine got footing in Geneva, and in Poland; but at length degenerated in a great measure into Socinianism. Erasmus, it is thought, aimed at reviving it, in his commentaries on the New Testament: and the learned Grotius seems to lean that way. Mr. Whiston was one of the first divines who revived this controversy in the eighteenth century. He was followed by Dr. Clarke, who was chiefly opposed by Dr. Waterland. Those who hold the doctrine which is usually called Low Arianism. say that Christ preexisted; but not as the eternal Logos of the Father, or as the being by whom he made the worlds, and had intercourse with the patriarchs, or as having any certain rank or employment whatever in the divine dispensations. In modern times, the term Arian is indiscriminately applied to those who consider Jesus simply subordinate to the Father. Some of them believe Christ to have been the creator of the world; but they all maintain that he existed previously to his incarnation, though in his pre-existent state they assign him different degrees of dignity. Hence the terms High and Low Arian. See PreExistence. Some of the more recent vindicators of Arianism have been H. Taylor, in his Afiolvgy of Ben Moniecai to his FriendsJor embracing Christianity; Dr. Hara/ood. in his Five Dissertations; Dr. Price, in his Sermons on the Christian Doctrine. See also the 4th vol. of the Theological Repository, p. 153—163, and Cornish's Tract on the Pre-existence of Christ.
On the opposite side, Bogue and Bennett's Hist, of Dissenters, vol. iii. Abbadie, Waterland, Guyse, Hey, Robinson, Fveleigh. Hawker on the Divinity of Christ;—Calamy, Taylor, Gill, Jones, Pike, and Simfison, on the Trinity.
ARISTOTELIANS, the followers of Aristotle. They believed in the eternity of the world, and represented the Deity as somewhat similar to a principle of power giving motion to a machine; and as happy in the contemplation of himself, but regardless of human affairs. They were uncertain as to the immortality of the soul.—As this was rather a philosophical than religious sect, we shall not enlarge it.
ARK, or Noah's Ann, a floating vessel built by Noah for the preservation of his family, and the several species of animals, during the deluge. The form of the Ark was an oblong, with a flat bottom, and a sloped roof, raised to a cubit in the middle; it had neither sails nor rudder; nor was it sharp at the ends for cutting the water. This form was admirably calculated to make it lie steady on the water, without rolling, which might have endangered the lives of the animals within. i
The length of this ark was 300 cubits, which according to Dr. Arbuthnot's calculation, amount to a little more than 547 feet; its breadth, 50 cubits, or 91-2 feet; its height, 30 cubits, or 54-72 feet; and its solid contents 2,730-78'J solid feet, sufficient for a carriage for 81,062 ton. It consisted of three stories, each of which, abating the thickness of the floors, might be about 18 feet high, and no doubt was partitioned into a great many rooms or apartments This vessel was doubtless so contrived, as to admit the air and the light on all, though the particular construction of the windows be not mentioned.
ARK OF THE COVENANT, a small chest or coffer, three feet nine inches in length, two feet three inches in breadth, and two feet three inches in height, in which were contained the golden not that had manna, Aaron's rod, and the tables of the covenant. The ark was resposited in the holiest place of the tabernacle. It was taken by the Philistines, and detained twenty (some say forty) years at Kirjath-jearim; but, the people being afflicted with emerods on account of it, returned it with divers presents. It was afterwards placed in the temple.
The lid or covering of the ark was called the firofiiliatory or mercy-seat; over which two figures were placed, called cherubims, with expanded wings of a peculiar form. Here the Shechinah rested both in the tabernacle and temple in a visible cloud: hence were issued the Divine oracles by an audible voice; and the high priest appeared before this mercy-seat once every year on the great day of expiation , and the Jews, wherever they worshipped, turned their faces towards the place where the ark stood.
In the second temple there was also an ark, made of the same shape and dimensions with the first, and put in the same place, but without any of its contents and peculiar honours. It was used as a representative of the former on the day of expiation, and a repository of the original copy of the holy Scriptures, collected by Ezra and the men of the great synagogue after the captivity; and, in imitation of this, the Jews, to this day, have a kind of ark in their synagogues, wherein their sacred books are kept.
ARMENIANS, the inhabitants of Armenia, whose religion is the Christian, of the Eutychian sect; that is, they hold but one nature in Jesus Christ. See Eutychians. They assert also the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father only. They believe that Christ at his descent into hell freed the souls of the damned from thence, and reprieved them to the end of the world, when they shall be remanded to eternal flames. 1 hey believe that the souls of the righteous shall not be admitted to the beatific vision till after the resurrection, notwithstanding which they pray to departed saints, adore their pictures, and burn lamps before them. The Armenian clergy consist of patriarchs, archbishops, doctors, secular priests, and monks. The Armenian monks are of the order of St. Basil; and every Wednesday and Friday they eat neither fish nor eggs, nor oil, nor any thing made of milk; and during Lent they live upon nothing but roots. They have seven sacraments; baptism, confirmation, penance, 'he eucharist, extreme unction, orders, and matrimony. —They admit infants to the communion at two or three months old. They seem to place the chief part of their religion in fastings and abstinences; and, among the clergy, the higher the degree, the lower they must live; insomuch that it is said the archbishops live on nothing but pulse. They consecrate holy water but once a year; at which time every one fills a pot, and carries it home, which brings in a considerable revenue to the church.
ARMINIANS, persons who follow the doctrines of Arminius, who was pastor at Amsterdam, and afterwards professor of divinity at Leyden. Arminius had been educated in the opinions of Calvin; but, thinking the doctrine of that great man with regard to free will, predestination, and grace, too severe, he began to express his doubts concerning them in the year 1591; and, upon farther enquiry, adopted the sentiments of those whose religious system extends the love of the Supreme Being and the merits of Jesus Christ to all mankind. The Arminians are also called Remonstrants, because, in 1611, they presented a remonstrance to the statesgeneral, wherein they state their grievances, and pray for relief.
The distinguishing tenets of the Arminians may be comprised in the five Allowing articles relative to predestination, universal redemption, the corruption of man, conversion, and perseverance, viz.
I. That God, from all eternity, determined to bestow salvation on those who he foresaw would persevere unto the end; and to inflict everlasting punishments on those who should continue in their unbelief, and resist his divine
succours; so that election was conditional, and reprobation in like manner the result of foreseen infidelity and persevering wickedness.
II. That Jesus Christ by his sufferings and death, made an atonement for the sins of all mankind in general, and of every individual in particular; that, however, none but those who believe in him can be partakers of divine benefits.
III. That true faith cannot proceed from the exercise of our natural faculties and powers, nor from the force and operation of free will; since man, in consequence of his natural corruption, is incapable either of thinking or doing any good thing; and that, therefore, it is necessary, in order to his conversion and salvation, that he be regenerated and renewed by the operation of the Holy Ghost, which is the gift of God through Jesus Christ.
IV. That this divine grace, or energy of the Holy Ghost, begins and perfects every thing that can be called good in man, and, consequently, all good works are to be attributed to God alone; that, nevertheless, this grace is offered to all, and does not force men to act against their inclinations, but may be resisted and rendered ineffectual by the perverse will of the impenitent sinner. Some modern Arminians interpret this and the last article with a greater latitude.
V. That God gives to the truly faithful who are regenerated by his grace, the means of preserving themselves in this state. The first Arminians, indeed, had some doubt with respect to the closing part of this article; but their followers uniformly maintain " that the regenerate may lose true justifying faith, fall from a state of grace, and die in their sins."
After the appointment of Arminius to the theological chair at Leyden. he thought it his duty to avow and vindicate the principles which he had embraced; and the freedom with which he published and defended them, exposed him to the resentment of those that adhered to the theological system of Geneva, which then prevailed in Holland; but his principal opponent was Gomar, his colleague. The controversy which was thus oegun became more general after the death of Arminius in the year 1609, and threatened to involve the United Provinces in civil discord. The Arminian tenets gained ground under the mild and favourable treatment of the magistrates of Holland, and were adopted by several persons of merit and distinction. The Calvinists orGomarists, as they were now called, appealed to a national synod; accordingly, the synod of Dort was convened, by order of the states general, 1618; and was composed of ecclesiastic deputies from the United Provinces as well as from the reformed churches of England, Hessia, Bremen, Switzerland, and the Palatinate. The principal advocate in favour of the .Arminians was Episcopius, who at that time was professor of divinity at Leyden. It was first proposed to discuss the principal subjects in dispute, that the Arminians should be allowed to state and vindicate the grounds on which their opinions were founded; but, some difference arising as to the proper mode of conducting the debate, the Arminians were excluded from the assembly, their case was tried in their absence, and they were pronounced guilty of pestilential errors, and condemned as corrupters of the true religion. A curious account of the proceedings of the above synod may be seen in a series of letters written by Mr. John Hales, who was present on the occasion.
In consequence of the above-mentioned decision, the Arminians were considered as enemies to their country, and its established religion, and were much persecuted. They were treated with great severity, and deprived of all their posts and employments; their ministers were silenced, and their congregations were suppressed. The great Barneveldt was beheaded on a scaffold; and the learned Grotius, being condemned to perpetual imprisonment, fled, and took refuge in France.
After the death of prince Maurice, who had been a violent partizan in favour of the Gomarists, in the year 1625, the Arminian exiles were restored to their former reputation and tranquillity; and, under the toleration of the state, they erected churches and founded a college at Amsterdam, appointing Episcopius the first theological professor. The Arminian system has very much prevailed in England since the time of Archbishop Laud, and its votaries in other countries are very numerous. It is generally supposed that a majority of the clergy in both the established churches of Great Britain favour the Arminian system, notwithstanding their articles are strictly Calvinistic. The name of Mr. John Wesley hardly need be mentioned here. Every one knows what an advocate he was for the tenets of Arminius and the success he met ■with. See Methodists.
Some of the principal writers on the Side of the Arminians nave been Arminius, Efiiscofiius, Vorstius, Grotius, Cur
cellteus, Limborch, Le Clerc, Wetsteitlt Goodwin, Whtiby, Taylor, Fletcher,Sic.
Some of the principal writers on the other side have been Polhill in his Book on the Decrees; John Edwards in his Veritas Redux; Cole in his Sovereignty of God; Edwards on the Will, and Original Sin ; Dr. Owen in his Dis/ilay of Arminianism, and on particular Redemption! Gill in his Cause of God and Truth ; and Toftlady in almost all his works*
ARNOLDISTS, the followers of Arnold, of Brescia, in the twelfth century, who was a great declaimer against the wealth and vices of the clergy. He is also charged with preaching against baptism and the eucharist. He was burnt at Rome in 1155, and his ashes cast into the Tiber.
ARTEMONTES, a denomination in the second century ; so called from Artemon, who taught that, at the birth of the man Christ, a certain divine energy, or portion of the divine naiuve, united itself to him.
ARTICLE OF FAITH is, by some, defined a point of Christian doctrine, which we are obliged to believe, as having been revealed by God himself, and allowed and established as such by the church. See Confessions.
ARTICLES OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. See Church Of England.
ARTICLES. LAMBETH. The Lambeth articles were so called, because drawn up at Lambeth palace, under the eye and with the assistance of archbishop Whitgift, bishop Bancroft, bishop Vaughan, and other eminent dignitaries of the Church. That the reader may judge how Calvinistic the clergy were under the reign of queen Elizabeth, we shall here insert them. "1. God hath from eternity predestinated certain persons to life, and hath reprobated certain persons unto death. 2. The moving or efficient cause of predestination unto life is not the foresight of faith, or of perseverance, or of good works, or of any thing that is in the persons predestinated; but the alone will of God's good pleasure. 3. The predestinati are a pre-determined and certain number which can neither be lessened nor increased. 4. Such as are not predestinated to salvation shall inevitably be condemned on account of their sins. 5. The true, lively, and justifying faith, and the Spirit of Godjusrifying, is not extinguished, doth not utterly fail, doth not vanish away in the elect, either finally or totally. 6. A true believer, that is, one whois endued