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brief, apostolical chamber, apostolical vicar, &c.

APOSTOLICAL CONSTITUTIONS, a collection of regulations attributed to the apostles, and supposed to have been collected by St. Clement, whose name they likewise bear. It is the general opinion, however, that they are spurious, and that St. Clement had no hand in them. They appeared first in the fourth century, but have been much changed and corrupted since. There are so many things in them different from and even contrary to the genius and design of the New Testament writers, that no wise man would believe, without the most convincing and irresistible proof, that both could come from the same hand. Grabe's Answer to Whiston; Saurin's Ser. vol. ii. p. 185; Lardner's Cred. vol. iii. p. 11. ch. ult.; Doddridge's Lect. lec. 119.


APOSTOLIC FATHERS, an ap pellation usually given to the writers of the first century, who employed their pens in the cause of Christianity. Of these writers, Cotelerius, and after him Le Clerc, have published a collection in two volumes, accompanied both with their own annotations, and the remarks of other learned men. See also the genuine epistles of the apostolic fathers by Abp. Wake.

APOSTOLICI, or APOSTOLICS, a name assumed by different sects on account of their pretending to imitate the practice of the apostles.

cording to them, that which determines
will have it to be only self-interest: ac-
any agent to approve his own action, is
its apparent tendency to his private hap-
piness; and even the approbation of an-
other's action flows from no other cause
but an opinion of its tendency to the
happiness of the approver, either imme-
diately or remotely. Others resolve
approbation into a moral sense, or a
principle of benevolence, by which we
are determined to approve every kind
affection either in ourselves or others,
and all publicly useful actions which we
imagine to flow from such affections,
without any view therein to our own
private happiness.

But may we not add, that a true
Christian's approbation arises from his
perception of the will of God? See

APPROPRIATION, the annexing a
benefice to the proper and perpetual
use of some religious house. It is a term
also often used in the religious world as
referring to that act of the mind by
which we apply the blessings of the
Gospel to ourselves. This appropria-
tion is real when we are enabled to be-
lieve in, feel, and obey the truth; but
merely nominal and delusive when there
holiness. See ASSURANCE.
are no fruits of righteousness and true

AQUARIANS, those who consecrated water in the eucharist instead of proved of wine in the sacrament, when wine. Another branch of them apreceived at the evening: they likewise mixed water with the wine.

APOTACTITE, an ancient sect,
who affected to follow the examples of
the apostles, and renounced all their ef-
fects and possessions. It does not appear
that they held any errors at first; but
afterwards they taught that the renounc-again.
ing of all riches was not only a matter of
counsel and advice, but of precept and

ARABICI, erroneous Christians, in the third century who thought that the soul and body died together, and rose It is said that Origen convinced them of their error, and that they then abjured it.

ARCHANGEL, according to some APPLICATION, is used for the act divines, means an angel occupying the whereby our Saviour transfers or makes eighth rank in the celestial hierarchy; over to us what he had carned or pur- but others, not without reason, reckon chased by his holy life and death. Ac-it a title only applicable to our Saviour. cordingly it is by this application of the merits of Christ that we are to be justified and entitled to grace and glory.

Application is also used for that part of a sermon in which the preacher brings home or applies the truth of religion to the consciences of his hearers. See SERMON.

APPROBATION, a state or disposition of the mind, wherein we put a value upon, or become pleased with, some person or thing. Moralists are divided on the principle of approbation, or the motive which determines us to approve or disapprove. The Epicureans

Compare Jude 9. with Daniel xii. 1. 1 Thess. iv. 16.

ARCHBISHOP. the chief or metropolitan bishop, who has several suffraknown in the East till about the year gans under him. Archbishops were not after this who had the title, yet that 320; and though there were some scon was only a personal honour, by which the bishops of considerable cities were distinguished. It was not till of late that archbishops became metropolitans, and had suffragans under them. The ecclesiastical government of England is divided into two provinces, viz. Canter

bury and York. The first archbishop || The Arians were first condemned and of Canterbury was Austin, appointed by anathematised by a counsel at Alexanking Ethelbert, on his conversion to dria, in 320, under Alexander, bishop Christianity, about the year 598. His of that city, who accused Arius of imgrace of Canterbury is the first peer of piety, and caused him to be expelled England, and the next to the royal fa- from the communion of the church; and mily, having precedence of all dukes, afterwards by 380 fathers in the general and all great officers of the crown It council of Nice, assembled by Constanis his privilege, by custom, to crown tine, in 325. His doctrine, however, was the kings and queens of this kingdom. not extinguished; on the contrary, it The archbishop of York has precedence became the reigning religion, especially of all dukes not of the royal blood, and in the East. Arius was recalled from of all officers of state except the lord banishment by Constantine in two or bigh chancellor. The first archbishop three years after the council of Nice, of York was Paulinus, appointed by and the laws that had been enacted pope Gregory about the year 622. against him were repealed. Notwithstanding this, Athanasius, then bishop of Alexandria, refused to admit him and his followers to communion. This so enraged them, that, by their interest at court, they procured that prelate to be deposed and banished; but the charch of Alexandria still refusing to admit Arius into their communion, the emperor sent for him to Constantinople; where upon delivering in a fresh confession of his faith in terms less offensive, the emperor commanded him to be received into their communion; but that very evening, it is said, Arius died as his friends were conducting him in triumph to the great church of Constantinople. Arius, pressed by a natural want, stepped aside, but expired on the spot, his bowels gushing out. The Arian party, however, found a protector in Constantius, who succeeded his father in the East. They underwent va

ARCHDEACON. a priest invested with authority or jurisdiction over the clergy and laity, next to the bishop, either through the whole diocese, or only a part of it. There are sixty in England, who visit every two years in three, when they inquire into the reparations and moveables belonging to churches; reform abuses; suspend; excommunicate in some places prove wills, and induct all clerks into benefices within their respective jurisdictions.

ARCHONTICS, a sect about the year 160 or 203. Among many other extravagant notions, they held that the world was created by archangels; they also denied the resurrection of the body. ARCH-PRESBYTER, or ARCHPRIEST, a priest established in some dioceses with a superiority over the rest. He was anciently chosen out of the college of presbyters, at the plea-rious revolutions and persecutions unsure of the bishop. The arch-presbyters were much of the same nature with our deans in cathedrals churches.

der succeeding emperors; till, at length, Theodosius the Great exerted every effort to suppress them. Their doctrine was carried, in the fifth century. into Africa, under the Vandals; and into Asia under the Goths.-Italy, Gaul, and Spain, were also deeply infected with it; and towards the commence

ARRHABONARII, a sect who held that the eucharist is neither the real flesh or blood of Christ, nor yet the sign of them, but only the pledge or earnest thereof. ARIANS, followers of Arius, a pres-ment of the sixth century, it was tribyter of the church of Alexandria, about 315, who maintained that the Son of God was totally and essentially distinct from the Father; that he was the first and noblest of those beings whom God had created-the instrument, by whose subordinate operation he formed the universe; and therefore, inferior to the Father both in nature and dignity: also, that the Holy Ghost was not God, but created by the power of the Son. The Arians owned that the Son was the Word; but denied that word to have been eternal. They held that Christ had nothing of man in him but the flesh, to which the yes, or word, was joined, which was the same as the soul in us.

umphant in many parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe: but it sunk almost at once, when the Vandals were driven out of Africa, and the Goths out of Italy, by the arms of Justinian. However, it revived again in Italy, under the protection of the Lombards, in the seventh century, and was not extinguished till about the end of the eighth. Arianism was again revived in the West by Servetus, in 1531, for which he suffered death. After this the doctrine got footing in Geneva, and in Poland; but at length degenerated in a great measure into Socinianism. Erasmus, it is thought, aimed at reviving it, in his commentaries on the New Testament:


The length of this ark was 300 cubits, which according to Dr. Arbuthnot's

and the learned Grotius seems to lean
that way. Mr. Whiston was one of the
first divines who revived this controver-calculation, amount to a little more than

sy in the eighteenth century. He was 547 feet; its breadth, 50 cubits, or 91-2 followed by Dr. Clarke, who was chiefly feet; its height, 30 cubits, or 54-72 feet; opposed by Dr. Waterland. Those who and its solid contents 2,730-782 solid hold the doctrine which is usually called feet, sufficient for a carriage for 81,062 Low Arianism. say that Christ pre- ton. It consisted of three stories, each existed; but not as the eternal Logos of of which, abating the thickness of the the Father, or as the being by whom floors, might be about 18 feet high, and he made the worlds, and had inter- no doubt was partitioned into a great course with the patriarchs, or as having many rooms or apartments. This vessel was doubtless so contrived, as to admit any certain rank or employment whatever in the divine dispensations. In the air and the light on all, though the modern times, the term Arian is indis-particular construction of the windows be not mentioned. criminately applied to those who conARK OF THE COVENANT, a sider Jesus simply subordinate to the Father. Some of them believe Christ small chest or coffer, three feet nine to have been the creator of the world; inches in length, two feet three inches but they all maintain that he existed in breadth, and two feet three inches in previously to his incarnation, though in height, in which were contained the his pre-existent state they assign him golden pot that had manna, Aaron's different degrees of dignity. Hence the rod, and the tables of the covenant. terms High and Low Arian. See PRE- The ark was resposited in the holiest EXISTENCE. Some of the more recent place of the tabernacle. It was taken vindicators of Arianism have been H. by the Philistines, and detained twenty Taylor, in his Apology of Ben Mordecai (some say forty) years at Kirjath-jeato his Friends for embracing Christian-rim; but, the people being afflicted with ity; Dr. Harwood, in his Five Disser-emerods on account of it, returned it with divers presents. It was afterwards tations; Dr. Price, in his Sermons on the Christian Doctrine. See also the placed in the temple. 4th vol. of the Theological Repository, p. 153-163, and Cornish's Tract on the Pre-existence of Christ.

The lid or covering of the ark was called the propitiatory or mercy-seat; over which two figures were placed, On the opposite side, Bogue and called cherubims, with expanded wings Bennett's Hist. of Dissenters, vol. iii. of a peculiar form. Here the ShechiAbbadie, Waterland, Guyse, Hey, Ro-nah rested both in the tabernacle and binson, Eveleigh, Hawker on the Divinity of Christ-Calamy, Taylor, Gill, Jones, Pike, and Simpson, on the Trinity.

temple in a visible cloud: hence were issued the Divine oracles by an audible voice; and the high priest appeared before this mercy-seat once every year on the great day of expiation; and the Jews, wherever they worshipped, turntheir faces towards the place where the ark stood.

ARISTOTELIANS, the followers of Aristotle. They believed in the eternity of the world, and represented the Deityed as somewhat similar to a principle of power giving motion to a machine; and as happy in the contemplation of himself, but regardless of human affairs. They were uncertain as to the immortality of the soul.-As this was rather a philosophical than religious sect, we shall not enlarge it.


In the second temple there was also an ark, made of the same shape and dimensions with the first, and put in the same place, but without any of its contents and peculiar honours. It was used as a representative of the former on the day of expiation, and a repository of the original copy of the holy Scriptures, collected by Ezra and the men of the great synagogue after the captivity; and, in imitation of this, the Jews, to this day, have a kind of ark in their synagogues, wherein their sacred books are kept.

ARK, or NOAH'S ARK, a floating vessel built by Noah for the preservation of his family, and the several species of animals, during the deluge. The form of the Ark was an oblong, with a flat bottom, and a sloped roof, raised to a cubit in the middle; it had neither ARMENIANS, the inhabitants of sails nor rudder; nor was it sharp at the ends for cutting the water. This Armenia, whose religion is the Chrisform was admirably calculated to make tian, of the Eutychian sect; that is, they it lie steady on the water, without roll-hold but one nature in Jesus Christ. ing, which might have endangered the lives of the animals within.

See EUTYCHIANS. They assert also the procession of the Holy Ghost from

succours; so that election was condi tional, and reprobation in like manner the result of foreseen infidelity and persevering wickedness.

ever, none but those who believe in him can be partakers of divine benefits.

the Father only. They believe that Christ at his descent into hell freed the souls of the damned from thence, and reprieved them to the end of the world, when they shall be remanded to eternal II. That Jesus Christ by his sufferings flames. They believe that the souls of and death, made an atonement for the the righteous shall not be admitted to sins of all mankind in general, and of the beatific vision till after the resur-every individual in particular; that, howrection, notwithstanding which they pray to departed saints, adore their pictures, and burn lamps before them. III. That true faith cannot proceed The Armenian clergy consist of patri- from the exercise of our natural facularchs, archbishops, doctors, secular ties and powers, nor from the force and priests, and monks. The Armenian operation of free will; since man, in conmonks are of the order of St. Basil; and sequence of his natural corruption, is every Wednesday and Friday they eat incapable either of thinking or doing any neither fish nor eggs, nor oil, nor any good thing; and that, therefore, it is nething made of milk; and during Lent cessary. in order to his conversion and they live upon nothing but roots. They salvation, that he be regenerated and have seven sacraments; baptism, con-renewed by the operation of the Holy firmation, penance, the eucharist, ex- Ghost, which is the gift of God through treme unction, orders, and matrimony. Jesus Christ. -They admit infants to the communion at two or three months old. They seem to place the chief part of their religion in fastings and abstinences; and, among the clergy, the higher the degree, the lower they must live; insomuch that it is said the archbishops live on nothing but pulse. They consecrate holy water but once a year; at which time every one fills a pot, and carries it home, which brings in a considerable revenue|dern Arminians interpret this and the to the church. last article with a greater latitude.

IV. That this divine grace, or energy of the Holy Ghost, begins and perfects every thing that can be called good in man, and, consequently, all good works are to be attributed to God alone; that, nevertheless, this grace is offered to all, and does not force men to act against their inclinations, but may be resisted and rendered ineffectual by the perverse will of the impenitent sinner. Some mo

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ARMINIANS, persons who follow V. That God gives to the truly faiththe doctrines of Arminius, who was pas ful who are regenerated by his grace, tor at Amsterdam, and afterwards pro- the means of preserving themselves in fessor of divinity at Leyden. Arminius this state. The first Arminians, indeed, had been educated in the opinions of had some doubt with respect to the Calvin; but, thinking the doctrine of closing part of this article; but their that great man with regard to free will, followers uniformly maintain that the predestination, and grace, too severe, regenerate may lose true justifying faith, he began to express his doubts concern-fall from a state of grace, and die in ing them in the year 1591; and, upon their sins." farther enquiry, adopted the sentiments After the appointment of Arminius of those whose religious system extends to the theological chair at Leyden, he the love of the Supreme Being and the thought it his duty to avow and vindimerits of Jesus Christ to all mankind. cate the principles which he had emThe Arminians are also called Remon-braced; and the freedom with which he strants, because, in 1611, they pre-published and defended them, exposed sented a remonstrance to the states-him to the resentment of those that adgeneral, wherein they state their griev- || hered to the theological system of Geances, and pray for relief.

The distinguishing tenets of the Arminians may be comprised in the five following articles relative to predestination, universal redemption, the corruption of man, conversion, and perseverance, viz.

I. That God, from all eternity, determined to bestow salvation on those who he foresaw would persevere unto the end; and to inflict everlasting pun ishments on those who should continue in their unbelief, and resist his divine

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neva, which then prevailed in Holland; but his principal opponent was Gomar, his colleague. The controversy which was thus begun became more general after the death of Arminius in the year 1609, and threatened to involve the United Provinces in civil discord. The Arminian tenets gained ground under the mild and favourable treatment of the magistrates of Holland, and were adopted by several persons of merit and distinction. The Calvinists or Gomarists, as they were now called, appealed to a

national synod; accordingly, the synod cellaus, Limborch, Le Clerc, Wetstein, of Dort was convened, by order of the Goodwin, Whitby, Taylor, Fletcher, &c. states-general, 1618; and was com- Some of the principal writers on the posed of ecclesiastic deputies from the other side have been Polhill in his Book United Provinces as well as from the on the Decrees; John Edwards in his reformed churches of England, Hessia, Veritas Redux; Cole in his Sovereignty Bremen, Switzerland, and the Palati- of God; Edwards on the Will, and nate. The principal advocate in favour Original Sin; Dr. Owen in his Display of the Arminians was Episcopius, who of Arminianism, and on particular Reat that time was professor of divinity at || demption; Gill in his Cause of God Leyden. It was first proposed to dis- and Truth; and Toplady in almost all cuss the principal subjects in dispute, his works. that the Arminians should be allowed to state and vindicate the grounds on which their opinions were founded; but, some difference arising as to the proper mode of conducting the debate, the Arminians were excluded from the assembly, their case was tried in their absence, and they were pronounced guilty of pestilential errors, and condemned as corrupters of the true religion. A curious account of the proceedings of the above synod may be seen in a series of letters written by Mr. John Hales, who was present on the occasion.

In consequence of the above-mentioned decision, the Arminians were considered as enemies to their country, and its established religion, and were much persecuted. They were treated with great severity, and deprived of all their posts and employments; their ministers were silenced, and their congregations were suppressed. The great Barneveldt was beheaded on a scaffold; and the learned Grotius, being condemned to perpetual imprisonment, fled, and took refuge in France.

ARNOLDISTS, the followers of Arnold, of Brescia, in the twelfth century, who was a great declaimer against the wealth and vices of the clergy. He is also charged with preaching against baptisin and the eucharist. He was burnt at Rome in 1155, and his ashes cast into the Tiber.

ARTEMONTES, a denomination in the second century; so called from Artemon, who taught that, at the birth of the man Christ, a certain divine energy. or portion of the divine nature, united itself to him.

ARTICLE OF FAITH is, by some, defined a point of Christian doctrine, which we are obliged to believe, as having been revealed by God himself, and allowed and established as such by the church. See CONFESSIONS.


ARTICLES, LAMBETH. The Lambeth articles were so called, because drawn up at Lambeth palace, under the eye and with the assistance After the death of prince Maurice, of archbishop Whitgift, bishop Bancroft, who had been a violent partizan in fa- bishop Vaughan, and other eminent digvour of the Gomarists, in the year 1625,|| nitaries of the Church. That the the Arminian exiles were restored to reader may judge how Calvinistic the their former reputation and tranquillity; clergy were under the reign of queen and, under the toleration of the state, Elizabeth, we shall here insert them. they erected churches and founded a "1. God hath from eternity predesticollege at Amsterdam, appointing Epis-nated certain persons to life, and hath copius the first theological professor. The Arminian system has very much prevailed in England since the time of Archbishop Laud, and its votaries in other countries are very numerous. It is generally supposed that a majority of the clergy in both the established churches of Great Britain favour the Arminian system, notwithstanding their articles are strictly Calvinistic. The name of Mr. John Wesley hardly need be mentioned here. Every one knows what an advocate he was for the tenets of Arminius and the success he met with. See METHODISTS.

reprobated certain persons unto death. 2. The moving or efficient cause of predestination unto life is not the foresight of faith, or of perseverance, or of good works, or of any thing that is in the persons predestinated; but the alone will of God's good pleasure. 3. The predestinati are a pre-determined and certain number which can neither be lessened nor increased. 4. Such as are not predestinated to salvation shall inevitably be condemned on account of their sins. 5. The true, lively, and justifying faith, and the Spirit of God justifying, is not extinguished, doth not utSome of the principal writers on the terly fail, doth not vanish away in the side of the Arminians have been Armini-elect, either finally or totally. 6. A us, Episcopius, Vorstius, Grotius, Cur-true believer, that is, one who is endued


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