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of the mouth of him whofasteth is more grateful to God than that of mutt; and Al Gbazali reckons fasting one fourth Jiart of the faith. According to the Mahometan divines, there are three degrees of fasting: 1. The restraining the belly and other parts of the body from satisfying their lusts.—2. The restraining the ears, eyes, tongue, hands, feet, and other members, from sin.—3. The fasting of the heart from worldly cares, and restraining the thought from every thing besides God.
4. The pilgrimage to Mecca is so necessary a point of practice, that, according to a tradition of Mahomet, he who dies without performing it, may as well die a Jew or a Christian ; and the same is expressly commanded in the Koran. See Pilgrimage
III. Mahometanitm, causes of the success of. The rapid success which attended the propagation of this new religion was owing to causes that are plain and evident, and must remove, or rather prevent our surprise, when they are attentively considered. The terror of "Mahomet's arms, and the repeated victories which were gained by him and his successors, were, no doubt, the irresistible arguments that persuaded such multitudes to embrace his religion, and submit to his dominion. Besides, his law was artfully and marvellously adapted to the corrupt nature of man; and, in a most particular manner, to the manners and opinions of the Eastern nations, and the vices to which they were naturally addicted: for the articles of faith which it proposed were few in number, and extremely simple; and the duties it required were neither many nor difficult, uor such as were incompatible with the empire of appetites and passions. It is to be observed farther, that the gross ignorance under which the Arabians, Syrians, Persians, and the greatest part of the Eastern nations, laboured at this time, rendered many an easy prey to the artifice and eloquence of this bold adventurer. To these causes of the progress of Mahometanism we may ado the bitter dissensions and cruel animosities that reigned among the Christian sects, particularly the Greeks, Nestotians, Eutychians, and Monophysites; dissensions that filled a great part of the East with carnage assassinations, and such detestable enormities, as rendered the very name of Christianity odious to many. We might add here, that the Monophysites and Nestorians, full of resentment against the Greeks, from whom they had suffered the bitterest •uiu most injurious treatment, assisted
the Arabians in the conquest of several provinces, into which, of consequence, the religion of Mahomet was afterwards introduced. Other causes of the sudden progress of that religion will naturally occur to such as consider attentively its spirit and genius, and the state of the world at this time.
IV. Mahometanism, subver'ion of. Of things yet to come it is difficult to say any thing with precision. We have, however, some reason to believe, from the aspect of Scripture prophecy, that, triumphant as this sect has been, it shall at last come to nought. As it arose as a scourge to Christendom about the time that Antichrist obtained a temporal dominion, so it is not improbable but they will have their downfall nearly at the same period. The ninth chapter of Revelations seems to refer wholly to this imposture: "The four angels were loosed," says the prediction, 15th verse, "which we're prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third part of men. I his period, in the language of prophecy, makes 191 years, which, being added to the year when the four angels were loosed, will bring us down to 1844, or thereabouts, for the final destruction of the Mahometan empire. It must be confessed, however, that though the event is certain, the exact time cannot be easily ascertained. Prideaux's Life of Mahomet; Mosheim's Eccl. Hist. cent. vii. ch. 2. Sale's Preliminary Discourse, prefixed to his English Translation of the Koran; Simfiscn's Key to Proph. sect. 19. Bishop JVewton, Mede, and Gill, on Rev. ix. Miller's Propag. of Christianity, vol. i. ch. 1. White's Ser. at Bampton Lect. Enc. Brit.
MALEVOLENCE isthatdisposition of mind which inclines us to wish ill to any person. It discovers itself in frowns and a lowering countenance; in uncharitablencss, in evil sentiments; hard speeches to or of its object; in cursing and reviling; and doing mischief either with open violence or secret spite, as far as there is power.
MALICE is a settled or deliberate determination to revenge or do hurt to another. It more frequently denotes the disposition of inferior minds to execute every purpose of mischief within the more limited circle of their abilities. It is a most hateful temper in the sight of God, strictly forbidden in his holy word. Col. iii. 8—12. disgraceful to rational creatures, and every way inimical to the spirit of Christianity, Matt. v. 44. See Charity, Love.
MALIGNITY, a disposition obstinately bad or malicious. Malignancy and malignity are words nearly synonymous. In some connections, malignity seems rather more pertinently applied to a radical depravity of nature; and malignancy to indications of this depravity in temper and conduct in particular instances.
MAN, a being, consisting of a rational soul and orgamcal body. By some he is defined thus: " He is the head of the animal creation; a being who feels, reflects, thinks, contrives, and acts; who has the power of changing his place upon the earth at pleasure; who possesses the faculty of communicating his thoughts by means of speech, and who has dominion over all other creatures on the face of the earth." We shall here present the reader with a brief account of his formation, species, and different state. 1. His formation. Man was made last of all the creatures, being the chief and master-piece of the whole creation on earth. He is a compendium of the creation, and therefore is sometimes called a microcosm, a little world, the world in miniature; something of the vegetable, animal, and rational world meet in him; spirit and matter; yea, heaven and earth centre in him; he is the bond that connects them both together. The constituent and essential parts of man created by God are two; body and soul. The one was made out of the dust; the other was breathed into him. The body is formed with the greatest precision and exactness: every muscle, vein, artery, yea, the least fibre, in its proper place; all in just proportion and symmetry, in subserviency to the use of each other, and for the good of the whole, Ps. exxxix. 14. It is also made erect, to distinguish it from the four-footed animals, who look downward to the earth. Man was made to look upward to the heavens, to contemplate them, and the glory of God displayed in them; to look up to God, to worship and adore him. In the Greek language, man has his name, »v&j«,t:c, from turning and looking upwards. The soul is the other part ofman, which is a substance or subsistence: it is not an accident, or quality, inherent in a subject; but capable of subsisting without the body. It is a spiritual substance, immaterial, immortal. See Soul.
2. Man, different s/ircie* of. According to Linnaeus and Buffon, there are six different species among mankind. The first are those uuder the Polar regions, and comprehend the Laplanders, the Esquimaux Indians, the Samoied Tartars, the inhabitants of Nova Zem
bla, Borandians, the Greenlanders, and the people of Kamtschatka. The visage of men in these countries is large and broad; the nose flat and short; the eyes of a yellowish brown, inclining to blackness; the cheek-bones extremely high; the mouth large ; the lips thick, and turning outwards; the voice thin, and squeaking; and the skin a dark grey colour. They are short in stature, the generality being about four feet high, and the tallest not more than five. They are ignorant, stupid, and superstitious.—2. The second are the Tartar race, comprehending the Chinese and the Japanese. Their countenances are broad and wrinkled, even in youth; their noses short and flat; their eyes little, cheek-bones high, teeth large, complexions olive, and the hair black. —3. The third are the southern Asiatics, or inhabitants of India. These are of a slender shape, long straight black hair, and generally Roman noses. They are slothful, submissive, cowardly, and effeminate.—4. The negroes of Africa constitute the fourth striking variety in the human species. They are of a black colour, having downy soft hair, short and black; their beards often turn grey, and sometimes white: their noses are flat and short; their lips thick, and their teeth of an ivory whiteness. These have been till of late the unhappy wretches who have been torn from their families, friends, and native lands, and consigned for life to misery, toil, and bondage; and that by the wise, polished, and the Christian inhabitants of Europe, and above all by the monsters of England!! —5. The natives of America are the fifth race of men: they are of a copper colour, with black thick straight hair, flat noses, high cheek-bones, and small eyes.—6. The Europeans may be considered as the sixth and last variety of the human kind, whose features we need not describe. The English are considered as the fairest.
3. Man, different states of. The state of man has been divided into fourfold: his primitive state; fallen state; gracious state; and future state. 1. His state of innocence. God, it is said, made man upright, Eccl. vii. 29. without any imperfection, corruption, or principle of corruption in his body or soul; with light in his understanding, holiness in his will, and purity in his affection. This constituted his original righteousness, which was universal, both with respect to the subject of it, the whole man, and the object of it, the whole law. Being thus in a state of holiness, he was necessarily in a state of happiness. He was a very glorious creature, the favourite of heaven, the lord of the world, possessing perfect tranquillity in his own breast, and immortal. Yet he was not without law; for to the law of nature, which was impressed on his heart, God super added a positive law, not to eat of the forbidden fruit. Gen. ii. 17. under the penalty of death natural, spiritual, and eternal. Had he obeyed this law, he might have had reason to expect that he would not only have had the continuance of his natural and spiritual life, but have been transported to the upper paradise.—2. His fall. Man's righteousness, however, though universal, was not immutable, as the event has proved. How long he lived in a state of innocence cannot easily be ascertained, yet most suppose it was but a short time. The positive law which God gave him he broke, by eating the forbidden fruit. The consequence of this evil act was, that man lost the chief good; his nature was corrupted; his powers depraved, his body subject to corruption, his soul exposed to misery, his posterity all involved in ruin, subject to eternal condemnation, and for ever incapable to restore themselves to the favour of God, to obey his commands perfectly, and to satisfy his justice, Gal.iii. Rom. v. Gen. iii. Eph.ii. Rom. iii. passim. See Fall. —3. His recovery. Although man has fallen by his iniquity, yet he is not left finally to perish. The Divine Being, foreseeing the fall, in infinite love and mercy made provision for his relief. Jesus Christ, according to the divine purpose, came in the fulness of time to be his Saviour, and, by virtue of his sufferings, all whobelieve are justified from the curse of the law. By the influences of the Holy Spirit he is regenerated, united to Christ by faith, and sanctified. True believers, therefore, live a life of dependence on the promises; of regularity and obedience to God's word; of holy'joy and peace; and have a hope full of immortality.—4. His future state. As it respects the impenitent, it is a state of separation from God, and eternal punishment, Matt. xxv. 46. But the righteous shall rise to glory, honour, and everlasting joy. To the former, death will be the introduction to misery; to the latter, it will be the admission to felicity. All will be tried in the judgment-day, and sentence pronounced accordingly. The wicked will be driven away in nis wickedness, and the righteous be saved with an everlasting salvation. But as these subjects are treated on elsewhere, we refer the reader to the articles, Grace, Heaven, Hell,
Sin. Hartley's Observations on Man; Boston's Four/old State; Kaimes's Sketches of the History of Man; Locke on Unci. Reid on the jiclive and Intellectual Powers of Man; Wollaston's Religion of JVature; Harris's Philosophical Arrangements.
MAMCHEES or Manicheajjs, (Manichai,) a sect of ancient heretics, who asserted two principles; so called from their author Manes, or Manicheus, a Persian by nation, and educated among the Magi, being himself one of that number before he embraced Christianity.
This heresy "had its first rise about the year '277, and spread itself principally in Arabia, Egypt and Africa. St. Epiphanius, who treats of it at large, observes that the true name of this heresiarch was Cubricus; and that he changed it for Manes, which in the Persian or Babylonish language signifies vessel. A rich widow, whose servant he had been, dying without issue, left him stores of wealth; after which he assumed the title of the afiostle or envoy of Jesus Christ.
Manes was not contented with the quality of apostle of Jesus Christ, but he also assumed that of the paraclete, whom Christ had promised to send; which Augustine explains, by saying, that Manes endeavoured to persuade men that the Holy Ghost did personally dwell in him with full authority. He left several disciples; and among others, Addas, Thomas, and Hennas. These he sent in his life-time into several provinces to preach his doctrine. Manes having undertaken to cure the king of Persia's son, and not succeeding, was put in prison upon the young prince's death, whence he made his escape; but he was apprehended soon after, and flayed alive.
However, the oriental writers cited by D'Herbelot and Hyde, tell us that Manes, after having been protected in a singular manner by Hormizdas, who succeeded Sapor in the Persian throne, but who was not able to defend him, at length, against the united hatred of the Christians, the Magi, the Jews, and the Pagans, was shut up in a strong castle, to serve him as a refuge against those who persecuted him on account of his doctrine. They add, that, after the death of Hormizdas, Varanes I. his successor, first protected Manes, but afterwards gavenim up to thefury of the Magi, whose resentment against nim was due to hU having adopted the Sadducean principles, as some say; while others attribute it to his having mingled the tenets of the Magi with the doctrines of Christianity. However, it is certain that the Manicheans celebrated the day of their master's death. It has been a subject of much controversy ■whether Manes was an impostor. The learned Dr. Lardner has examined the arguments on both sides; and though he does not choose to deny that he was an impostor, he does not discern evident proofs of it. He acknowledges that he ■was an arrogant philosopher, and a great schemist; but whether he was an impostor he cannot certainly say. He ■was much too fond of philosophical notions, which he endeavoured to bring into religion, for which he is to be blamed: nevertheless he observes, that every bold dogmatizeris not an impostor.
The doctrine of Manes was a motley mixture of the tenets of Christianity with the ancient philosophy of the Persians, in which he had been instructed during his youth. He combined these two systems, and applied and accommodated to Jesus Christ the characters and actions which the Persians attributed to the god Mithras.
He established two principles, viz. a good and an evil one: the first a most pure and subtle matter, which he called light, did nothing but good; and the second a gross and corrupt substance, which he called darkness, nothing but evil. This philosophy is very ancient; and Plutarch treats of it at large in his Isis and Osiris. Our souls, according to Manes, were made by the good principle, and our bodies by the evil one; these two principles being, according to him, co-eternal and independent of each other. Each of these is subject to the dominion of a superintendent Being, whose existence is from all eternity. The Being who presides over the light is called God; he that rules the land of darkness bears the title of hylc or demon. The ruler of the light is supremely happy, and in consequence thereof benevolent and good; the prince of darkness is unhappy in himself and desirous of rendering others partakers of his misery; and is evil ana malignant. These two beings have produced an immense multitude of creatures resembling themselves, and distributed them through their respective provinces. After a contest between the ruler of light and the prince of darkness, in which the latter was defeated, this prince of darkness produced the first parents of the human race. The beings engendered from this original stock consist of a body formed out of the corrupt matter of the kingdom of darkness, and of two
souls; one of which is sensitive and lustful, and owes its existence to the evil principle; the other rational and immortal, a particle of that divine light which had been carried away in the contest by the army of darkness, and immersed into the mass of malignant matter. The earth was created by God out of this corrupt mass of matter, in order to be a dwelling for the human race, that their captive souls might by degrees be delivered from their corporeal prisons, and the celestial elements extricated from the gross substance in which they were involved. With this view God produced two beings from his own substance, viz. Christ and the Holy Ghost; for the Manicheans held a consubstantial Trinity. Christ, or the glorious intelligence, called by the Persians Mithras, subsisting in and by himself, and residing in the sun, appeared in due time among the Jews, clothed with the shadowy form of a human body, to disengage the rational soul from the corrupt body, and to conquer the violence of malignant matter. The Jews, incited by the prince of darkness, put him to an ignominious death, which he suffered not in reality, but only in appearance, and according to the opinion of men. When the purposes of Christ were accomplished, he returned to his throne in the sun, appointing apostles to propagate his religion, and leaving his followers the promise of the paraclete or comforter, who is Manes the Persian. Those souls who believe Jesus Christ to be the Son of God, renounce the worship of the god of the Jews, who is the prince of darkness, and obey the laws delivered by Christ, and illustrated by Manes the comforter, are gradually purified from the contagion, of matter: and their purification being completed, after having passed through two states of trial, by water and fire, first in the moon and then in the sun, their bodies return to the original mass (for the Manicheans derided the resurrection of bodies.) and their soulsascend to the regions of light. But the souls of those who have neglected the salutary work of purification, pass :.fter death into the bodies of other animals and natures, where they remain till they have accomplished their probation. Some, however, more perverse and obstinate, are consigned to a severer course of trial, being delivered over for a time to the power of malignant aerial spirits, who torment them in various ways. After this, a fire shall break forth and consume the frame of the world; and the prince and powers of darkness shall rcUu
turn to their primitive seats of anguish and misery, in which ihey shall dwell for ever. These mansions shall be surrounded by an invincible guard, to prevent their ever renewing a war in the regions of light.
Manes borrowed many things from the ancient Gnostics, on which account many authors consider the Manicheans as a branch of the Gnostics.
In truth, the Manichean doctrine was a system of philosophy rather than of religion. They made use of amulets, in imitation of the Basilidians; and are said to have made profession of astronomy and astrology. They denied that Jesus Christ, who was only God, assumed a true human body, and maintained it was only imaginary . and therefore they denied his incarnation, death. 8cc. They pretended thai the law of Mo-es did not come from God, or the good principle, but from the evil one; and that for this reason it was abrogated. They rejected almost all the sacred books in which Christians look for the sublime truths of their holy religion. They affirmed that the Old Testament was not the work of God, but of the prince of darkness, who was substituted by the Jews in the place of the true God They abstained entirely from eating the flesh of any animal, following herein the doctrine of the ancient Pythagoreans: they also condemned marriage. The rest of their errors may be seen in St. Epiphanius and St. Augustine; which last, having been of their sect, may be presumed to have been thoroughly acquainted with them.
Though the Manichees professed to receive the books of the New Testament, yet in effect they only took so much of them as suited with their own opinions. They first formed to themselves a certain idea or scheme of Christianity, and to this adjusted the writings of the apostles, pretending that whatever was inconsistent with this had been foisted into the New Testament by the later writers, who were half Jews. On the cjther hand, they made fables and apocryphal books pass for apostolical writings; and even are suspected to have forged several others, the better to maintain their errors. St. Epiphanius gives a catalogue of several pieces published by Manes, and adds extracts out of some of them. These are the Mysteries, Chapters, Gospel, and Treasury.
The rule of life and manners which Manes prescribed to his followers was most extravagantly rigorous and severe. However, he divided his disciples into two classes; one of which comprehend
ed the perfect Christian, under the name of the elect; and the other the imperfect and feeble, under the title of audit-rt or htarrrs The elect were obliged to rigorous and entire abstinence from flesh, eggs, milk, fish, wine, all intoxicating drink, wedlock, and all amorous gratifications; and to live in a state of the severest penury, nourishing their emaciated bodies with bread, herbs, pulse, and melons, and depriving themselves of all the comforts that arise from the moderate indulgence of natural pasjsions, and also from a variety of innocent and agreeable pursuits. The auditors were allowed to possess houses, lands, and wealth; to feed on flesh, to enter into the bonds of conjugal tenderness; but this liberty wis granted them with many limitations, ana under the strictest conditions of moderation and temperance. The general assembly of Manicheans was headed by a president, who represented Je^us Christ. There were joined to him twelve rulers or masters, who were designed to represent the twelve apostles; and these were followed by seventy-two bishops, the images of the seventv two d^ciples of our Lord. These bishops had presbyters or deacons under them, and all the members of these religious orders were chosen out of the class of the elect. Their worship was simple and plain, and consisted of prayers, reading the Scriptures, and hearing public discourses, at which both the auditors and elect were allowed to be present. They also observed the Christian appointment of baptism, and the eucharist. They kept the Lord's day, observing it as a fast; and they likewise kept Easter and the Pentecost.
Towardsthe fourth century the Manicheans concealed themselves under various names, which they successively adopted, and changed in proportion as they were discovered by them. Thus they assumed the names of Encratites, Apotactics, S:iccophori, Hjdroparastates, Solitaries, and several others, under which they lay concealed for a certain time, but could not, however, long escape the vigilance of their enemies. About the close of the sixth century, this sect gained a very considerable influence, particularly among the Persians.
Towards the middle of the twelfth century, the sect of Manichees took a new face, on account of .one (.onstantine, an Armenian, and an adherer to it; who took upon him to suppress the reading of all other books besides the evangelists and the epistles of St. Paul.