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was likewise extorted from them, that the king was protector and supreme head of the church of England ; though some of them had the dexterity to get a clause inserted which invalidated the whole submission, viz. in so far as is permitted by the law of Christ.
The king, having thus begun to reduce the power of the clergy, kept no bounds with them afterwards. He did not, indeed, attempt any reformation in religious matters; nay, he persecuted most violently such as did attempt this in the least. Indeed, the most essential article of his creed seems to have been his own supremacy; for whoever denied this was sure to suffer the most severe penalties, whether Protestant o* Papist.
He died in 1547, and was succeeded by his only son Edward VI. This amiable prince, whose early youth was crowned with that wisdom, sagacity, and virtue, that would have done honour to advanced years, gave new spirit and vigour to the Protestant cause, and was its brightest ornament, as well as its most'effVctual support. He encouraged learned and pious men of fereign countries to settle in England, and addressed a particular invitation to Martin Bucer and Paul F.igius, whose moderation added a lustre to their other virtues, that by the ministry and labours of these eminent men, in concert with those of the fri-nds ot the reformation in England, h" might purge his dominions from the sordid fictions of popery, and establish the pure doctrines of Christianity in their place. For this purpose he issued out the wisest orders for the restoration of true religion ■, but his reign was too short to accomplish fully such a glorious purpose. In the year 1553 he was taken from his loving and afflicted subjects whose sorrow was inexpressible, and suited to their loss. His sister Mary (the daughter of Catharine of Arragon, from whom Henry had been separated by the famous divorce,) a furious bigot to the church of Rome, and a princess whose natural character, like the spirit of her religion, was despotic mid cruel, succeeded him on the British throne, and imposed anew the arbitrary laws and the tyrannical yoke of Home upon the people of England. Nor were the methods which slie employed in the cause of superstition better than the cause itself, or tempered by any senti mentsof equity or compassion. Barbarous tortures, and death in the most shocking forms, awaited those who opposed her will, or made the least stand against the restoration of popery; an'!,
among tnady other victims, the learned and pious Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, who had been one of the most illustrious instruments of the reformation in England, fell a sacrifice to her fury. This odious scene of persecution was happily concluded in the year 1558 by the death of the queen, who left no issue; and, as soon as her successor the lady Elizabeth ascended the throne, all things assumed a new and pleasing aspect. This illustrious princess, whose sentiments, counsels, and projects, breathed a spirit superior to the natural softness and delicacy of her sex, exerted this vigorous and manly spirit in the defence of oppressed conscience and expiring liberty, broke a new the despotic yoke of papal authority and superstition ; and, delivering her people from the bondage of Home, established that form of religious doctrine and ecclesiastical government which still subsists in England. This religious establishment differs in some respects from the plan that had been formed by those whom Edward VLhad employed forpromotirg the cause of the reformation, and approaches nearer to the rites and dis. ipline of former times; though it is widely different, and in the most important points, entirely opposita to the principles of the Roman hierarchy.
The cause of the reformation underwent in Ireland the same vicissitudes and revolutions that had attended it in England. When Henry VIII. after the abolition of the papal authority, was declared supreme head upon earth of the church of England, George Brown, a native of England, and a monk of the Augustine order, whom that monarch had created, in the year 1535, archbishop of Dublin, began to act with the utmost vigour in consequence of this change in the hierarchy. H<* purged the churches of his diocese from superstition in all its various forms, pulled down images, destroyed relics, abolished absurd and idolatrous rites; and, by the influence as well as authority he had in Ireland, caused the king's supremacv to be acknowledged in that nation. Henry showed, Soob aftnr, that this supremacy was not a vain title; for b* banished the monks out of that kingdom, confiscated their revenues, and destroyed their convents. In the reign cf Edward VI. still farther progress «a; made in the removal of popish superstitions by the zealous labours of bisbcp Brown, and the auspicious encouragement he granted to all who exerted themselves in the cause of the reformation. Rut the death of this excellent to'rince, and the accession of queen Mary, had like to have changed the face of affairs in Inland as much as in Enghnd; but her designs were disappointed by a very curious adventure, of which the following account has been copied from the papers of Richard earl of Cork :—Queen Mary having dealt severely with the Protestants in England, abnnt tne latter end of her reign, signed a commission for to take the same course with them in Ireland ; and, to execute the same with greater force, she nominates Dr. Cole one of the commissioners. This doctor coming with the commission to Chester on his journey, the mayor of that city, hearing that her majesty was sending a messenger into Ireland, and he being a churchman, waited on the doctor, who in discourse with the mayor taketh out of a cloke-bag a lenther box, saying unto him, tirre is a commission that shall lash the heretics ■of Ireland, calling the Protestants by that title. The good woman of the house being well affected to the Protestant religion, and also having a brother,named JohnEdmunds, of the same, then a citizen in Dublin, was much troubled at the ductni's words; but, watching her convenient time while the mayor took his leave, and the doctor complimented him down the stairs, she opens the box, takes the commission nut, and places in lieu thereof a sheet of paper with a pack of cards wrapt up then-in, the knave of clubs being faced uppermost. The doctor coming up to his chamber, suspecting nothing of what had ticen done, put up the box as formerly. The next-day, going to the \vater-side, wind and weather serving him, he sails towards Ireland, and landed on the 7th of October, 1558, at Dublin. Then coining to the castle, the lord Fitz Walter, being lord-deputy, sent for him to come before him and the privy council; who coming in, after he had made a speech relating upon what account he came over, he presents the box unto the lord-deputy; who causing it to be opened, that the secretary might read the commission, there was nothing save a pack of cards with the knave of clubs uppermost; which not only startled the lord deputy and council, butthe doctor, who assured them he had a commission, but knew not how it was gone. Then the lord-deputy made answer, Let us have another commission, and we will shuffle the cards in the mean while. The doctor being troubled in his mind, went awav, and returned into rLnglund, and coming to the 'cgwt, obtained another cr>mm_ission;.
but, staying for a wind on the waterside, news came to him that the queen was dead: and thus God preserved the Protestants of Ireland."—Queen Elizabeth was so delighted with this story, which was related to her by lord FitzWalteron bis return to England, that she sent for Elizabeth Edmonds, whose husband's name was Mattershad, and gave her a pension of 40/. during her life.
In Scotland the seeds of reformation were very early sown by several noblemen who had resided in Germany during the religious disputes there; but for many years it was suppressed by the power of the pope, seconded by inhuman aws and barbarous executions. The most eminent opposerof the papal jurisdiction was John Knox, a disciple of Calvin, a man of great zeal and invincible fortitude. On all occasions he raised the drooping spirits of the reformers, and encouraged them to go on with their work, notwithstanding the opposition and treachery of the queen-regent; till at last, in 1561, by the assistance of an English army sent by Elizabeth, poprry was, in a manner, totally extirpated throughout the kingdom. From this period the form of doctrine, worship, and discipline, established by Calvin at Geneva, has had the ascendancy in Scotland.
On the review of this article, what reason have we to admire Infinite Wisdom, in making human events apparently fortuitous, subservient to the spread of the Gospel! What reason to adore that Divine Power which was here evidently manifested in opposition to all the powers of the world! What reason to praise that Goodness, which thuscaused light and truth to break forth for the happiness and salvation of millions of the human race!
For farther information on this interesting subject we refer our readers to the works of Burnet and Brandt; to Beausobre's Historic de la Reformation dans C Empire, et les Etats de la Confession d' Augutbourg de/iuisl 517-15"0, in 4 vols Hvo. Berlin, 1785; Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History ; and particularly the Appendix to w>\. iv. p. 136, on the spirit of the reformers, by Dr. Madame. Sec also Slcidan De Statu Religionis ct Reipublicte Carolo V; Father Paul's Hist, of the council of Trent; Robertson's Hist, of Charles V ; Knox's and Dr. Gilbert Steward's Hist, of the Reformation in Scotland; Enc. Brit; An Essay on the S/tirit arid Influence of the Reformation by Luther, by S, CI Wilier*, which work, obtained. the prize on this question (proposed by the National Institute of France in the public sitting of tht 15th Germinal, in the year 10), "Wbat has been the influence of the reformation by Luther on the political situation of the different states of Europe, and on the progress of knowledge I H. Moore's Hints to a Young Princess, vol. ii. ch. 35.
REFORMED CHURCH. See Church Reformed.
REFUGEES, a term first applied to the French Protestants, who, by the revocation of the edict of Mantes, were constrained to fly from persecution, and take refuge in foreign countries. Since that time, however, it has been extended to all such as leave their country in times of distress. See Huguenots.
REGIUM DONUM MONEY, money allowed by government to the Dissenters. The origin of it was in the year 1723. As the Dissenters approved themselves strong friends to the house of Brunswick, they enjoyed favour; and, being excluded all lucrative preferment in the church, the prime minister wished to reward them for their loyalty, and, by a retaining fee, preserve them steadfast. A considerable sum, therefore, was annually lodged with the heads of the Presbyterians, Independents, and Baptists, to be distributed among the ne cessitous ministers of their congregations.
REGENERATION, a new birth; that work of the Holy Spirit by which we experience a change of heart. It is tube distinguished from ba/Uism which is an external rite, though some have confounded them together. Nor does it signify a mere reformation of the outward conduct. Nor is it a conversion from one sect or creed to another; or even from atheism. Nor are new faculties given in this change. Nor does it consist in new revelations, succession of terrors or consolations; or any whisper as it were from God to the heart, concerning his secret love, choice, or purpose to save us. It is expressed in bcripture by being born again, John, iii 7. born from above, so it may be rendered, John, iii. 2, 7,17. being quickened, Ephcs. ii. 1. Christ formed in the heart, Gal. iv. 12. a partaking of the Divine nature, 2 Pet. i. 4. The efficient cause of regeneration is the Divine Spirit. That man is not the author of it is evident, if we consider. 1. The case in which men are before it takes place ; H state of ignorance and inability, John, iii. 4.—2. The nature of the work shows plainly that it is not in the power of men to do it: it is called a creation, a
production of a new principle which not before, and which man could not himself produce, Eph. ii. 8, 10—3. It is expressly denied to be of men, but declared to be of Gr>d, John, i. 12, 13. 1 John, iii. 9. The instrumental cawse, if it mav be so called, is the word of God. Jam. i. 18. 1 Cor. ir. 15. The evidences of it are, conviction of sin, holy sorrow, deep humility, knowledge, faith, repentance, love, and devotcdnta to God's glory. The flro/iertie* of it are these: 1. It is a fiassive work, and herein it differs from conversion. In regeneration we are passive,and receive from God ; in conversion we are active, and turn to him—2. It is an irrestittile, or rather an invincible, work of God's grace, Eph. iii. 8.-3 It is an instantaneous act, for there can be no medium between life and death; and here it differs from sanctificaiion. which is progressive.—4. It is a cotnfilete act, and perfect in its kind; a change of the
whole man. 2 Cor. v. 17 5. It ia a
great and im/iortant act, both as to its author and effects, Eph. ii. 4, 5.-6. It is an internal, act, not consisting in bare outward forms, Eze-k. xxxvi. 2*. 27.— 7. Visible as to its effects, 1 John, iii. 14. —8. Delightful, 1 Pet. i. 8.-9. Necessary, John, iii. 3.—10. it is an act, the blessings of which we can never finally I' se, John, xiii. 1. See Calling, CoxVersion ; and Cltarnocks Works, vol. ii. p. 1. to 230; Cole and Wright, but especially Withersftoon en Regeneration ; Doddridge's Ten Sermons on the Subject; Dr. GiU's Body of Divinity, article Regeneration ; Dr. Ovien on the Sfiirit; L.ime Street Ltctures, ser. 8.
RELICS, in the Roman church, the remains of the bodies or c'othes of saints or martyrs, and the instruments by which they were put to death, devoutly preserved, in honour to their memory; kissed, revered, and carried in procession.
The respect which was justly due to the martyrs and teachers of the Christian faith, in a few ages, increased almost to adoration ; and at length adoration was really paid both to departed saints, and to relics of holy mtn, or holy things. The abuses of the church of Rome with respect to relics, are very flagnant and notorious; for such was the rage for them at one time, that, as F. Mabillon, a Benedictine, justly complains, the attars were loaded with suspected relics; numerous spurious ones being every where offered to the piety and devotion of the faithful. He add*. too, that bones ere often consecrated, which, so far from belonging to saints. probably do not belong to Christians. From the catacombs numerous relics have been taken, and yet it is not known who were the persons interred therein In the eleventh century, relics were tried by lire, and those which did not consume were reckoned genuine, and the rest not. Relics were, and still are, preservedon the altars whereon mass is celebrated; a square hole being made in the middle of the altar big enough to receive the hand; and herein is the relic deposited, being first wrapped in red silk, and enclosed in a leaden box.
The Romanists plead antiquity in liehalf of relics; for the Manichees. out of hatred to the flesh, which they considered as an evil principal, refused to honour the relics of saints; which is reckoned a kind of proof that the Ca tholics did it in the first ages.
We know, indeed, that the touching of linen clothes, or relics, from an opi nion of some extraordinary virtue derived therefrom, was as ancient as the1 first ages, there being a hole made in the coffins of the forty martyrs at Constantinople expressly for that purpose. The honouring the relics of saints, on which the church of Rome afterwards founded her superstitious and lucrative use of them, as objects of devotion, as a kind of charms, or amulets, and as instruments of pretended miracles, ap pears to have originated in a wry ancient custom that prevailed among Christians, of assembling at the cemeteries or burying places of the martyrs, for the purpose of commemorating them, ana of performing divine worship. When the profession of Christianity obtained the protection of civil government, underConstantinc the Great, stately churches were erected over sepulchres, and their names and memo ries were treated with every possible token of affection and respect. This reverence, however, gradually exceeded all reasonable bounds; and those prayers and religious services were thought to have a peculiar sanctity and virtue which were performed over their tombs: hence the practice which afterwards obtained of depositing relics of saints and martyrs under thealtars in all churches. This practice was then thought of such importance, that St. Ambrose would not consecrate a church because it had no relics; and the council of Contanti nople in Trullo ordained, that those al tars should be demolished under which there were found no relics The rage of procuring relics for this and other purposes of a similar nature became so excessive, that in S$6, the empfror
Theodosius the Great was obliged to pass a law, forbidding the people to dig up the bodies of the martyrs, and to traffic in their relics.
Such was the origin of that respect for sacred relics, which afterwards was perverted into a formal worship of them, and became the occasion of innumerable processions, pilgrimages, and miracles, from which the church of Rome hath derived incredible advantage. ,In the end of the ninth century it was not sufficient to reverence departed saints, and to confide in their.intercessions and succours; to clothe them with an imaginary power of healing diseases, working1 miracles, and delivering from all sorts of calamities and dangers; their bones, their clothes, the apparel and furniture they had possessed during their lives, the very ground which ihey had touched, or in which their putrefied carcasses were laid, were treated with a stupid veneration, and supposed to retain the marvellous virtue of healing all disorders, both of body and mind, and of defending such as possessed them against all the assaults and devices of the devil. The consequence of all this was, that every one was eager to provide himself with these salutary remedies; consequently great numbers undertook fatiguing and perilous voyages,and subjected themselves to all sorts of hardships; while others made use of this delusion to accumulate their riches, and to impose upon the miserable multitude by the most impious and shocking inventions. As the demand for relics was prodigious and universal, the clergy employed the utmost dexterity to satisfy all demands, and were far from being nice in the methods they used for that end. The bodies of the saints were sought by fasting and prayer, instituted by the priest, in order to obtain a divine answer, and an infallible direction; and this pretended direction never failed to accomplish their desires: the holy carcass was always found, and that always in consequence, as they impiously gave out, of the suggestion and inspiration of God himself. Each discovery of this kind was attended with excessive demonstrations of joy, and animated the zeal of these devout seekers to enrich the church still more and more with this new kind of treasure. Many travelled with this view into the eastern provinces, and frequented the places which Christ and his disciples had honoured with their presence; that with the bones and other sacred remains of the first heralds of the Gospel, thev might crjmfoi't dejected rn'mtls, caliii trembling consciences, save sinking states, and defend their inhabitants from all sorts of calamities. Nor did these pious travellers return home empty: the craft, dexterity, and knavery of the Greeks, foond a rich prey in the stupid credulity of the Latin relic-hunters, and made a profitable commerce of this new devotion. The latter paid considerable sums for legs and arms, skulls, and jaw-bones (several of which where Pagan, and some not human,) and other things that were supposed to have belonged to the primitive worthies of the Christian church ; and thus the Latin churches came to the possession of those celebrated relics of St. Mark, St. James, St. Bartholomew, Cyprian, Pantaleon, and others, which they show at this day with so much ostentation. But there were many, who, unable to procure for themselves these spiritual treasures by voyages and prayers, had recourse to violence and theft; for all sorts of means, and all sorts of attempts, in a cause of this nature, were considered, when successful, as pious and acceptable to the Supreme Being. Besides the arguments from antiquity, to which the Papists refer in vindication of their worship of relics, of which the reader may form some judgment from this article, Bellarmine appeals to Scripture in support of it; and cites the following passages, viz. Exod. xiii 19. Deut. xxxiv. <j 2 Kings, xiii. 21 2 Kings, xxiii. 16, 17, 18. Isaiah, xi. 10. Mat. xi. 20, 21, 22. Acts, v. 12.15 Acts, xix 11, 12
The Roman Catholics in Great Britian do not acknowledge any worship to be due to relics, but merely a high veneration and respect, by which means they think they honour God, who, they say, has often wrought very extraordinary miracles by them. But, however proper this veneration and respect may be, its abuse has been so great and so general, as fully to warrant the rejection of them altogether.
Relics are forbidden to be used or brought into England by several statutes; and justices of peace are empowered to search houses for popish books and relics, which, when found, are to be defaced, and burnt, &c. 3. Jac. I. cap 26.
RELIEF, a species of Dissenters in Scotland, whose only difference from the Scotch established church is the choosing their own pastors. They were separated from the church in the year 1752, occasioned by Mr. Thomas Gillespie being deposed for refusing to assist at the admission of a minister to a parish who were unwillinjjto receive; him.
When Mr. Gillespie was deprived of his parish, he removed to Dutnferline, and preached there to a congregation who were attached to him, and vehemently opposed the law of patronage. Being excluded from the communion of the church, he, with two or three-other ministers, constituted themselves into a presbytery, called the Presbytery of Relief; willing to afford relief to all "who adhered to the constitution of the church of Scotland, as exhibited in her cre<ds, canons, confessions, and forms, of worship" They are unwilling, it is said, to be reckoned seceders Their licentiates are educated under the established church professors, whose certificates thty acknowledge Many of their people receive the Lord's supper with equal readiness in the established church as in their own. The relief synod consists of about sixty congregations, and about 36,000 persons.
RELIGION is a Latin word, derived, according to Cicero, from relegerr, "to re-consider;" but according to Servius and most modern grammarians, from religare, "to bind fast." If the Ciceronian etymology be the true one, the word religion will denote the diligent study whatever pertains to the worship of God; but, according to the other derivation, it denotes that obligation which we feel on our minds from the relation in which we stand to srune superior power. The word is sometimes, used as synonymous with sect; but, in a practical sense, it is generally considered as the same with godliness, or a life devoted to the worship and fear of Gr.d. Dr. Doddridge thus defines it: "Religion consists in the resolution of the will for God, and in a constant care to avoid whatever we are persuaded he would disapprove, to despatch the work he has assigned us in life, and to promote his glory in the happiness of mankind." TSee Godliness.] The foundation of all religion rests on the belief of the existence of God. As we have, however, already considered the evidences of the divine existence, they need not be enumerated again in this place; the reader will find them under the article Existence Of God.
Religion has been divided into natural and revealed. By natural religion is meant that knowledge, veneration, and love of (Jod, and the practice of these duties to him, our fellow-creatures, and ourselves, which are discoverable by the right exercise of our rational faculties, from considering the nature and perfections of God, and our relation to him and tn one another. By revcale^