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religion is understood that discovery which he has made to us of his mind and will in tht Holy Scriptures. As it respects natural religion, some doubt whether, properly speaking, there can be any such thing; since, through the fall, reason is so depraved, that man without revelation is under the greatest darkness and miser)', as may be easily seen by considering the history of those nations who are destitute of it, and who are given up to barbarism, ignorance, cruelty, and evib of every kind. So far as this, however, may be observed, that the light of nature can give us no proper ideas of God. nor inform us what worship will be acceptable to him. It does not tell us how man became a fallen sinful creature, as he is, nor how he can be recovered. It affords us no intelligence as to the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the body, and a future state of happiness and misery. The apostle, indeed, observes, that the Gentiles have the law written on their hearts, and are a law unto themselves; yet the greatest moralists among them were so blinded as to be guilty of, and actually to countenance the greatest vices. Such a system, therefore, it is supposed, can hardly be said to be religious which leaves man in such uncertainty, ignorance, and impiety. [See Revelation.] On the other side it is observed, "that, though it is in the highest degree probabie that the parents of mankind received all their theological knowledge by supernatural means, it is yet obvious that s<me parts of that knowledge must have been capable of a proof purely rational, otherwise not a single religious truth could have been conveyed through the succeeding generations of the human race but by the immediate inspiration of each individual. We, indeed, admit many propositions as certainly true, upon the sole authority of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, and we receive these Scriptures with gratitude as the lively riracles of God; but it is self evident that we could not do either the one or the other, were we not convinced by natural means that God exists; that he is a being of goodness, justice, and power; and that he inspired with divine wisdom the penmen of these sacred volumes Now, though it is very possible that no man, or body of men, left to themselves from infancy in a desert world, would ever have made a theological discovery, yet, whatever propositions relating to the being and attributes of the First Cause, and duty of man, can be demon strated by human reason,'ind'*pendent of
written revelation, may be called natural theology, and are of the utmost importance, as b.-ing to us the first principles of all religion. Natural theology, in this sense of the word, is the foundation of the Christian revelation; for, without a previous knowledge of it, we could have no evidence that the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are indeed the word of God."
The religions which exist in the world have been generally divided into four, the Pagan, the Jewish, the Mahometan, and the Christian; to which articles the reader is referred. The various duties of the Christian religion also are stated in their different places. See also, as connected with this article, the articles Inspiration, Revelation, and Theology, and books there recommended.
RliLIGIOUS, in a general sense, something that relates to religion. It is also us°d for a person engaged by solemn vows to the monastic life ; or a person shut-up in a monastery, to lead a life of devotion and austerity under some rule or institution. The male religious are called monks and friars; the females, nuns and canonesses.
RELLYANISI'S,orRELLTAN UniVersalists, the followers of Mr. James Kelly. He first commenced his ministerial character in connection with Mr. Whitefield.and wns received with great popularity. Upon a change of his views, he encountered reproach, and was pronounced by many as an enemy to godliness. He believed th.it Christ as a Mediator was Sj united to mankind, that his actions were theirs, his obedience and sufferings theirs; and, consequently, that he has as fully restored the whole human race to the divine favour, as if all had obeyed and suffered in their own persons; and upon this persuasion he preached a finished salvation, called by the apostle Jude, "The common salvation." Many of his followers are removed to the world of spirits, but a branch still survives, and meets at the chapel in Windmill-street, Moorfields, London; where there are different brethren who speak. They are not observers of ordinances, such as water-baptism and the sacrament; professing to believe only in one baptism, which they call an immersion of the mind or conscience into truth by the teaching of the Spirit of God ; and by the same Spirit they are enabled to feed on Christ as the bread of life, professing that in and with Jesus they possess all things. They inculcate and maintain good works for necessary purposes;
but contend that the principal and only works which ought to be attended to, is the dun g real good without religious ostentation; that to relieve the miseries and distresses of mankind according to our ability, is doing more real good than the superstitious observance of religious ceremonies. In general they appear to believe that there will be a resurrection to life, and a resurrection to condemnation; that btlievers only will be among the former, who as first fruits, and kings and priests, will have part in the first resurrectltn, and shall reign with
row for any thing past. In theology it signifies that sorrow for sin which produces newness of life. The Greek won! most frequently used in the New Testament for repentance is [urxyua., which properly denotes an afterthought, or the soul recollecting its own actings; aorl that in such a manner as to produce sorrow in the review,and a desire of amendment. Another word also is used (fAfra.jutKcy.il,) which signifies anxiety cr uneasiness upon the consideration of what is done. There are, however, various kinds of repentance ; as, 1. A no
Christ in his kingdom of the millennium: I; i«ra/repentance, or what is merely the
effect of natural conscience.—2. A national repentance, such as the Jews in Babylon were called unto; to which temporal bltssings were promised, Ez-k. xviii. 30.—3. An external repentance, or an outward humiliation for sin. At in the case of Ahab —I. A hyjiocntical repentance, as represented in Ephraim, Hos. vii. IP.—5. A legal repentance, which is a mere work of the law, and the effect of convictions of sin by it, which in time wear off, and come to nothing.—6 An evangelical repentance, which consists in conviction of sin ; sorrow for it i confession of it; hatred to it; and renunciation of it. A legal and evangelical repentance are distinguished thus: 1. A legal repentance flows only from a sense of danger and fear of wralli; hut an evangelical repentance is a true mourning Mi* sin, and an earnest desire of deliverance from it.—
2. A legal repentance flows from unbelief, but evangelical is a'.waysthe fruit and consequence of a saving faith
3. A legal repentance flows from an aversion to God and to his holy law, but an evangelical from love to both —
4. A legal repentance ordinarily flows from discouragement and despondency, but evangelical from encouraging hope. —5. A lejial repentance is temporary, but evangelical B the daily exercise cf the true Christian.—6. A legal repentance dues at most produce only a partial and external reformation, but an evangelical is u total change of heart and life.
The author of true repentance is God, Acts, v. 31. The subjects of it are sinners, since none but those »ho have sinned can repent. The means of repentance is the word, and the ministers of it; yet sometimes consideration, sanctified afflictions, conversation. Sec. have been the instruments of repentance. The blessings connected with repentance, are, pardon, peace, and everlasting life, Acts, xi. 18. The lime of repentance is the present life, Isaiah, to.
that unbelievers who are after raised, | must wait the manifestation of the Saviour of the world, under that condemnation of conscience which a mind in darkness and wrath must necessarily feel; that believers, called kings and priests, will be made the medium of communication to their condemned brethren ; and like Joseph to his brethren, though he spoke roughly to them, in reality overflowed with affection and tenderness; that ultimately every knee shall bow, and every tongue confess that in the Lord they have righteousness and strength ; and thus every enemy shall be subdued to the kingdom and glory of the Great Mediator. A i Mr. Murray belonging to this society emigrated to America, and preached these sentiments at Boston and elsewhere. Mr, Relly published several works, the principal of which were, "Union.'' "The Trial of Spirits,'' "Christian Liberty." "One-Baptism." "The Salt of Sacrifice." "Antichrist resisted." "Letters on Universal Salvation." "The Cherubimical Mystery."
REMEDIAL LAW. See Law; and article Justification.
REMONSTRANTS, a title given to the Arminians, hy reason of the remonstrance which, in 1610 they made to the states of Holland against the sentence of the Synod of Dort, which condemned them as heretics. Episcopius and Grotius were at the head of the Remonstrants, whose principles were first openly patronised in England by archbishop Laud. Iir Holland, the Calvinists presented an address in opposition to the remonstrance of the Arminians, and called it a counter-remonstrance. See Arminians and Dort.
REMORSE, uneasiness occasioned hy a consciousness of guilt. When it is blended with the fear of punishment, and rises to despair, it constitutes the supreme wretchedness of the mind.
REPENTANCE, in general, is sor
6. Eccl. ix. 50. The evidence* of re pentance are, faith, humility, prayer, and obedience, Zecli. xii. 10. The necessity of repentance appears evident from the evil of sin; the misery it involves us in here ; the commands given us to repent in Gael's word; the promises made to the penitent; and the absolute incapability of enjoying God here or hereafter without it. See LikKinson'a Letters, let 9; Or Owen on the 13'Jth Psalm; GUI'* Body of Divinity, article Rejicntance; Ridgley's Ho dy of Div. question 76 j Davics'a Sermons, ser. 44. vol iii; Cane's Sermons, ser. 4; Whitefields Sermons; Saurin'sl Sermons, ser. 9. vol. iii. Robinson's\ Translation; Scott's Treatise on He j fientance.
REPROACH, the act of finding fault in opprobrious terms, or attempting to I expose to infamy and disgrace. In whatever cause wc engage, however i disinterested our motives, however lau-1 dable our designs, reproach is what we I must expect. But it becomes us not to retaliate, but to bear it patiently; and so to live, that every charge brought against us be groundless. If we be reproached for rigliteousuess' sake, we have no reason to be ashamed nor to be afraid. All good men have thus suffer ed, Jesus Christ himself especially. We have the greatest promises of support. Besides, it has a tendency to humble us, detach us from the wotlcl, and excite in us a desire for that stale ot blessedness where all reproach shall be done away.
REPROBATION, the act of abandoning, or state of being abandoned, to eternal destruction, and is applied to that decree or resolve which God has taken from all eternity to punish sinners who shall die in impenitence ; in which sense it is opposed to election. SeeELKcnoN and Predestination.
REPROOF, blame or reprehension spoken to a person's face. It is distinguished from a reprimand thus. He who rejiroves another, points out his fault, and blames him. He who reprimands, affects to punish, and mortifies the offended. In giving rc/iroof, the following rules may be: observed : 1. We should not be forward in reproving our elders or superiors, but rather te remonstrate and supplicate for redress. What the ministers of God do in this kind, they do by special commission, as those that must give an account, 1 Tim. v. 1. Heb. xiii. 17.—2. We must not reprove rashly; there should be proof before reproof.—."5. We should not reprove for slight matters, for such faults or defects as proceed from natural
| frailty, from inadvertency, or mistake in matters of small consequence.—4, We should never reprove unseasonably, as to the time, the place, or the circumstances—5. We should reprove mildly and sweetly, in the calmest manner, in, the gentlest terms.—6. We should not affect to be reprehensive: perhaps there is no one considered more troublesome than he who delights in rinding fault with others. In receiving refiroof it may be observed, 1. That we should not reject it merely because it may come from those who are not exactly on a level with ourselves.—2. Wc should consider whether the reproof given be not actually deserved; and that, if the reprover knew all, whether the reproof would not be sharper than
what it is 3.Whether, if taken humbly
and patiently, it will not be of great advantage to us.—4. That it is nothing but pride to suppose that we are never to be the subjects of reproof, since it is human to err.
RESENTMENT, generally used in an ill sense, implying a determination to return an injury. Dr. Johnson observes, that resentment is an union of sorrow with malignity; a combination of a passion which all endeavour to avoid, with a passion which all concur to detest. The man who retires to meditat- mischief, and to exasperate his own rage, whose thoughts are employed only on means of distress and contrivances (if ruin, whose mind never pauses from the remembrance of his own sufferings, but to indulge some hope of enjoying the calamities of another, may justly be numbered among the most miserab'e of human beings; among those who are guilty; who have neither the gladness of prosperity, north ccalm of innocence.
RESIGNATION, a submission without discontent to the will of God. The obligations to this duty arise from, 1. The perfections of God, Deut. xxxii. 4. —2. The purposes of God, Eph. i. II. —3. The commands of God. Heb. xii. 9.—4. The promises of God, I Pet. v. 7—5. Our own interest, Hos ii. 34, 15.—6. The prospect of eternal felicity, Heb. iv. 9. See articles Affliction, Despair, and Patience; Worthington on Resignation; Brook's Mute Christian ; Grosvcnor's Mourner; and the books tinder Affliction.
RESTITUTION, that act of justice by which we restore to our neighbour whatever we have unjustly deprived him of, Exod. xxii. 1. Luke, xix 8.
Moralists observe respecting restitution, 1. That where it can be made in Kind, or the injury can be certainly valued, we are to restore the thing or the value.—2. We are bound to restore the thing with the natural increase cf it, that is, to satisfy for the loss sustained in the mean time, and the gain hindered.—3. Where the thing cannot be restored, and the value of it is no: certain, we are to give reasonable satisfaction, according to a middle estimation.—4. We are at least to give by way of restitution what tile law would give, for that is generally equal, and in most cases rather favourable than rigorous —5. A man is not only bound to restitu tion for the injury he did, but for all that directly follows upon the injurious act. For the first injury being wilful, we are supposed to will all that which follows upon it. TiUoUon'i Serm, ser. 170, 171; Chiltmgworth's Works, her. 7.
RESURRECTION, a rising again from the state of the dead; generally applied to the resurrection of the last day. This doctrine is argued, 1. From the resurrection of Christ, 1 Cor. xv.-«2. From the doctrines of grace, as union, election, redemption, &c—3. From Scripture testimonies, Matt. xxii. 23. &c. Job, xix. 25, 27. Isaiah, xxvi. 19. Phil ii. 20. 1 Cor. xv. Dan. xii. 2. 1 Thess. iv. 14. Rev, xx. 13—i. From the general judgment, which of course requires it. As to the nature of this resurrection, it will be, 1. General, Rev. xx. 12, 15. 2 Cor. v. 10.—2. Of the same body. It is true, indeed, that the body has net always the same particles, which are continually changing, but it has always the same constituent parts, which proves its identity; it is the same body that is born that dies, and the same that dies that shall rise again; s i that Mr. Locke's objection to the idea of the same body is a mere quibbie.—3. The resurrection will be at the command of Christ, and by his power, John, v. 28, 29.—4. Perhaps as to the manner it will be successive ; the dead in Christ rising first, 1 Cor. xv. 23. 1 Thess. iv. 16 This doctrine is of great use and importance. It is one of the first principles of the doctrine of Christ; the -whole Gospel stands or falls with it. It serves to enlarge our views of the divine perfections. It encourages our faith and trust in God under all the difficulties of life. It has a tendency to regulate all our affections and moderate our desires after earthly things. It supports the saints under the loss of near relations, and enables tlv-m to rejoice in the glorious prospect set bsfore them. See liody on the Resurrection; Pear
son en the Creed; Lime Street Lectser. 10; IVatts's Ontology; Young3* Last Day; Locke on the Understand' ing, 1. ii. c- 27; Warburton's Legation of Moses, vol. ii. p. 553, &c. Bishop Newton's Works, vol iii. j>. 676, 683.
RESURRECTION OF CHRIST. Few articles arc more important than this. It deserves our particular attention, because it is the grand hinge on which Christianity turns. Hence, says the apostle, he was delivered for our offences, and raised again for our justification. Infidels, however, have disbelieved it, but with what little reason we may easily see on considering the subject. "If the body of Jesus Christ," says Saurin, '■ were not raised from the dead, it must have been stolen away. But this theft is incredible. Who committed it? The enemies of Jesus Christ? Would they have contributed to his glory by countenancing a report of his resurrection > Would his disciples r It is probable they would not, and it is next to certain they cou'd not. Howcould they have undertaken to remove the body r Frail and timorous creatures, people who fled as soon as they saw him taken into custody; even Peter, < the most courageous, trembled at the voice of a servant girl, and three times denied that he knew him. People of this character, would they have dared to resist the authority of the governor? Would they have undertaken to oppose the determination of the Sanhedrim, to force a guard, and to elude, or overcome, soldiers armed and aware of danger? If Jesus Christ were not risen again (I speak the language of unbelievers,) he had deceived his disciples with vain hopes of his resurrection. How came the disciples not to discover the imposture ? Would they have hazarded themselves by undertaking an enterprise so perilous in favour of a man who had so cruelly imposed on their credulity r But were we to grant that they formed the design of removing the body, how could they have executed it? How could soldiers armed, and on guard, suffer themselves to be over-reached, by a few timcrous people ? Either, says St. Augustine, they were asleep or awake: if they were awake, why should they suffer the body to be taken away? If asleep how could they know that the disciples took it away? How dare they then, defiosetfiat it Was Stolen.
The testimony of the apostles furnishes us with arguments, and there are eight considerations which give the evidence sufficient weight. 1, The nature of these witnesses. They were not men of power, riches, eloquence, credit, to impose upon the world; they were poor and mean.—-. The number of these witnesses. See 1 Cor. xv. Luke, xxiv. 34. Mark, xvi. 14. Matt, xxviii. 10. It is not likely that a collusion should have been held among, so many |I to support a lie, which would be of no; utility to them.—3. The tacts them-! selves which they avow; not suppoii-; tions, distant events, or events related]! by others, but real facts which they saw with their own eyes, 1 John, i.—4. The agreement of their evidence: they j all deposed the same thing.—5. Observe j the tribunals before which they gave evidence : Jews and heathens, philosophers and rabbins, courtiers and law-jyers. If they had been impostors, the( fraud certainly would have been dis j covered.—6. The place in which they bare their testimony. Not at a distance,' where they might not easily have been j detected, if false, but at Jerusalem, in; the synagogues, in the pretorium.—7.1. The time of this testimony: not years | after, but three days after, they dc-', clared he was risen; yea, before their I rage was quelled, while Caivary was' yet dyed with the blood they had spilt.: If it had been a fraud, it is not likely they would have come forward in such! broad day-light, amidst so much opposition.—8. Lastly, the motives which;; induced them to publish the resurrection : not to gain fame, riches, glory, profit; no, they exposed themselves to suffering and death, and proclaimed the j truth from conviction of its importance: and certainty.
"Collect," s:iys Saurin, "all these! proofs together; consider them in one point of view, and see how many extra- | vagant suppositions must be advanced, if the resurrection of cur Saviour be de-1! nied. It must be supposed that guards, who had been particularly cautioned by their officers, sat down to sleep; and that, however, they deserved credit when they said the body of Jesus Christ was stolen. It must be supposed that men, who have becti imposed on in the most odious and cruel manner in the world, hazarded their dearest enjoyments for the glory of an impostor. It must be supposed that ignorant and illiterate men, who had neither reputation, fortune, nor eloquence, possessed the art of fascinating tlie eyes of all the church. It must be supposed either! that five hundred persons were all de-j prived of their senses at a time, or that they were all deceived in the plainest j matters of fact; or that this multitude i of false witnesses had found out the ae-'
cret of never contradicting themselves or one another, and of being always uniform in their testimony. It must be Supposed that the most expert courts of judicature could not find out a shadow of contradiction in a palpable imposture. It must be supposed that the apostles, sensible men in other cases, chose precisely those places and those times which were m. st unfavourable to their views. It must be supposed that millions madly suffered imprisonments, tortures, and crucifixions to spread an illusion. It must be supposed that ten thousand miracles were wrought in favour of falsehood, or all these facts must be denied ; and then it must be supposed that the apostles were idiots; that the enemies of Christianity were idiots; and that all the primitive Christians were idiots."
The doctrine of the resurrection of Christ affords us a variety of useful instructions. Here we see evidence of divine power; prophecy accomplished; the character of Jesus established; his work finished; and a future state proved. It is a ground of faith, the basis of hope, a source of consolation, and a stimulus to obedience. See Saurin's Sermons, ser. 8. vol. ii. Robinson's Translation ; Dillon and West on the Resurrection; Cook's Illustration of the general evidence establishing the reality of Christ's resurrection, p. 323, Ecc. Kev. vol. 4. but especially a small but admirable Essay on the Resurrection of Christ, by Mr. Dore.
RETIREMENT, the state of a person who quits a public station in order to be alone. Retirement is of great advantage to a wise roan. To him " the hour of solitude is the hour of meditation. He communes with his own heart. He reviews the actions of his past life, He corrects what is amiss. He re» joices in what is right: and, wiser by experience, lays the plan of his future life. The great and the noble, the wise and the learned, the pious and the good, have been lovers of serious retirement. On this field the patriot forms his schemes, the philosopher pursues his discoveries, the saint improves himself in wisdom and goodness. Solitude is the hallowed ground which religion in every age has adopted as its own. There her sacred inspiration is felt, and her holy mysteries elevate the soul; there devotion lifts up the voice ; there falls the tear of contrition; there the heart pours itself forth before him who made, and him who redeemed it. Apart from men, we live with nature, and converse with God."Logan's Sermons, vol.