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i on the doctrines of the sect; the audience, in the mean time, remaining in perfect silence, and occasionally expressing their attention and approbation by a nod. The chapel where they met was divided into two apartments, one for the men, and the other for the women. So strict a regard was paid to silence in these assemblies, that no one was permitted to whisper, nor even to breathe aloud ; but when the discourse was finished, if the question which had been proposed for solution had been treated to the satisfaction of the audience, they expressed their approbation by a murmur of applause. Then the speaker, rising, sung a hymn of praise to God ; in the last verse of which the whole assembly joined On great festivals, the meeting was closed with a vigil, in which sacred music was performed, accompanied with solemn dancing; and these vigils wefe continued till morning, when the assembly, after a morning prayer, in which their faces were directed towards the rising sun, was broken up. So abstemious were these ascetics, that they commonly ate nothing before the setting sun. and often fasted two or three da>s. They abstained from wine, and their ordinary food was bread and herbs.
Much dispute has arisen among the learned concerning this sect Some have imagined them to have been Jtidaizing Gentiles ; but Philo supposes them to be Jews, by speaking of them as a branch of the sect of Essenes, and expressly classes them among the followers of Moses Others have maintained, that the Therapeutic were an Alexandrian sect of Jewish converts to the Christian faith, who devoted themselves to a monastic life. But this is impossible ; for Philo, who wrote before Christianity appeared in Egypt.speaks of this as an established sect. From comparing Philo's account of this sect with the state of philosophy in the country where it flourished, it seems likely that the Therapeutic were a body of Jewish fanatics, who suffered themselves to be drawn aside from the simplicity of their ancient religion by the example of the Egyptians and Pythagoreans. How long this sect continued is uncertain; but it is not improbable that, after the appearance of Christianity in Egypt, it soon became extinct.
THOUGHT, an image of any thing formed in the mind ; sentiment, reflection, opinion, design. As the thoughts are the prime movers of the conduct; as in the sight of the Divine Being they iiear the character of good or evil; and
may be said to be lost when it is not devoted to some good, useful, or at least some innocent purpose; or when opportunities of improvement, business, or devotion, are neglected. Time is wasted by excessive sleep, unnecessary recreations, indolent habits, useless visits, idle reading, vain conversation, and all those actions which have no good end in them. We ought to improve the time, when we consider, 1. That it is short. —2 Swift.—3. Irrecoverable.—4. Uncertain.—5. That it is a talent committed to our trust—And, 6 That the improvement of it is advantageous and interesting in every respect. See Shower on Time and Eternity; Fox on Time ; J. Edwards's Posthumous Sermons, ser 24, 25, 26; Hale's Contemplations, p. 211; Hervey'a Meditations; Young's JVight Thoughts; Blair's Grave.
TOLERATION, in matters of religion, is either civil or ecclesiastical. Civil toleration is an impunity, and safely granted by the state to every sect that does not maintain doctrines inconsistent with the public peace. Ecclesiastical toleration is the allowance which the church grants to its members to differ in certain opinions not reputed es sential. See Dr. Owen, Locke, and Dr Furneaux,on Toleration; Milton's Vi vil Power in Eccleniast.cal Causes; Hints on Toleration, by Philagalharches; Reflexions Philosofihu/ues el Politiques sur la Tolerance Retigieusc, liar J. P De A1"***
TOLERATION ACT, an act for exempting their Majesties' Protestant Subjects, dissenting from the Church of England, from the Penalties of certain Laws.
The preamble states, " That forasmuch as some ease to scrupulous consciences, in the exercise of religion, may be an effectual means to unite their Majesties' Protestant Subjects in interest and affection," it enacts as follows: viz.
Sect. II. That neither the statute made in the 23d of Elizabeth, intituled "An act to retain the Queen's Majesty's Subjects in their due obedience;" nor the statute made in the 20th year of the said Queen, " for the more speedy and due execution of certain branches of the former act;" nor that clause of a statute made in the 1st year of the said Queen, intituled "An act fer the Uniformity of Common Prayer," &c. whereby all persons are required to resort to their parish church or chapel, upon pain of punishment by the censures of the church ; and also upon pain
that every person so offending, shall forfeit forevery such offence twelve pence; nor the statute made in the 3d year cf the late King James, intituled " An act for the better discovering and repressing Popish Recusants ;" nor that other statute, intituled "An act to prevent and avoid dangers which may grow by Popish Recusants;" nor any other law or statute of this realm rnide against I'apists or Popish Recusants, shall be construed to extend to any person or persons dissenting from the Church of England, that shall take the oaths (of allegiance and supremacy) and shall make and subscribe the declaration (against Popery ;) which oaths and declaration the justices of the peace at the general sessions of the peace for the county, or place where such persons shall live, are hereby required to administer to such persons as shall offer themselves to make and subscribe the same, and thereof to keep a register; and likewise, none of the persons aforesaid shall give or pay, as any fee or reward, to any officer belonging to the court, above the'sum of six-pence, for his entry "of his taking the said oaths, &c. nor above the further sum of sixpence for any certificate of the same.
Si-ct. IV. That every person that shall take the said oaths and make and subscribe the declaration aforesaid, shall not lie liable to any pains, penalties, or forfeitures, mentioned in an act made in the 35th of the late Queen Elizabeth nor in an act made in the 22d of Charles the Second, intituled "An act to prevent and suppress Seditious Conventicles ;" nor shall any of the said persons be prosecuted in any ecclesiastical court for their nonconforming to the Church of England.
Sect. V. Provided that if any assembly of persons, dissenting from the Church of England, shall be held in any place for religious worship with the doors locked, barred, or bolted, during any time of such meeting together, such persons shall not receive any benefit from this law, but be liable to all the pains and penalties of all the aforesaid laws.
Sect. VI. Provided that nothing herein contained shall be construed to exempt any of the persons aforesaid from paying of tythes, or other parochial duties; nor from any prosecution in any ecclesiastical court or elsewhere, for the same.
Sect. VII. That if any person dissenting, Sec. as aforesaid, shall hereafter be chosen high constable, or petit constable, church-warden, overseer of the poor, or any other parochial or ward i officer, and such person shall scruple to tike upon him any of the said offices, in; regard of the oaths, or any oilier matter or thing required by the law to be, taken or done in respect of such office <very such person shall and may execute such office by a sufficient deputy, that shall comply with the laws on this behalf.
Sect. VIII'That no person dissenting from the church of England in holy ordtra, or pretended holy orders, or pretending to holy orders, nor any preacher or teacher of any congregation of Dissenting Proie.stants.lUatshaW make and subscribe the declaration aforesaid, and take tin- said oaths at the General or Quarter sessions of the Peace, to be held for the county, town, parts, or division where such person lives, which court is hereby impowered to administer the same, and shalI also declare his approbation of and subscribe the Articles of Religion mentioned in the statute made in the 13th of Q Elizabeth, except the 34th, 35th, and 36th. and these words in the 2uth article ; vjz. "The church hath power to decree rites or ceremonies, and authority in controversies of faith,"—shall be liable to any of the pains or penalties mentioned in former acts.
Sect. X. recites, That some Dissent ins Protestants scruple the baptizing of infants; Rnd then pruceuls to enact, That every person in pretended holy orders, &c. 8cc that sliail subscribe the aforesakl Articles ot Religion, except before excepted, and also except part of the 27th article touching infant baptism, and sliail take the said oaths, &c gcc. shall enjoy all the privileges, benefit, and advantages which any other Dissenting Minister might enjoy.
Sect. XI. That every teacher or [ preacher in holy orders, or pretended holy orders, that is, a minister, preach er, or teacher of a congregation, that! shill take the oaths herein required, and make and subscribe the declaration' aforesaid, &c. 8cc. shall be exempted from serving upon any jury, or trom j being appointed to bear the office of I chuichwarden, overseer of the poor, or any other parochial or ward office, or other i ffice in any hundred of any shire, city, toy»n, parish, division, or wapentake
Sort. XII. That every justice of the peace may, at any time, require any p rson that gois to any meeting for exercise of religion, to make and sub scribe the declaration aforesaid, and also to take the said oaths or declara
tion of fidelity hereinafter mentioned i in case such person scruples the taking of an oath, and upon refusal, such justice of the peace is required to cornet such person to prison, and to certify the name of such person to the next General or Quarter Sessions of the Peace, &c.
Sect. XIII. recites. That there are certain otlier Dissenters who scruple the taking of any oath ; and then proceeds to enact, That every such person shall make and subscribe the aforesaid declaration, and also this declaration of fidelity following; viz. "I. A. B. do sincerely promise and solemnly declare, l>efore God and the world, that I wi/i be true and faithful to King Wiiiiam and Queen Mary; and I do solemnly profess and declare, that I do from my heart abhor, detest, and renounce, as impious and heretical, that damnable doctrine and position, That princes excommunicated or deprived by the Pope, or any authority of the see of Rome, may be deposed or murthered by tbrir subjects, or any other whatsoever;ad I do dtclare. That no foreign prince, person,prelate,state,or potentate, hath, or ouj;ht to have, any power, jurisdiction, superiority, pre-eminence, or authority, ecclesiastical or spiritual, within this realm;" and shall subscribe a profession of their Christian belief in these words; "I. jl. B. pro/ess faith in God the Father, and in Jesus Christ his eternal Son, the true God, and in the H >ly Spirit, one God blessed for evermore; and do acknowledge the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be Riven by divine inspiration:" —which declarations and subscriptions shall be entered of record at the General Quarter Sessions, &c. and every such person shall be exempted from ail the pains and penalties of all and every the aforementioned statutes. Sec.
Sect XVI, Provided. That all the laws made and provided for the frequcnting of divine service on the Lord's Day, commonly culled Sunday, shall be still in force, and executed against all persons that offend against the said laws, except such persons come to some congregation or assembly of religiets worship, allowed or permitted by this act.
Sect. XVII. Provided, That neither this act, nor any clause, article, or thing herein contained, shall extend, or be construed to extend, to give any ease, benefit, or advantage to any Papist or Popish Recusant whatsoever, or any person that shall deny in his preaching or writing the doctrine of the blessed Trinity, as it is declared in the aforesaid Articles of Religion,
Sect. XVIII. Provided, That if any person or persons do and shall willingly, maliciously, or contemptuously, come into any cathedral or parish-church, chapel, or other congregation permitted by this act, and disquiet or disturb the same, or misuse any preacher or teacher, such person or persons, upon proof thereof before any justice of the peace, by two or more sufficient witnesses, shall find two sureties, to be bound by recognizance in the penal sum of 50/ and in default of such sureties, shall be committed to prison, there to remain till the next General or Quarter Sessions ; and, upon conviction of the said offence at the said General or Quarter Sessions, shall suffer the pain and penalty of 20/. to the use of the Ring's and Queen's Majesties, their hciisaiid successors.
Sect. XIX. That no congregation or assembly for religious wors ip shall he permitted or allowed by this act until the place of such meeting shall lie certified to the Bishop of the diocese, or to the Archdeacon of that archdeaconry, or to the justices of the peace at the General or Quarter Sessions of the peac,e for the county, city, or p'ace in which such meeting shall be held, and registered in the said Bishop's or Archdeacon's court respectively, or recorded at the said General or Quarter Sessions; the registeror clerk of the peace' whereof respectively is hereby required to register the same, and to give certificate thereof to such person as sha 1 demand the same; for which there shall be no greater fee or reward taken than the sum of six pence."
Lord Sidmouth has lately attempted to introduce a bill in the House of Lords, proposing some amendment or explanation of this famous Act, in order to prevent abuses; but the fact appeared to be the prevention of Sectarianism by means of itinerant preachers ; and to clog the exertions of those who wish to instruct their neighbours. Vast numbers of petitions from all parts of the country were presented against the bill; So that when it was brought forward on May 21, 1811 (after a considerable discussion,) the question for a second reading was put and negatived without a division The bill was therefore thrown out. It is to be hoped that this will be the last effort ever made to infringe the Act of Toleration.
TONGUE, Duties Of The. "1. To glorify God by magnifying his name. —2. To sin^ his praises —3. To dec'are
to others God's goodness.—4. To pray to him for what we want.—S. To make open profession of our subjection to him. —6. To preach his word.—7. To defend the truth.—8. To exhort men to particular duties 9. To confess our sins
to God—10. To crave ihe advice of
others 11. To praise that which is
good in others.—12. To beat1 witness to the truth.—13. To dtfmd the cause of the innocent and just. —14. To communicate to others the same good impressions we have received."
TONGUES, GIFT OF. S^e Gift Of Tongues
TRADITION, something handed down from one generation to another. Thus the Jews pretended that, bes;des their written law contained in the Old Testament, Moseshaddelivend an oral law, which had been conveyed down from father to son; and thus the Roman Catholics are said to value particular doctrines, supposed to have descended from the apostolic times by tradition.
TRANSLATION, in the ecclesiastical sense of the word, is the removing of a bishop from one r.ec to another. It is also ustd for the versi n of a book or writing into a different language from that in which it was written.
In translating the Scri/itures, great knowledge and caution are necessary. Dr. Campbell fays down three fundamental rules for translating: 1. The translation should givea complete transcript of the ideas of the original—2. The style and manner of the original should be preserved.—3. The translation should have all the ease of original composition. He observes that the difficulties found i-i translating the Scriptures arise, 1. From the singulaiity of Jewish customs—2 From the poverty (as appears) of thi ir native language.— 3. From the fewness of the hooks extant in it.—4. From the symbolical style of the prophets.—5. From the excessive influence whic'i a previous acquaintance with translations have occasioned.— And 6. Fr m pre possessions, in what way soevir acquired, in regard to religious tenets
Notwithstanding these difficu'ties, however, the divines employed bv King James to translate the ()Jd and New Testaments have given us a translation which, with a very few exceptions, can scarcely l>e improved. These divines were profoundly skilled in the learning as well as in the languages of the East; whilst some of those who have presumed to improve their version, seem not to have possessed a critical koowkdge of^. the Greek tongue, to have knewn still less of the Hebrew, and to have been absolute strangers to the diafrct spoken in Judea in the days r,f our Saviour, as well as to the manners, customs, and peculiar opinions of the Jewith sects. "Neither," as one observes, "metaphysical acuteness, nor the most perfect knowledge of the principles of translation in general, will enable a man who is ignorant of these things to improve the authorized version either of the Gospels or Epistles , for such a man knows not accurately, and therefore cannot give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work" See Bible; Mr. Tytler's Essoy on the Principles of Translation; and Or Camjibell's Preliminary Dissertations to his translation of the Gos/iels.
TRANSUBSTANTIATION, the conversion or change of the substance of the bread and wine in the tucharist into the body and blood of Jesus Christ, which the Romish church suppose to be wrought by the consecration of the priest. Nothing can be more contradictory to Scripture, or to common sense, than this doctrine. It must be evident to every one who is not blinded by ignorance and prejudice, that our Lord's wards, " This is my bi dy," are mere figurative expressions: besides, such a transubstantiation is so opposite to the testimony of our senses, as completely to undermine the whole proof of all the miracles by which God hath confirmed revelation. According to such a transubstantiation, the same body is alive and dead at once, and may be in a million of different places whole and entire at the same instant of time; accidents remain without a substance, and substance without accidents; and that a part of Christ's body is equal to the whole. It is aso contrary to the end of the sacrament, which is to represent a,)d commemurate Christ, not to believe that he is corporeally present 1 Cor. ix. 24, 25. But we need not waste time in attempting to refute a doctrine which by its impious consequences refutes itself. See Smith's -Errors of the Church of Rome, dial. 6 ,• A Dialogue between Philalethes and Benevolus ; Kidder's Messiah, part iii.p. 80; and Brown's Comficndium, p. 613
TRENT, Council of. denotes the council assembled by Paul III. in 1545. and continued by twenty-five sessions till the year 1563, under Julius III and Pius IV. in order to correct, illustrate, and fix with perspicuity, the doctrine of the church, to restore the vigour of its discipline, and to reform tha'
lives of its ministers. The decrees of this council, together with the creed of pope Pius IV. contain a summary of the doctrines of the K' man Catholics. See Mosheim's Church History; The Modern Universal History, vol. 23 ; Fro. Paolo Sar/ii's. and Father Paul's Histories of the Council of Trent.
TRIERS, a society of ministers, witfi some others, chosen by Cromwell to sit at Whitehall. They were mostly Independents, though some Presbyterians were joined with them. They had power to try all that came for institution and induction; and without their approbation none were admitted- They examined all who were able to come up to London ; but if any were unable, or of doubtful qualifications, they referred them to some ministers in the county where they lived. They rejected aU those who did not live according to their profession, and placed in their room able serious preachers who lived godly lives, though of different opinions.
TKlNITARIANS.those whobe&te in the Trinity, K»e next article, iti the 162d Lee. of Doddridge, where the reader will find a statement of the opinions of the ancients on this doctrine, as likewise many of the moderns ; such as Baxter, Dr. Clarke, Burnet.Howe, Waterland. Taylor, Pearson, Bull, YVallis, Watts, and Jeremy Taylor.
TRINI ['Y, the union of three in one; generally applied to the ineffable mystery of three persons in one God,—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. This doctrine is rejected by many oceans* it n incomprehensible; but, as Mr. Scott observes, if distinct personality. agency, and divine fierfictions, be in Scripture ascribed to the Father, and to the Sen, and to the Holy Spirit, no words can more exactly express the doctrine, which must unavoidably be thence inferred, than those commonly used on this subject, viz. that there are three distinct Persons in the Unity of the Godhead. The sacred oracles most assuredly teach us, that the One living and true God is, iu some inexplicable manner, Triune, for he is spoken of, as One in some respects, and as Three in others, Gen. i 26. Gen. ii. 6, 7. Is. xlviii. 16. Is. xxxiv 16. 2 Cor. xiii. 14. John, xiv. 23. Matt, xxviii. 19. 2 Thess. iii.3. 1 John, v. 7. Acts, v. 3, 4. The Trinity of Persons in the Deity consists with the Unity of the Divine Essence; though we pretend not to explain the mo<!us cf it, and deem those reprehensible who have attempted it; as the modiu in which any being subsists, according to its distinct nature and known properties.