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most excellent in such a tongue (as the Apocrypha to Andrew Downs:) and then they met together, and one read the translation, the rest holding in their hands some Bible, either of the learned tongues, or French, or Spanish, or Italian, 8tc. If they found any fault, they spoke; if not. he read on. [King James's Bible is that now read by authority in all the churches in Britain.] Notwithstanding, however, the excellency of this translation, it must be acknowledged that our increasing acquaintance with oriental customs and manners, and the changes our language has undergone since king James's time, are very powerful arguments for a new translation, or at least a correction of the old one. There have been vario s English Bibles with marginal references by Canne, Hayes, Barker, Scattergood. Field, Tennison, Lloyd, Blayney, Wilson. &c.: but the best we have, perhaps, of this kind, are Brown's and Scott's.

25. Bibles, Ethiofxic. The E.th'10pians have also translated the Bible into their language- There have been printed separately the Psalms. Canticles, *ome chapters of Genesis, Kuth, Joel, Jonah, Zephaniah, Malachi, and the New Testament, all which have been since reprinted in the Polyglot of London As to the Ethiopic New Testament, which was first printed at Home in 1548, it is a very inaccurate work, and is reprinted in the English Polyglot with all its faults.

i6. Bibles, Flemish. The Flemish Bibles of the Romanists are very numerous, and for the most part have no author's name prefixed to them, till that of Nicholas Vinck, printed at Louvain in 1548. The Flemish versions made use of by the Calvinists till 3637, were copied principally from that of Luther. But the Synod of Dort having, in 1618, appointed a new translation of the Bible into Flemish, deputies were named for the work, which was not finished till 1637.

27. Bibles, French. The oldest French Bible we hear of is the version of Peter de Vaux, chief of the Waldenscs, who lived about the year 1160. Raoul de Preste translated the Bible into French in the reign of king Charles V. of France, about A. D. 1383. Besides these, there are several old French translations of particular parts of the Scripture. The doctors of Louvain published the Bible in French at Louvain, by order of the emperor Charles V. in 1550. There is a version by Isaac le Maitre de Sacy,

published in 1672, with explanations of the literal and spiritual meaning of the text; which was received with wonderful applause, and has often been re?rinted. Of the New Testaments in rench, which have been printed separately, one of the most remarkable is that of F. Amelotte, of the Oratory, composed by the direction of some French prelates, and printed with annotations in 1666, 1667, and 1670. The author pretends he had searched all the libraries in Europe, and collated the oldest manuscripts; but, in examining his work, it appears that he has produced no considerable various readings which had not before been taken notice of either in the London Polyglot; or elsewhere. The New Testament of Mons, printed in 1665, with the archbishop of Cambray's permission, and the king of Spain's licence, made great noise in the world. It was condemned by pope Clement IX. in 1668; by pope Innocent XI. in 1669; and in I several bishoprics of France at several I times. The New Testament, published at Trevoux, in 170!, by M. Simon, with literal and critical annotations upon difficult passages, was condemned by the bishops of Paris and Meaux in 1702. F. Bohours, a Jesuit, with the assistance of F. F. Michael Tellier and Peter Bernier, Jesuits, likewise published a translation of the New Testament in 1697; but this translation is for the most part harsh and obscure, which was owing to the author's adhering too strictly to the Latin text. There are likewise French translations published by Protestant authors; one by Robert Peter Olivetan. printed in 1535, and often reprinted with the corrections of John Calvin and others j another by Sebastian Castalio, remarkable for particular ways of ex pression never used bv good judges of the language. John Diodati likewise published a French Bible at Geneva in 1644; but some find fault with his method, in that he rather paraphrases the text than translates it. Faber Stapalensis translated the New Testament into French, which was revised and accommodated to the use of the reformed churches in Piedmont, and printed in 1534. Lastly, John le Clerc published a New Testament in French at Amsterdam, in 1703, with annotations taken chiefly from Grotius and Hammond; but the use of this version was prohibited by order of the states-general, as tending to revive the errors of Sabellius and Socinus. 28. Bibles, German. The first and most ancient translation of the Bible in the German language is that of UlphiJas, bishop of tne Goths, in the ^ear 360. \n imperfect manuscript of this version was found in ihe abbey of Verden, near Cologne, written in letters of silver, for which reason it is called Codex Argenieus; and it waspublished by Francis Junius in 1665. The oldest German pruned Bible extant is that of Nuremburg, in 1447; but who was the author of it is uncertain. John Emzer, chaplain to George duke of Saxony, published a version of the New Testament in opposition to Luther. There is a German Bible of John Ekeus in 1537, with Emzer's New Testament added to it; and one by Uleinburgius of Westphalia, procured by Ferdinand duke of Bavaria and printed in 1630. Martin Luther having employed eleven years in translating the Old and New Testaments, published the Pentateuch and the New Testament in 1522, the historical books and the Psalms in 1524, the books of Solomon in, 1527, Isaiah in 1529, the Prophets in 1531, and the other books in 1530. The learned agree that his language is pure, and the version clear and ;ree from intricacies. It was revised by several persons of quality, who were masters of all the delicacies of the German language. The German Bibles which have been printed at Saxony, Switzerland, and elsewhere, are, for the most part, the same as that of Luther, with little variation. In 1604, John Piscator published a version of the Bible in German taken from that of Junius and Tremellius; but his turn of expression is purely Latin, and not at all agreeable to the genius of the German language. The Anabaptists have a German Bible printed at Worms in 1529. John Crellius published his version of the New Testament at Racovia in 1630, and Felbinger his at Amsterdam in 1660.

29. Bibles, Greek. There are many editions of the Bible in Greek. but they may be all reduced to three or four principal ones; viz. that of Complutum, or Alcala de Henares; iliat of Venice, that of Rome, and that of Oxford. The first was published in 1515 by cardinal Xinienes, and inserted in the Pol)glot Bible, usually called the Complutensian Bible: this edition is not just, the Greek of the LXX being altered in many places according to the Hebrew text. It has, however, been reprinted in the Polyglot Bible of Antwerp in that of Paris, and in the quarto Bible commonly called Vata

blus's Bible. The second Greek Bible is that of Venice, printed by Aldus in 1518. Here the Greek text of the Septuagint is reprinted just as it stood in the manuscript, full of faults of the copyists, but easily amended. This edition was reprinted at Strasburg in 1526, at Basil in 1545, at Frankfort in 1597, and other places, with some alterations, to bring it nearer the Hebrew. The most commodious is that of Frankfort, there being added to this little scholia, which -hew the different interpretations of the old Greek translators. The author of this collection has not added his name, but it is commonly ascribed to Junius. The third Greek Bible is that of Rome, or the Vatican, in 1587, with Greek scholia, collected from the manuscripts in the Roman libraries by Peter Morin. It was first set on foot by cardinal Montalbo, afterwards pope Sixtus V. This fine edition has been reprinted at Paris in 1628, by J. Morin, priest of the Oratory, who has added the Latin translation, which in the Roman was printed separately wiih scholia. The Greek edition of Rome has been printed in the Polyglot Bible of London, to which arc added at the bottom the various readings of the Alexandrian manuscript. This has been also reprinted in England, in 4to. and 12mo. with some alterations. It was again published at Franeker, in 1709, by Bos, who has added all the various readings he could find. The fourth Greek Bible is that done from the Alexandrian manuscript begun at Oxford by Grabe in 1707. In this the Alexandrian manuscript is not printed such as it is, but such as it was thought it should be, i. e. it is altered wherever there appeared any fault of the copyists, or any word inserted from any particular dialect: this some think an excellence, but others a fault, urging that the manuscript should have been given absolutely and entirely of itself, and all conjectures as to the readings should have been thrown into the notes. We have many editions of the Greek Testament by Erasmus, Stephens, Beza; that in the Complutensian Polyglot, the Elzevirs, &c.; and with various readings by Mill. Bengeiius, Wetstein, &c. 1 hose of Wetstein and Griesbach, are thought by some to exceed all the rest.

30. Bibi.es, Hebrew, are either manuscript or printed. The best manuscript Bibles are those copied by the Jews of Spain: those copied by the I Jews of Germany are less exact, but more common. The two kinds are easily distinguished from each other; the former being in beautiful characters, like the Hebrew Bibles of UorabergvStevens, and Plantin: the latter in characvers like those of Minister and Gryphius. F. Simon observes, that the oldest manuscript Hebrew Bibles are not above six or seven hundred years old; nor docs Kabbi Menaham, who quotes a vast number of them, pretends that any one of them exceeds 600 years. Dr. Kennicott, in his Dissertatio Generalis, prefixed to his Hebrew Bible, p. 21, observes, that the most ancient manuscripts were written between the years 900 and 1100; but though those that are the most ancient are not more than 800 or 900 years old, tliey were transcribed from others of a much more ancient date. The manuscript preserved in the Bodleian Library is not less than 800 years old. Another manuscript not less ancient, is preserved in the Cxsarian Library at Vienna. The most ancient printed Hebrew Bibles are those published by the Jews of Italy, especially of Pesaro and Bresse. 1'hose of Portugal also printed some parts of the Bible at Lisbon before their expulsion. This may be observed in general, that the best Hebrew Bibles are those printed under the inspection of the Jews; there being so many minutix to be observed in the Hebrew language, that it is scarcely possible for any other tp succeed in it. In the beginning of the 16th century, Dan. Bomberg printed several Hebrew Bibles in folio and quarto at Venice, most of which were esteemed both by the Jews and Christians: the first in 1517, which is the least exact, and generally goes by the name of Felix Pratensis, xhe person who revised it: this edition contains the Hebrew text, the Targum. and the commentaries of several rabbins. In 1S28, Bomberg printed the folio Bible of rabbi Benchajim, with his preface, the masoretical divisions, a preface of Aben Ezra, a double masora, and several various readings. The third edition was printed, 1618, the same with the second, but much more correct. From the former editions, Buxtorf, the father, printed his rabbinical Hebrew Bible at Basil, in 1618 . which, though there are many faults in it, is more correct than any of the former. In 1623, appeared at Venice a new edition of the rabbinical Bible, by Leo of Modcna, a rabbin of that city, who pretended to have corrected a great number of faults in the former edition; but, besides that,

it is much inferior to the other Hebrew Bibles of Venice, with regard to paper and print: it has passed through the hands of the Inquisitors, who have altered many passages in the commentaries of the Rabbins. Of Hebrew Bibles in quarto, that of R. Stephens is esteemed for the beauty of the characters: but it is very incorrect. Plantin also printed several beautiful Hebrew Bibles at Antwerp ; one in eight columns, with a preface by Arias Montanus, in 1571, which far exceeds the Complutensian in paper, print, and contents: this is called the Royal Bible, because it was printed at the expense of Philip H. king of Spain: another at Geneva, 1619, besides many more of different sizes, with and without points. Manasseh Ben Israel, a learned Portuguese Jew, published two editions of the Hebrew Bible at Amsterdam; one in quarto in 1635; the other in octavo, in 1639: the first has two columns, and for that reason is more commodious for the reader. In 1639, R. Jac. Lombroso published a new edition in quarto at Venice, with small literal notes at the bottom of each page, where he explains the Hebrew words by Spanish words. 'ITiis Bible is much esteemed by the Jews at Constantinople: in the text they have distinguished between words where the point camels is to be read with a camcts katufih; that is, by o, and not an a. Of all the editions of the Hebrew Bible in octavo, the most beautiful and correct arc the two of J. Athias, a Jew of Amsterdam. The first, of 1661, is the best paper; but that of 1667 is the most exact. That, howevw, published since at Amsterdam, by Vander Hnoght, in 1705, is preferable to both. After Athias, three Hebraizing Protestants engaged in revising and publishing the Hebrew Bible, viz. Clodius, Jablonski, andOpitius. Clodius's edition was published at Frankfort, in 1677, in quarto: at the bottom of the pages it has the various readings of the iormer editions; but the author does not appear sufficiently versed in the accenting, especially in the poetical books; besides, as it was not published under his eye, many faults have crept in. That of Jablonski, in 1699, in quarto, at Berlin, is very beautiful as to letter and print; but, though the editor pretends he made use of the editions of Athias and Clodius, some critics find it scarcely in any thing different from the quarto edition of Bomberg. That of Opitius is also in quarto, at Keil, in 1709: the character is large and good, but the paper bad: it is done with a great deal of care; but the editor made use of no manuscripts but those of the German libraries, neglecting the French ones, which is an omission common to all the three. They have this advantage, however, that, besides the divisions used by the jews, both general and particular, into paraakea and fieaukim, they have also those of the Christians, or of the Latin Bibles, into chapters and verses, the km ketib, or various readings, Latin summaries, &c. which made them of considerable use with respect to the Latin editions and the concordances. The little Bible of R. Stevens, in 16mo. is very much prized for the beauty of the character. Care, however, must be taken, there being another edition of Geneva exceedingly like it, excepting that the print is worse, and the text less correct. To these may be added some other Hebrew Bibles without points, in 8vo. and 24mo. which are much coveted by the Jews; not that they are more exact, but more portable than the rest, and are used in their synagogues and schools. Of these there are two beautiful editions; the one of Plantin, in 8vo. with two columns, and the other in 24mo. reprinted by Raphalengius, at Leyden, in 1610. There is also an edition of them by Laurens, at Amsterdam, in 1631, in a larger character; and another in 12mo, at Frankfort, in 1694, full of faults, with a preface of Mr. Leusden at the head of it. Houbigant published an elegant edition of the Hebrew Bible at Paris, in 1753, in 4 vols, folio: the text is that of Vander Hooght, without points; to which he has added marginal notes, supplying the variations of the Samaritan copy. Dr. Kennicott, after almost twenty years' laborious collation of near 600 copies, manuscripts and printed, either of the whole or particular parts of the Bible, published the Hebrew Bible in 2 vols, folio: the text is that of Everard Vander Hooght, already mentioned, differing from it only in the disposition of the poetical parts, which Dr. Kennicott has printed in hemistichs, into which they naturally divide themselves; however, the words follow one another in the same order as they do in the edition of Vander Hooght. This edition is printed on an excellent type: the Samaritan text, according to the copy in the London Polyglot, is exhibited in a column parallel with the Hebrew text; those parts of it only being introduced in which it differs from the Hebrew. The numerous variations, both of the Samaritan manuscript from the printed copy

of the Samaritan texts, and of the Hebrew manuscripts from the printed text of Vander Hooght, are placed separately at the bottom of the page, and marked with numbers referring to the copies from which they are taken. Four quarto volumes of various readings have also been published by De Rossi, of Parma, from more than 400 manuscripts (some of which are said to be of the seventh or eighth century,) as well as from a considerable number of rare and unnoticed editions. An edition of Reineccius's Hebrew Bible, with readings from Kennicott and De Rossi, has been published by Dodderlein, and will be found a useful work to the Hebrew student.

31. Bibles, Italian. The first Italian Bible published by the Romanists is that of Nicholas Malerme, a Benedictine monk, printed at Venice in 1471. It was translated from the Vulgate. The version of Anthony Brucioli, published at Venice in 1532, was prohibited by the council of Trent. The Calvinists likewise have their Italian Bibles. There is one of John Diodati in 1607 and 1641; and another of Maximus Theophilus, in 1551, dedicated to Francis de Medicis, duke of Tuscany. The Jews of Italy have no entire version of the Bible in Italian; the Inquisition constantly refusing to allow them the liberty of printing one.

32. Bibles, Latin, however numerous, may be all reduced to three classes; the ancient Vulgate, called also Italica, translated from the Greek Septuagint; the modern Vulgate, the greatest part of which is done from the Hebrew text; and the new Latin translations, done also from the Hebrew text, in the sixteenth century. We have nothing remaining of the ancient Vulgate, used in the primitive times in the western churches, but the Psalms, Wisdom, and Ecclesiastes. Nobilius has endeavoured to retrieve it from the works of the ancient Latin fathers; but it was impossible to do it exactly, because most of the fathers did not keep close to it in their citations. As to the modern Vulgate, there are a vast number of editions verv different from each other. Cardinal Ximenes has inserted one in the Bible of Complutum, corrected and altered in many places. R. Stevens, and the doctors of Louvain, have taken great pains in correcting the modern Vulgate. The best edition of Stevens's Latin Bible is that of 1540, reprinted 1545,' in which are added on the margin the various readings of several Latin manuscripts which he had consulted. The doctors of Louvain revised the modern Vulgate after R. Stevens, and added the various readings of several Latin manuscripts. The t>est of the Louvain editions are those in which are added the critical notes of Francis Lucas, of Bruges. All these reformations of the Latin Bible were made before the lime of pope Sixtus V. and Clement VIII.; since which people hare not presumed to make any alterations, excepting in comments and separate notes. The correction of Clement VIII. in 1592, is now the standard throughout all the Romish churches: that pontiff made two reformations; but it is the first of them that is followed. From this the Bibles of Plantin were done, and from those of Plantin all the rest; so that the common Bibles have none of the after-corrections of the same Clement VIII. It is a heavy charge that lies on the editions of pope Clement, viz. that they have some new texts added, and many old ones altered, to countenance and confirm what they call the catholic doctrine There are a great number of Latin Bibles of the third class, comprehending the versions from the originals of the sacred books made within these 200 years. The first is that of Santes Pagniniis, a Dominican, under the patronage of Leo X. printed at L\ons, in quarto, in 1527, much esteemed by the Jews. This the author improved in a second edition. In 154J there was a beautiful edition of the same at Lyons, in folio, with scholia published under the name of Michael Villanova nus, i. e. Michael Servetus, author of the scholia. Those of Zurich, have likewise published an edition of Pagninus's Bible in quarto; and R. Stevens re

?rimed it in folio, with the Vulgate, in 557, pretending to give it more correct than in the former editions. There is also another edition of 1586, in four columns, under the name of Vatablus; and we find it again, in the Hamburg edition of the Bible, in four languages. In the number of Lai in Bibles is also usually ranked the version of the same Pagninus, corrected or rather rendered literal, by Arias Montanus; which correction being approved of by the doctors of Louvain, &c. was inserted in the Polyglot Bible of Philip II. and since in that of London. There have been various editions of this in folio, quarto, and octavo; to which have been added the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, and the Greek of the New. The best of them all is the first, which is in folio, 1571. Since the reformation, there have been several Latin versions of the Bible

from the originals by Protestants. The most esteemed are those of Munster, Leo Juda, Castalio, and Tremellius; the three last of which have been re

firinted various times. Munster pubished his version at Basil in 1534, which he afterwards revised: he published a correct edition in 1546. Castalio's fine Latin pleases most people; but there are some who think it affected: the best edition is that in 1573. Leo Juda's version, altered a little by the divines of Salamanca, was added to the ancient Latin edition, as published by R. Stevens, with notes, under the name of Vatablus's Bible, in 1545. It was condemned by the Parisian divines, but printed, with some alterations, by the Spanish divines of Salamanca. Those of Junius, Tremellius, and Beza, are considerably exact, and have undergone a great number of editions. We may add a fourth class of Latin Bibles, comprehending the Vulgate edition, corrected from the originals. The Bible of Isidorus Clarus is of this number; that author, not contented with restoring the ancient Latin copy, has corrected the translator in a great number of places which he thought ill rendered. Some Protestants have followed the same method; and, among others, Andrew and Luke Osiander, who have each published a new edition of the Vulgate, corrected from the originals.

33. Bibles, Muscovite. See Nos. 38 and 39.

34. Bibles, Oriental. See Nos. 12, 13. 15, 19, 20, 23, 35 41, 42.

35. Bibles, Persian. Some of the fathers seem to say that all the Scripture was formerly translated into ihc language of the Persians; but we have nothing now remaining of the ancient version, which was certainly done from theSeptuagint. The Persian Pentateuch, printed in the London Polyglot, is without doubt, the work of rabbi Jacob, a Persian Jew. It was published bv the Jews at Constantinople in 1551. In the same Polyglot we have likewise the four evangelists in Persian, with a Latin translation; but this appears very modern, incorrect, and of little use. Walton says, this version was written above fo'ir hundred years ago. Another version of the Gospels was published at Cambridge by Wheloc, in the seventeenth century. There are also two Persian versions of the Psalms made from the vulgar Latin.

36. Bibles, Polish. The first Polish version of the Bible, it is said, was that composed by Hadewich, wife of Jagelkm, duke of Lithuania, who embraced

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