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but the body is of Christ:" these words sufficiently prove that if the Mosaic dispensation is the shadowing forth of the Christian, that which gives life and being to the shadow, namely the light and the substance, are to be found in the latter. This parallel between the two is striking in its broad features, but if we descend to minute details it loses all its beauty and appropriateness. We can understand why St. Paul, a Hebrew of the Hebrews, profoundly versed in Jewish learning, writing to the converted Jews of Rome or Galatia, should dwell upon the parable, and show from it how much the Gospel excelled the Law. We can understand why amid the disputes and controversies which agitated the Corinthian church, he should adopt a like familiar argument. We can understand why the Epistle to the Hebrews, whose object is to show, how much the Messiah is superior to the ancient prophets, pontiffs, and patriarchs, should consist of a series of pictures or illustrations, in which the most glorious events in Jewish history, and the most admired personages of their nation, are represented as presages and forerunners of the Son of God; but to employ such examples as precedents for the minute parallelism in which some writers indulge, is in our opinion to set at defiance the rules of correct interpretation and sound criticism, and accommodate the Bible to a fancy and a system of our own. All is not type, all is not prophecy. Claude sees in the city of Zoar, where Lot retired, a type of the Church into which the just should fly from the flames of the Judgment-day, and in the fate of Lot's wife a portrait of the doom which awaits the worldly become like salt without savour, but we cannot see the propriety of such forced comparisons, which seem to us as unnatural as if we should find in the language of the Psalmist “Praise the Lord, all ye people," a prophecy referring to the calling of the Gentiles into the Church of Christ.
We have another objection to this system of straining the Old Testament into a constant type of the New. It gives us no information, it throws no light upon any difficult passage. We cannot believe for a moment, that the ancient Jews ever discovered the hidden meaning, which these modern critics attribute to their sacred books, theso are after discoveries, inventions subsequent to the events which they suppose to be typified. The first readers of Genesis, we are convinced, never thought of the Christian Church when they read the history of Lot and Zoar. Such interpretations as these reduce Theology to a level with the child's game called, " the Historical Puzzle ;" in it the players guess at the tale from a few isolated facts. Show us that a single enlightened Jew, before the coming of our Lord, has anticipated the parallel here drawn, between the Son of Jacob and the Son of God. You cannot—what then does such a parallel teach us? Nothing! No! The more we study revelation the more we discover how simple
it is, until human interference darkens and obscures it with vain interpretations. This simplicity is seen even in its prophecies, we therefore receive them as divine.
(To be continued.)
AMERICAN SLAVERY.-MRS. DANA'S LETTERS.
(To the Editor of the Irish Unitarian Magazine.)
Dear Sir, - In your Magazine for March last, there is a letter from Mrs. Dana to her parents, upon which I should like, with your kind permission, to offer a few remarks to your readers. I am the more anxious to do so because the Unitarians in these countries make the accession of this distinguished lady to our ranks a matter of congratulation, while I, if I be not mistaken in my apprehensions, feel that we should not derive any pleasure from such a connexion. Slavery and Christianity are irreconcilable enemies. A slave-holder cannot be a Christian. Jefferson, who lived and died a man-stealer, and whose own children were sold after his death, was so well satisfied of this truth that he said, he “trembled for his country when he reflected that God was just,” and “that God had no attribute that could take part with the slave-holder.”
Mrs. Dana lives in a slave state—she must, therefore, be an upholder of that system which' is at war with all that is great, and noble, and godlike in man’s nature-of that practice which, in the true and forcible language of the Unitarian protest against slavery, is “the greatest possible robbery, and the greatest possible wrong.” If this be Mrs. Dana's real position, and that she must be so involved if she be still a resident of Charleston, South Carolina, none of us can doubt, should we not rather regret that ours-the purest profession of Christianity-had been sullied by such a proselyte? The highest mental accomplishments bring no honour accompanied by a proslavery feeling. They, on the contrary, aggravate the criminality of the party, as no excuse can be offered, because of ignorance or any want of enlightenment. It seems to me clear, that Mrs. Dana, in order to prove the sincerity of her religious convictions, was bound simultaneously with the expression of her sentiments on that subject to give utterance to generous sentiments on behalf of the poor oppressed Negro ;-failing in this particular-I should say her accession to the ranks of Unitarianism was not a circumstance in which we should take pride. I suppose she is a beautiful writer. Judging from her letter to her parents—some of the sentiments from which I intend to transcribe-I should suppose her poetry must be matter of melancholy curiosity. I have heard it said, and I am sure it must be true, that sweet poesy finds no home where slavery is. Her spirit is the spirit of freedom-so that I doubt not if Mrs. Dana be a true poet, her soul must, in hours of inspiration, have wandered to regions where it could breathe freely, and that the thoughts it uttered, on such occasions, are but little in unison with the atmosphere of South Carolina. Even in prose she puts down words of the deepest censure on all who enslave their fellow-man, when she gives joyful utterance to her own emancipation from mental slavery in these brilliaut words—“And now, when I sit down seriously to compare the system of doctrines with which I have so long been fettered, with those under the influence of which my freed spirit now joyfully springs to meet its Creator, I cannot but exclaim, thanks be to God, who has given me the victory, through my Lord Jesus Christ! My mind is disenthralled, disenchanted, awakened as from a deathlike stupor-all mists are cleared away—and this feeling of light, and life, and liberty, arises from a delightful consciousness that I have learned to give the Scriptures a rational and simple interpretation ; and that, on the most important of all subjects, I have learned to think for myself.” And again—" For my part, I thank God I am free. I breathe the air of religious liberty, and it revives my soul. I raise my unshackled hands in gratitude to heaven, and sing aloud for joy. But still I remember the struggle—the conflict between light and darkness—the despairing avowal of a belief which was revolting to my very soul ; it was wormwood and gall; my soul hath it in remembrance.” This is fine language-these are noble sentiments. But a moment's reflection will satisfy any mind possessed of common candour, that they are preposterous, coming from a writer who lives in the very hot-bed of slavery. Apply these words to the condition of the Negro Slave, doomed for the entire of his days, to physical, as well as mental slavery. The human mind often presents a curious compound of piety and fraud, of deep feeling and utter heartlessness. Circumstances of habit and education often blind the judgment, and sear the conscience. Mrs. Dana was brought up under unfavourable circumstances; perhaps it is possible, highly endowed though she be with intellect-richly cultivated tooto find some fair excuse for her want of correct vision on the subject of slavery, I hope she is not really as guilty as she appears to me to be. But surely we—British and Irish Unitarians—should not allow our consciences to be so clouded, and our judgment so obscured, as that we should rejoice in the accession of a supporter of slavery to our ranks. Let us remember that ev. Mr. Simmons was obliged to fly from Mobile, because he had the courage to preach to a professing Unitarian congregation there, that slavery was a sin against Christianity. Let us bear in mind, that death, certain death, awaits the man who dares to proclaim in a slave-state, that Christ came “to proclaim liberty to the captive, and to let the oppressed go free." Do not forget that the Rev. Mr. Torrey died recently in prison, where he was cruelly incarcerated for no crime, but because he assisted some poor slaves to gain their liberty ; and that other men are now pining in American gaols because they did the same noble deeds. A Christian slave-holder!—an honest thief!-a pious adulterer! These are all equally compatible terms. Unitarianism-true Unitarianism has no affinity with such hypocrisy; and we can never aid in spreading God's truth upon earth by shaking hands with such criminals. Better for us to remain a small, and evilly-spoken of community for ages, than seek to acquire popularity by an acknowledgment of Christian-fellowship with men-stealers. Let us rather follow the good example of some other religious bodies, and disown any such unholy connexion. Slavery is a giant evil-it can only be overthrown by the combined efforts of all the lovers of freedom everywhere. The American abolitionists seek our aid. They tell us we can assist them effectually, by bringing the public opinion of these countries to bear upon the upholders of slavery in their country, by looking coldly upon them, and by bearing an honest testimony in favour of Christian liberty. If we act a contrary part—if we receive, with hospitable kindness, slave-holders when they visit these countries, we shall help to rivet the chains on our coloured brethren. It should be our object to promote the principles of freedom, and to extend the blessed influence of liberty as widely as possible.
If Mrs. Dana be in heart and soul in favour of civil, as well as religious liberty, and that conscience demands a sacrifice in the one case as well as in the other, she is placed in a truly painful position : she may have a husband and children, as well as beloved parents, who have no sympathy with her ;-the ties of kindred may not be hastily sundered ;-I venture not to say what a woman, so circumstanced, should do ;—she must look to her own heart and to God, for counsel. I will not be the man to condemn her, if she do not act up to the highest point of human endurance. But I would ask my Unitarian brethren, if an honest course do not demand of us to mark our abhorrence of slavery, by a steady refusal to fraternize with any who support a system utterly subversive of truth and righteousness.
I have written under the supposition that Mrs. Dana is still living in a slave-state, and necessarily an upholder of slavery, or silent in its iniquitios. If I be in error herein, and that conscience has enabled her to triumph over physical, as well as mental thraldom, she will rejoice (if this letter ever meets her eye) that I have written with Christian plainness. If she be unfriendly to the claims of justice, on behalf of her coloured brethren, I have no apology to offer, as I must consider her assumption of the Unitarian name injurious to the progress of Christianity on earth. A slave-holder--an American slave-holder especially—cannot be a Christian ; for he belies his own solemn declaration of independence; he is false to all his convictions as a man, and he outrages the moral sentiment of the world.
I hope the Unitarians of these lands will bear the standard of humanity high; that they will be too jealous of the purity and honour of their Christian name to soil it by any unholy contact with slavery or its abettors. Let us never “ do evil that good may come ;” for, if we do, the good will never come.
I commend these sentiments to the readers of the Irish Unitarian Magazine—and I remain, my dear Sir, respectfully yours;
James HAUGHTON. Dublin, 35, Eccles- Street,
19th July, 1846.
OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PRESBYTERIANISM, IN
BY THE REV. H. MONTGOMERY, LL.D.
(Continued from page 253, No. VIII.) The prudence, fortitude, moderation, and acknowledged loyalty of the Presbyterian Ministers of Ulster gradually blunted the hostility of the Civil Governors of Ireland, and even that of the Prelatical Clergy ; so that, although not openly tolerated, they attained considerable freedom for the exercise of worship and discipline, towards the beginning of the year 1669. Presbyteries were revived, several places of worship were erected, ordinances were publicly administered, and many of the banished ministers returned from Scotland to resume the oversight of their faithful flocks. In these respects, they enjoyed far greater liberty than their brethren in England and Scotland. Scottish Parliament had become thoroughly prelatical and persecuting; and the English Parliament had passed two Acts for the suppression of Nonconformity, as infamous as any which had disgraced the StatuteBook, in earlier and darker times. The first of these was called “ The Conventicle Act,” and imposed fine, imprisonment, and confiscation of goods, upon any person who should attend any meeting for worship, except in the established church, at which more than five persons should be present, in addition to the members of the private family, in whose dwelling such meeting should be held. The other Statute was denominated “ The Five-mile Act,” which prohibited all Dissenting Ministers from residing within five miles of any city, bo