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of God, as Calvinists affirm, but “the sins of the world;" “he suffered, the just for the unjust," not to bring God unto us, but "to bring us unto God.” “ He came to redeem us,” not from the wrath of our merciful Creator, but “from all iniquity, and to purify us unto himself, a peculiar people, zealous of good works.”

And, yet, for maintaining these self-evident Christian principlesfor declaring that salvation is the free gift of God's unpurchased mercy, through the labours and death of Christ producing man's moral regeneration, Unitarians are accused of undervaluing the office and sacrifices of the Redeemer. Whether this unfounded charge be preferred from ignorance or design, “it passes by me as the idle winds which I respect not;" and, blessed be God, the doctrine of “vicarious atonement,” or “ satisfaction to Divine Justice," which at once denies the free grace of our Heavenly Father, and teaches man to rely upon unauthorized means of salvation, is rapidly losing its hold of the public mind. It is true, there are still too many who think that “they may continue in sin because grace hath abounded”who hope to secure the rewards of godliness by relying upon influences which do not affect their own conduct—who forget that Christ came to save us from our sins, and not in our sins; but the number of such unhappy self-deluders is gradually becoming less; and I feel persuaded, that, in a short time, few persons will be found to believe that the Son of God descended from heaven, to teach and to suffer, in order to give men impunity in crime.

(To be continued.)


[The subjoined is an authentic copy of a letter from the reverend clergyman whose name is appended, to a gentleman who had, in auswer to a public advertisement, sent in an application for the mastership of a school in Jedburgh, North Britain. It puts in an amusing light the weight which certain members of the Episcopal Church now place upon outward forms and ceremonies, and may perhaps display the spirit of their system as effectually as any elaborate treatise. I violate no confidence in giving it to the public.-J. S. P.)

St. John's, Jedburgh, N. B. May 7, 1846. SIR,—I have just received your application for the mastership of St. John's school, which I will lay before the committee of management, at their next meeting. Your testimonials, as to attainments, are satisfactory enough ; but the most important one—that from the Rev. Mr. Teape-is rather negative than affirmative. Have you been confirmed ? and are you a frequent communicant? You will, perhaps, have been told that the Church has been very recently planted, and your knowledge of Church history will have taught you that, since the Revolution in 1688, Presbyterianism has been the established religion of Scotland. It is, therefore, all-important that the members of the Church in Jedburgh should exhibit in their daily life and conversation, by their consistent conduct, and by an eager use of the ordinances of the Church, their sense of the great blessing and responsibility of being members of the Church, and how great a deprivation they consider the Presbyterians suffer.

The services here are daily morning and evening prayer, and the Holy Communion every Sunday and principal festival: in fact, the Prayer Book (we use the English Book of Common Prayer) is faithfully abided by. Your attendance with the school at morning prayer would be required. But you will perceive from the slight sketch I here give you of our position, that a master would not suit us at all whose attendance at church was a constrained attendance. He must, therefore, be a real Churchman himself, and one who desires to assist the clergyman in extending the blessings of the Church, both by precept and example, to all who will profit by it. I may mention, that it is solely on these grounds that we part with our present master, whose moral conduct is unexceptionable. Answer me, therefore, unreservedly and candidly on this subject.

Can you sing? Have you any knowledge of music? Have you a good ear? The Sunday and festival service here is choral, as in the cathedrals, and it is very desirable that the master of the school should be able to act as master of the chorister boys, and assist in giving them their music lessons.

The salary is £60 and a free house. The appointment does not rest with me alone, and I do not at all pledge myself that you will be elected ; the more [less ?) so, as, this being a Scottish (Episcopal) Church, we should give the preference to a Scotchman. I am only telling you what we require in our master, and you will therefore do well to forward to me, as soon as possible, a testimonial from the clergman at whose hands you have generally received the Holy Communion, and say (a certificate is not required) by what Bishop you were confirmed, and when.-I remain, yours, faithfully,


(Incumbent of St. John's.)



SAILORS! ye still will spread your canvas wide,

Plying your oars in sadness, seldom gay;
Sailors! the wandering wind will still decide

your fate be quicksand, shoal, or bay.
Shedding your spirits' influence around,

Travellers ! on, like wandering lights, ye go;
Pensive ye walk, and still upon the ground

Your steps will echo to the tombs below.
Oaks! ye will still in solitude increase;

Old willows ! in the light of evening cool,
Your melancholy forms ye will not cease

To greet, reflected in the pictured pool.
Nests! ye will quiver with the growth of wings;

Furrows! the bursting seed will stir your breast;
Torches ! ye still will shed the light that flings

Bright sparkles, like a spirit ill at rest.
Thunders! ye still will speak the name divine ;

Brooks! ye will feed the flower that April dyes ;
The man's dark shadow in your wave will shine,

The man will pass, the wave will fall and rise.
Each, in creation, runs its destined race,

And each, from meanest matter to the soul,
True to its destiny, assists to place

A stone to raise the fabric of the whole!
And I will Him adore, in silent awe,

Who to our thirsty souls hath ope'd above
Eternal starry founts, from which to draw

Undying draughts of holy peace and love!-L. R.


KNOWLEDGE. We earnestly invite the attention of our readers to the following communication. The writer's wise and benevolent efforts should enlist general sympathy on behalf of himself and of the useful publication he has been conducting.

We would recommend that all our congregational libraries and Sunday Schools should be supplied with copies of “The Little Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge.” When a person devotes his time and energies to the service of the rising generation, is his only reward to be neglect and pecuniary embarrassment ?

To the Editor of the Irish Unitarian Magazine. DEAR SIR,—At the beginning of the year 1810, believing that a small religious, but' perfectly unsectarian periodical was much wanted, especially ainongst the youthful portion of the Unitarian community, I commenced, entirely on my own responsibility, The Little Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge, in monthly numbers, at one penny. In the first instance, the sale of the work was very limited; but as it became better known its circulation improved, and at length I had the pleasing assurance that the publication of the current numbers involved no pecuniary loss. Having arrived at this point, I fondly hoped that ere long I might receive some small return for my labour. But latterly, from causes which I could not ascertain, the demand fell off; and at the end of last year 1 felt it my duty to discontinue the work.

It would ill become me to eulogize 'my own performances; but I may remark, that, during the progress of the work, I received a variety of most gratifying testimonials in its favour, from parties who, I have reason to believe, were well qualified to judge. It was uniformly my aim to combine entertainment with instruction—to expand the mind by comprehensive views of God, His word, and His works—to enlist the affections and the heart in the cause of virtue and active goodness—and to make it appear, that, through the agency of self-discipline, we are to be fitted alike for occupying stations of usefulness, and for realizing true enjoyment, whether in the present world or in that to come. Long disquisitions, dry essays, and matters of controversy, I always rejected, as being incompatible with the object I had in view.

When the monthly issue of The Little Magazine was discontinued, I had a considerable stock of numbers and volumes on hand ; and, what was less agreeable, I lay under obligations to the paper-maker and printer, which I had no means of discharging, except by the sale of these remainders. I then hoped that private efforts would be sufficient for this purpose; but after trying them, with very limited success, I feel justified in making an appeal to a larger circle of Christian friends. I have a family of seven children, who are entirely dependant on my efforts in a department of labour which, though not altogether barren, is neither so productive nor so promising as some appear to be. 1 feel, therefore, that I ought not to continue burdened with the results of an endeavour to serve the public, when I have reason to believe that, on making known the case, all requisite assistance will be afforded. I seek for no gifts; but as I am now supplying the work allnded to, at the low price of one shilling per volume, or six shillings the set of six volumes, neatly bound in cloth, I shall esteem it kind if those friends in Ireland who are inclined to purchase, will take the trouble to inform me, with the least possible delay, what number of volumes they wish to receive. I will then forward the supplies to a house in Belfast, directed to the parties individually, and they can obtain them, carriage free, on application. Address, “Thomas Bradshaw, Dollar-by-Alloa, Scotland.''


Introduction to Zoology, for the use of Schools. By ROBERT PATTERSON,

Vice-President of the Natural History and Philosophical Society of Belfast, &c. Part I. Invertebrate Animals, with upwards of 170 Illustrations, London: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL & Co.; Edinburgh: OLIVER & BOYD; Dub

lin: John CUMMING; Belfast: SIMMS & M'INTYRE. 1846. pp. 194. This elegant little volume is another evidence of Mr. Patterson's benevolent zeal for an enlightened and comprehensive system of education. It is truly surprising that so little attention has been hitherto devoted to the study of natural history, as a regular branch of instruction. No study is more attractive to the young, and certainly none better calculated to impress the mind with a deep sense of the wisdom and benevolence of the Creator. Mr. Patterson never loses sight of this, the highest and noblest object of scientific research ; namely, to teach the mind to ascend “through nature up to nature's God."

The author is perfectly “at home” in his subject, and he writes with an ease and simplicity which few scientific men are able to command. He presents the results of deep inquiry and extensive reading in a popular and attractive form, and in this respect the present volume will be a valuable addition to Sunday-school and congregational libraries.

Respecting the proper method of entering on the study of natural history, the author expresses himself in the following clear and satisfactory terms, viz.

“The first and most obvious thing to be done, is to fix upon some good distinguishing marks, by which the principal groups of animals may be separated from each other. This would at first sight appear an easy matter. Thus birds might be distinguished by the power of flight, and fishes by that of living and swimming in the water. But a little attention would show that such characteristics would, in both cases, lead to erroneous results. The bat flies in the air, yet it brings forth its young alive, and suckles them as the domestic cat would do. The whale lives in the sea; but while in the fish the heart has only two compartments, the blood is cold, and respiration is effected by gills; the whale has a heart furnished like that of the ox, with four compartments, the blood is warm, and breathing is carried on by lungs. The fish deposits its spawn, and the young, when liberated from the eggs, provide for themselves according to their several instincts. The young of the whale, on the contrary, are brought forth alive, are objects of maternal solicitude, and are suckled with affectionate assiduity. The bat, though flying in the air, is not therefore a bird; the whale, thongh swimming in the sea, is not therefore a fish. They both belong to the same division as our large domestic quadrupeds, which, from the circumstance of their suckling their young, are grouped together by the expressive term “Mammalia.'”-page 2.

The author not unfrequently illustrates his subject by rare and beautiful selections from the poets. Thus, when speaking of the starfish, he takes this text from James Montgomery :

-The firmament
Was thronged with constellations, and the sea
Strown with their images."


He introduces Crabbe's happy description of the Acalephæ or seanettles:

“Those living jellies which the flesh inflame

Fierce as a nettle, and from that its name ;
Soft, brilliant, tender, through the wave they glow,

And make the moonbeam brighter where they flow.” And we could casily enumerate many instances in which he has quoted, with equal judgment and taste, from our best poetical writers. For the present, however, we conclude by wishing for this volume all the success which its importance and the author's industry and talent so truly merit.

Unitarianism in its Actual Condition ; Consisting of Essays by Several

Unitarian Ministers and Others; Illustrative of the Rise, Progress, and
Principles of Christian Anti-Trinitarianism in different parts of the

World. Edited by the Rev. J. R. BEARD, D.D. pp. 316. A work of this character was much required by our denomination ; and Dr. Beard has embraced a singularly happy and appropriate occasion for bringing it before the public. The great object of the publication is thus stated in the preface :

“The security of tenure guaranteed to the property of the Non-subscribing congregations of Great Britain and Ireland, by the passing of that liberal and enlightened measure, commonly known by the name of the Dissenters' Chapels Bill, appeared to the editor a suitable occasion for collecting evidences of one of the consequences of free inquiry, and the prevalence of Scriptural knowledge, in the renunciation of the Pagan and metaphysical notion of the Trinity. These evidences are here presented to the public. They show an amount of anti-Trinitarian Christianity, which few, perhaps, will have expected, and are thus fitted to afford encouragement to those who, in this country especially, are exposed to no small obloquy, in consequence of their maintenance of the simple teachings of the Bible; namely, that God is one, and that the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ is the only true God.”

The rise and progress of Unitarian principles in England, Ireland, Scotland, France, Germany, Switzerland, Transylvania, Canada, and the United States of America, are traced with impartiality and care, in the several “Essays " composing this volume ; and the general result of the inquiry is such as to afford great gratification to the friends of religious truth and liberty. We would particularly recommend Dr. Beard's volume to the attention of those who are engaged in forming congregational libraries, and to all who are desirous to see, at a single glance, the results of the controversy between Unitarians and Trinitarians. The rapidity with which Unitarian opinions have spread throughout America is almost unprecedented in the history of reformation.

Only about 300 churches adopt the name Unitarian, and of these there are no less than twenty-two in the city of Boston. The members of what is termed the Christian Connexion, are strictly AntiTrinitarian in sentiment. Their 1,500 churches are extended over all the Union, and contain, probably, not less than 500,000 individuals.

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