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The members of the Universalist Denomination are Unitarians also, and their worshipping societies now number 1,194. In the month of September, 1845, there was a general convention of the Universalists at Boston. The number in attendance during the two days of the convention is said to have exceeded ten thousand. The only Confession of Faith that has ever been adopted and published by the Universalists is as follows, viz. :

"1. We believe that the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments contain a revelation of the character and will of God, and of the duty, interest, and final destination of mankind.

“2. We believe there is one God, whose nature is love; revealed in one Lord Jesus Christ, by one Holy Spirit of Grace, who will finally restore the whole family of mankind to holiness and happiness.

"3. We believe that holiness and true happiness are inseparably connected; and that believers ought to maintain order and practise good works, for these things are good and profitable unto men.”

In addition to these sections of the Unitarian Church in the United States, there is also a large accession from the Quakers or Friends, They separated from the Orthodox Friends, in 1827, and are called Hicksites, from the name of a venerable man, Elias Hicks, “who stood prominently forward to assert the true doctrine of gospel liberty, and what he considered the essential principles of primitive Friends.

We shall probably soon return to this interesting book, and in the meantime we tender our sincere thanks to Dr. Beard for this additional evidence of his earnest and well-directed zeal in the cause of gospel truth.

Notes and Comments on Passages of Scripture. By John KERTISH. We have been late in calling the attention of our readers to this highly interesting work. It abounds in useful practical reflection, as well as in acute and learned criticism on different passages of Scripture. It is thus calculated to excite the attention of all who delight in the Holy Scriptures, and must be considered a most valuable contribution to our stock of sacred literature. We shall give a few specimens, as we feel confident that the work will speak best for itself. The learned author thus exposes a common perversion of Scripture phraseology:

18, 21–Father, I have sinned against Heaven and before thee.' This confession has a place among the introductory sentences of the English Liturgy; and I have sometimes witnessed the use of it (the plural pronouns being substituted) in other social prayers. It is a strange application of the language of the repentant prodigal, who acknowledges his guilt-first, in respect of God [Heaven), and then against his earthly parent (thee—in thy sight]; whereas, in this perversion of the words, we have a palpable tautology. Such is at least the inconvenience of receiving any part of Scripture merely in accordance with its sound.”

"Luke xv.

A brief explanation of an apparent difficulty is thus given :

Luke xx. 10—“At the season, he sent a servant to the husbandmen,' &c. It is natural to ask at what season? The parallel passage, Matt. xxi. 34, supplies the answer,

• the time of the fruit;' that is, the season of the occupier's collecting together, and therefore of the owner's receiving, the produce of the vineyard, a part of which was given for rent. This text explains Mark xi. 13, and is also illustrated by it, the time of figs,' being the season for gathering figs;' and the clause, 'the time of figs was not yet,' showing the reasonableness of our Saviour's expectation of finding some on the tree between Bethany and Jerusalem.”

How admirably is the argument for settled seasons of prayer placed in the following remarks :

Acts iii. 1-Now Peter and John went up together into the temple at the hour of prayer, being the ninth hour.' These apostles, we perceive, observed certain times for the more immediate expression of the feelings of devotion. The practice is founded on the frame and laws of the mind, no less than on the commands of Divine Revelation, and on the examples of eminently wise and good men in every age and country. If there be those who would persuade us that piety and devotion cannot be regulated by the figures of a dial, or that religious affections cannot be excited in large bodies of men, and, by analogy of reasoning, in individuals, by the tolling of a bell, we may fairly infer from the use of such arguments the want of a just knowledge of human nature in those who employ them. Habits of devotion must be formed in the manner in which other mental habits are acquired. Religious services, if rightly estimated, are essential to this end. Whether social or retired, there must be stated times for the performance of them. Nor is there anything more irrational and visionary in piety and devotion being regulated by the figures of a dial, or in the religious affections being excited by the tolling of a bell, than in the lively recurrence of other feelings, at the seasons, and as the effect of the circumstances, in which they are accustomed to receive a peculiar gratification. If habits depend on regular and duly repeated acts, no man whose experience gives him this conviction, can be at a loss in replying to the objection. He alone will despise fixed hours of prayer who either questions the duty and efficacy of the practice, or so relies on supernatural assistance as to fancy himself raised above the need of ordinances : thus nearly related on that point to each other are the apparently opposite characters of the enthusiast and the sceptic.

We are sorry our space will not allow us to make further quotations; but the whole volume will amply repay a careful perusal, and we rejoice to hear that a new edition will shortly be presented to the public.



THE INDEPENDENTS AND THE HEWLEY ment. Wherefore, two different par.

ties of Presbyterians in the country, We ( Christian Reformer ) ask the those belonging to the United Secesspecial attention of our readers to the sion Church and those nominally confollowing article on this subject

, which nected with the Established Church appeared in the columns of the Man- of Scotland, but having very many chester Examiner for October 17-a English evangelical Presbyterians apaper, we believe, altogether ander mongst their members, and not a few * orthodox” management. This se- purely English evangelical congregavere exposure of their English brethren tions pertaining to them, applied to probably comes from the Scottish the successful litigants to be permitted Presbyterians of Manchester, under to participate in the management of the influence of irritation at a denial the trust. But the legal advisers enof a fair portion of the booty gained trusted by the Independent ‘relators,' from the Unitarians.

would listen to no appeal-would enLady Hewley's Case.—Many of ter into no arrangement. One would our readers are aware that upwards of have thought that if zeal for purity a century ago, ‘Dame Sarah Hewley' of doctrine had alone been the cause bequeathed a considerable amount of of their struggle with the Unitarians, property for the relief and aid of poor they would have been anxious to and godly ministers.' Being an English spare further expenditure and to Presbyterian, her “trust was admi- avoid, if possible, all disagreement nistered by persons holding the reli- with denominations which recognisgious principles which she professed : ed “the same Gospel, and differed but it is well known that the English merely as to the minor point of Presbyterians, as a body, gradually Church government, and to one of renounced their orthodoxy;' and which they had always professed the hence, in course of time, her ladyship’s greatest friendship. Being determined, charity came to be managed by trus- however, to have the disposal of the tees who belonged to the Unitarian property exclusively in their own denomination. To the credit of such power, they constrained the Presbytetrustees, it must be admitted that they rian parties to whom we have referred displayed far less sectarianism than to apply (from a sense of justice to the might have been expected, and that principle of the trust itself, as well as they were liberal in the distribution of to the interests of their respective dethe funds at their disposal to evange- nominations) to the Master in Chanlical and dissenting ministers in gene- cery,' praying, not that the Indepenral who were in poor and necessitous dents should be excluded, but that they

But about twenty also should be represented in the trust. years ago, Mr. George Hadfield, of Hence another protracted and expenthis town, Mr. John ( Joshua, Wilson sive contest was begun. Their reasons of London, and others, all Indepen- were considered to be valid, and judgdents, commenced an action in Chan- ment was given that each of these cery against the Unitarian trustees, Presbyterian parties should be allowed upon the ground that they were not to nominate two trustees, leaving the entitled to administer an evangelical Independents with three. But against trust. After a long and most expen- this decision appeal was made. It was, sive contest, carried on in one court nevertheless, confirmed both by the after another, judgment was finally Vice-Chancellor and the Lord Changiven in favour of the Independent cellor, after years of vexatious and reason,' and the Unitarians were expensive opposition. But even yet ejected. But evangelical Presbyte- the relators must needs resist ; and rians were always of opinion that if now, finding that they could not exthe Unitarians had no legal right to clude the Presbyterians, they next administer the trust because they did resolved to procure, if possible, an alnot hold Lady Hewley's doctrinal sen- location of the funds of the charity timents, the Independents had as lit- according to the numerical proportion tle, because they did not accord with of the different parties; and to show her views relative to Church govern- that very few Presbyterian ministers





in England are entitled to participate gladly see it applied to purposes of in the benefit of the fund, ít being al- general education in the five northern leged that the Presbyterian congrega- counties of England; and we trust that tions generally are Scotch. Thus, if some arrangement may yet be made, Presbyterian trustees must be admit- by which the four thousand a-year ted, it is attempted to prevent them which it affords may be turned to that from having almost any denomination- purpose, instead of being wasted in al interest to represent, and to secure mischievous litigation. almost all the money to purposes which the sectarianism of the relators' may ENDOWMENT lead them to promote. In pursuance, therefore, of this course, citations were served on a number of ministers and We have already adverted to the gentlemen in this town and neighbour- munificent bequest of the late John hood, commanding them to appear on Ownes, Esq. merchant, of Manchester. Thursday last at Liverpool, before The executors have properly caused Samuel Johnson Roberts, Esq. acting that portion of the will which relates commissioner for the High Court of to public objects to be published, and Chancery, to bring with them chapel we proceed to communicate the more deeds and minutes of Presbytery, to interesting particulars to our readers. be examined as cause may require. The will bears date May 31, 1845. We fear that an increase of expen- The executors are George Falkner diture and of party feeling will be and Samuel Alcock. The following the only result of the new scheme legacies are left to charitable instituwhich has been adopted. We are

tions : far from implicating the Indepen- Manchester Royal Infirmary dent denomination at large in the and Dispensary,

.£1,000 recent measures of these relators.' Manchester Lancasterian Indeed we are well assured that the School, liberal and leading members of the

Manchester Deaf and Dumb body, both lay and clerical, not only School, in this town but throughout the coun

Manchester Penitentiary, try, repudiate the continued hostility Manchester St. Saviour's to their Presbyterian brethren which Church School, is thus displayed. Many old, indigent, The following persons are appointed and pious ministers of the Congrega- trustees for the educational purposes tional denomination itself have for to which the residue of the property nearly ten years been deprived of all is devoted; viz. the Mayor of Manchesbenefit from the charity, in conse- ter, the Dean, the Representatives of quence of the coarse, contentious spirit Manchester in Parliament, George of their professed friends. An enor- Faulkner, Samuel Alcock, William mous amount of money has been worse Nield, James lleywood, Alexander than wasted. The unseemly spectacle Kay, Samuel Fletcher, Richard Cobhas been exhibited of one sect of Chris- den, John Benjamin Smith, John tians most pertinaciously resisting the Frederick Foster, and Mark Philips. repeatedly delivered judgments of the Whenever the number of trustees is Court of Chancery in favour of the reduced to five, the vacant places are claims of another holding precisely the to be filled up by the election of sucsame religious principles, and seeking, cessors by surviving trustees ; prefernot to oust the Independents, but ence to be given to the Mayor and merely to participate in the manage- members for Manchester. After some ment of an important trust, so that it other details, the will goes on to demay be prevented from becoming en- clare the testator's "earnest desire tirely sectarian, and rendered useful and general object to found within the

to fair and godly' ministers, not only borough of Manchester, or within two of their own but also of other denomi- miles, an institution providing or aidnations. The charity is not an endow- ing the means of instructing and imment properly so called, otherwise a proving young persons of the male sex considerable number both of the Pres- (and being of an age not less than byterians and Independents, would fourteen years) in such branches of never have claimed a share of its funds. learning and science as are now and We believe that many of them would may be hereafter usually taught in the

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English Universities, but subject, and rotation of admission, and the nevertheless, to the two fundamental respective proportions of the trust fund and immutable rules and conditions to be appropriated to any particular hereinafter prescribed, namely:- purpose or purposes of the said insti

First. “That the students, profes- tution, and the mode of investment of sors, teachers, and other officers and the capital of such fund, or of any part persons connected with the said insti- thereof, for the time being; and genetution, shall not be required to make rally, for the regulation and adjustment any declaration as to, or submit to of every question, matter, and thing any test whatsoever of, their religious connected with the said institution." opinions; and that nothing shall be The will declares, by way of explaintroduced in the matter or mode of nation of the first condition, that the education or instruction in reference to Trustees shall have power to alter any any religious or theological subject, provision that shall be deemed by onewhich shall be reasonably offensive to third of the Trustees reasonably offenthe conscience of any student or of his sive to the conscience of any student, relations, guardians, or friends under &c. &c. Powers are given to apply whose immediate care he shall be.” to the Crown for a charter of incor

The second rule relates to the per- poration. The testator intentionally sons who shall have admission to the abstains from directing the investment college; preference is to be given, first, of any portion of the trust in lands or to the children of parents residing buildings; but authority is given, within the borough of Manchester ; should such an investment become second, to those residing within the lawful, to invest one-third of the proparliamentary division of South Lan- perty, in the purchase of land and cashire. Subject to this, the institu- buildings fit for the institution. tion shall be open to all applicants for In addition to these particulars, the admission, without respect to place of Manchester Guardian states that the birth, and without distinction of rank attention of the Town Council will be or condition in society. The trustees immediately directed to the subject of are further directed" to define and this most important bequest; that acascertain the precise and best mode of tive steps will be taken for the estabcarrying the same into practical opera- lishment of the institution ; and that tion, by imparting to such young per- some of the townsmen of the late Mr. sons such education and instruction as Owens have intimate their willingaforesaid, and supplying them with ness to come forward with handsome such aids, assistance, and encourage- donations, in order to make the proment in and for the promotion of their posed college worthy of Manchester. studies, by the establishment of profes- We shall not fail to inform our readers, sorships, the appointment of teachers, from time to time, of the progress of and assistants, the providing of books this interesting scheme.--Christian and other requisites for such studies, Reformer. the institution of exhibitions, premiums, and other rewards and allow- We ( Christian Register ) have been ances for superior diligence and attain- kindly favoured with the following dements, and such other means as the scription of this structure, an account said trustees shall, in their absolute of the inauguration of which will be discretion, think fit; together with found below. such schemes, orders, rules, and regu- The monument is in that style of lations as they shall deem advisable architecture called the Romanesque. for preventing and repressing, by ex- It is a square shaft or die, standing pulsion, suspension, or other means, on a base and plinth and crowned any abuse of the said institution, and with a capital and curved spire terany misconduct in the students, pro- minating in a cross; the whole height fessors, teachers, and other persons is about twelve feet. employed therein ; and for regulating The lower stone or plinth is four feet the age, or respective ages, time, or and three inches in diameter, and sixrespective times, at and during which teen inches high. This stone and the the students shall be admitted and shaft or die are the heaviest in the continue to enjoy the benefits thereof; work, each weighing two tons. and of any particular course or courses The first tablet has a profile head of study therein, and the mode, order, in bas-relief, life-size, with the name


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