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decrees, and his revealed will in his co- | rendered his schemes so suspicious, that venant and promises. The root of his he was not able to make great progress error seems to be this:-he viewed the in his undertaking. The work was reunion between Christ and the believer served for a meaner instrument. Peter, to be of such a kind as actually to make commonly called the Hermit, a native a Saviour of the sinner, and a sinner of of Amiens in Picardy, had made the the Saviour. He speaks as if God con- pilgrimage to Jerusalem ; and being sidered the sinner as doing and suffering deeply affected with the dangers to what Christ did and suffered; and Christ which that act of piety now exposed as having committed their sins, and as the pilgrims, as well as with the opbeing actually guilty of them. See book pression under which the eastern Chrísunder articles ANTINOMIANS and NEO- tians now laboured, formed the bold, NOMIANS. Crisp's Sermons, edited by and, in all appearance, impracticable Dr. Gill; Bogue and Bennet's History design of leading into Asia, from the of Dissenters, vol. i. p. 400.
farthest extremities of the West, armies CROISADE, or CRUSADE, may be sufficient to subdue those potent and applied to any war undertaken on pre- warlike nations that now held the holy tence of defending the cause of religion, land in slavery. He proposed his scheme but has been chiefly used for the expe- to pope Martin II. who, prudently reditions of the Christians against the solving not to interpose his authority infidels for the conquest of Palestine. till he saw a probability of success, sum
These expeditions commenced A. D. | moned at Placentia a council of 4000 1096. The foundation of them was a ecclesiastics and 30,000 seculars. As superstitious veneration for those places no hall could be found large enough to where our Saviour performed his mi- contain such a multitude, the assembly racles, and accomplished the work of was held in a plain. Here the pope man’s redemption. Jerusalem had been himself, as well as Peter, harangued the taken and Palestine conquered by people, representing the dismal situaOmar. This proved a considerable in- tion of their brethren in the East, and terruption to the pilgrims, who flocked the indignity offered to the Christian from all quarters to perform their de- name in allowing the holy city to revotions at the holy sepulchre. They main in the hands of the infidels. These had, however, still been allowed this speeches were so agreeable to those liberty, on paying a small tribute to the who heard them, that the whole multiSaracen caliphs, who were not much tude suddenly and violently declared inclined to molest them. But, in 1064, for the war, and solemnly devoted this city changed its masters. The themselves to perform this service, Turks took it from the Saracens; and which they believed to be meritorious being much more fierce and barbarous, in the sight of God. But though Italy the pilgrims now found they could no ' seemed to have embraced the design longer perform their devotions with the with ardour, Martin thought it necessame safety. An opinion was about this sary, in order to obtain perfect success, time also prevalent in Europe, which to engage the greater and more warlike made these pilgrimages much more nations in the same enterprise. Having, frequent than formerly: it was ima- therefore exhorted Peter to visit the gined, that the 1000 years mentioned in chief cities and sovereigns of ChristenRev. xx. were fulfilled ; that Christ was dom, he summoned another council at soon to make his appearance in Pales- Clermont in Auvergne. The fame of tine to judge the world ; and conse- this great and pious design being now quently that journeys to that country universally diffused, procured the atwere in the highest degree meritorious, tendance of the greatest prelates, nobles, and even absolutely necessary. The and princes; and when the pope and multitudes of pilgrims who now focked the hermit renewed their pathetic exto Palestine meeting with a very rough hortations, the whole assembly, as if reception from the Turks, filled all impelled by immediate inspiration, exEurope with complaints against those claimed with one voice, “It is the will infidels, who profaned the holy city, and of God!" These words were deemed derided the sacred mysteries of Chris- so much the effect of a divine impulse, tianity even in the place where they that they were employed as the signal were fulfilled. Pope Gregory VII. had of rendezvous and battle in all fature formed a design of uniting all the exploits of these adventurers. Men of princes of Christendom against the Ma- all ranks now flew to arms with the hometans; but his exorbitant encroach- utmost ardour, and a cross was aflixed ments upon the civil power of princes to their right shoulder by all who enlisthad created him so many enemies, and led in this holy enterprise. At this time
Europe was sunk in the most profound || committed by men inured to wickedignorance and superstition. The eccle- ness, encouraged by example, and imsiastics had gained the greatest ascend- pelled by necessity. The adventurers ant over the human mind; and the peo- were at last so numerous, that their saple who committed the most horrid gacious leaders became apprehensive crimes and disorders, knew of no other" lest the greatness of the armament expiation than the observances imposed would be the cause of its own disap- . on them by their spiritual pastors. But pointment. For this reason they peramidst the abject superstition which mitted an undisciplined multitude, comnow prevailed, the military spirit had puted at 300,000 men, to go before them also universally diffused itself; and, under the command of Peter the herthough not supported by art or disci- mit, and Gautier or Walter, surnamed pline, was become the general passion the moneyless, from his being a soldier of the nations governed by the feudal of fortune. These took the road towards law. All the great lords possessed the Constantinople through Hungary and right of peace and war. They were | Bulgaria; and trusting that heaven, by engaged in continual hostilities with one i supernatural assistance, would supply another: the open country was becomes all their necessities, they made no proa scene of outrage and disorder: the vision for subsistence in their march. cities, still mean and poor, were nother They found themselve's obliged to guarded by walls nor protected by pri-l obtain by plunder what they vainly exvileges. Every man was obliged to de- ' pected from miracles: and the enraged pend for safety on his own force, or his inhabitants of the countries through private alliances; and valour was the which they passed attacked the disoronly excellence which was held in es derly multitude, and slaughtered them teem, or gave one man the pre-eminence without resistance. The more disciplined above another. When all the particular armies followed after; and, passing the superstitions, therefore, were here uni- straits of Constantinople, were musterted in one great object, the ardour for ed in the plains of Asia, and amounted private hostilities took the same direc- in the whole to 700,000 men. The tion ; "and all Europe,” as the princess princos engaged in this first crusade Anna Comnena expresses it, “ torn from were, Hugo, count of Vermandois, broits foundations, seemed ready to pre-ther to Philip I. king of France; Rocipitate itself in one united body upon bert, duke of Normandy ; Robert, earl Asia."
of Flanders; Raimond, earl of Toulouse All ranks of men now deeming the and St. Giles; the celebrated Godfrey croisades the only road to heaven, were of Bouillon, duke of Lorrain, with his impatient to open the way with their brothers Baldwin and Eustace; Steswords to the holy city. Nobles, arti- phen, earl of Chartres and Blois; Hugo, zans, peasants, even priests, enrolled count of St. Paul; with many other their names; and to decline this service lords. The general rendezvous was at was branded with the reproach of im- Constantinople. In this expedition, Godpiety or cowardice. The nobles were frey besieged and took the city of Nice. moved, by the romantic spirit of the Jerusalem was taken by the confedeage, to hope for opulent establishments rated army, and Godfrey chosen king. in the East, the chief seat of arts and The Christians gained the famous batcommerce at that time. In pursuit of tle of Ascalon against the Sultan of these chimerical projects, they sold at Egypt, which put an end to the first low prices their ancient castles and in- crusade, but not to the spirit of cruheritances, which had now lost all value sading. The rage continued for near two in their eyes. The infirm and aged con- centuries. The second crusade, in 1144, tributed to the expedition by presents was headed by the emperor Conrad III. and money, and many of them attended and Louis VII. king of France. The it in person; being determined, if possi- emperor's army was either destroyed ble to breathe their last in sight of that by the enemy, or perished through the city where their Saviour died for them. ,treachery of Manuel, the Greek empeEven women, concealing their sex un ror; and the second army, through the der the disguise of armour, attended the unfaithfulness of the Christians of Syria, camp;, and often forgot their duty still was forced to break up the siege of Damore, by prostituting themselves to the mascus. The third crusade, in 1188, imarmy. The greatest criminals were for- mediately followed the taking of Jeruward in a service which they consider- salem by Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt. ed as an expiation for all crimes; and The princes engaged in this expedition the most enormous disorders were, du- were, the emperor Frederic Barbarosring the course of these expeditions, sa ; Frederic, duke of Suabia, his second
son ; Leopold, duke of Austria ; Ber- | serably butchered, and himself and the thold, duke of Moravia; Herman, mar- nobility takerf prisoners. A truce was quis of Baden; the counts of Nassau, agreed upon for ten years, and the king Thuringia, Missen, and Holland; and and lords set at liberty; The eighth above sixty other princes of the em- | croisade, in 1279, was headed by the pire; with the bishops of Besançon, same prince, who made himself master Cambray, Munster, Osnaburg, Missen, of the port and castle of Carthage in Passau, Visburg, and several others. In Africa ; but dying a short time after, he this expedition the emperor Frederic left his army in a very ill condition. defeated the Sultan of Iconium: his son Soon after, the king of Sicily coming up Frederic, joined by Guy Lusignon, king with a good feet, and joining Philip the of Jerusalem, in vain endeavoured to bold, son and successor of Lewis, the take Acre or Ptolemais. During these king of Tunis, after several engagetransactions, Philip Augustus, king of ments with the Christians, in which he France, and Richard I. king of England, was always worsted, desired peace, joined the croisade: by which means which was granted upon conditions adthe Christian army consisted of 300,000 vantageous to the Christians; after fighting men; but great disputes hap- which both princes embarked to their pening between the kings of France and own kingdoms. Prince Edward, of England, the former quitted the holy England, who arrived at Tunis at the land, and Richard concluded a peace time of this treaty, sailed towards Ptowith Saladin. The fourth croisade was lemais, where he landed a small body undertaken in 1195, by the emperor of 300 English and French, and hinderHenry VI. after Saladin's death. In thised Bendochar from laying siege to Ptoexpedition the Christians gained several | lemais: but being obliged to return to battles against the infidels, took a great take possession of the crown of England, many towns, and were in the way of this croisade ended without contributing success, when the death of the emperor any thing to the recovery of the holy obliged them to quit the holy land, and land. In 1291, the town of Acre or return into Germany. The fifth croisade i Ptolemais was taken and plundered by was published by pope Innocent III. in the sultan of Egypt, and the Christians 1198. Those engaged in it made fruit- quite driven out of Syria. There has less efforts for the recovery of the holy been no croisade since that period, land: for, though John de Neule, who though several popes have attempted commanded the fleet equipped in Flan- to stir up the Christians to such an unders, arrived at Ptolemais a little after dertaking ; particularly Nicholas IV. Simon of Montfort, Renard of Dam- in 1292, and Clement V. in 1311. pierre, and others, yet the plague de Though these croisades were effects stroying many of them, and the rest of the most absurd superstition, they either returning; or engaging in the tended greatly to promote the good of petty quarrels of the Christian princes, Europe. Multitudes, indeed, were dethere was nothing done; so that the stroyed. M. Voltaire computes the sultan of Aleppo easily defeated their people who perished in the different troops in 1204. The sixth croisade be-expeditions at upwards of two millions. gan in 1228; in which the Christians Many there were, however, who retook the town of Damietta, but were turned; and these having conversed so forced to surrender it in. In 1229, long with people who lived in a much the emperor Frederic made peace with more magnificent way than themselves, the sultan for ten years. About 1240, began to entertain some taste for a reRichard, earl of Cornwall, brother to fined and polished way of life. Thus Henry III. king of England, arrived at the barbarism in which Europe had Palestine, at the head of the English been so long immersed began to wear croisade; but finding it most advan- off soon after. The princes also who tageous to conclude a peace, he re- || remained at home, found means to avail embarked, and steered towards Italy. themselves of the frenzy of the people. In 1244, the Karasmians being driven By the absence of such numbers of out of Turkey by the Tartars, brokel restless and martial adventurers, peace into Palestine, and gave the Christians was established in their dominions. a general defeat near Gaza. The se- They also took the opportunity of anventh croisade was headed, in 1249, by inexing to their crowns many considerSt. Lewis, who took the town of Dami- able fiefs, either by purchase, or the etta; but a sickness happening in the extinction of the heirs; and thus the Christian army, the king endeavoured li mischiefs which must always attend a retreat ; in which, being pursued by feudal governments were considerably the infidels, most of his army were mí- lessened. With regard to the bad suc
cess of the croisaders, it was scarcely || they see their parents engaged in. possible that any other thing could hap-Their childish folly was encouraged by pen to them. The emperors of Constan- | the monks and schoolmasters; and tinople, instead of assisting, did all in thousands of those innocents were contheir power to disconcert their schemes: ducted from the houses of their parents they were jealous, and not without rea on the superstitious interpretation of son, of such an inundation of barbarians. these words: “Out of the mouths of Yet, had they considered their true in- | babes and sucklings hast thou perfected terest, they would rather have assisted praise." Their base conductors sold a them, or at least stood neuter, than part of them to the Turks, and the rest enter into alliances with the Turks. I perished miserably. Hume's Hist. of They followed the latter method, how- | England, vol. i. p. 292, &c. and vol. ii. ever, and were often of very great dis- || p. 280; Enc. Brit. and Mosheim's Ecc. service to the western adventurers, Hist. which at last occasioned the loss of CROISIERS, a religious order, foundtheir city. But the worst enemies the ed in honour of the invention or discovecroisaders had were their own internal ry of the cross by the empress Helena. feuds and dissentions. They neither | They were, till of late, dispersed in secould agree while marching together veral parts of Europe, particularly in in armies with a view to conquest, nor the Low Countries, France, and Bohecould they unite their conquests under mia; those of Italy were suppressed one government after they had made even before the late revolutions. These them. They set up three small states, religious follow the rule of St. Augusone at Jerusalem, another at Antioch, || tine. They had in England the name and another at Edessa. These states, of Crouched friars. instead of assisting, made war upon
CROSIER, or CROZIER, a shepherd's each other, and on the Greek empe- || crook; a symbol of pastoral authority, rors; and thus became an easy prey to consisting of a gold or silver staff, crookthe common enemy. The horrid cruel- ed at the top, carried occasionally beties they committed, too, must have | fore bishops and abbots, and held in the inspired the Turks with the most in- | hand when they give the solemn benevincible hatred against them, and made | dictions. them resist with the greatest obstinacy. CROSS, in Scripture language, means They were such as could have been the sufferings of Christ, Gal. vi. 14. committed only by barbarians inflamed | The sufferings, trials, or persecutions with the most bigoted enthusiasm. l of the people are also called a cross, When Jerusalem was taken, not only Matt. xvi. 24. Cross signifies also a the numerous garrisons were put to the gibbet, made with two pieces of wood, sword, but the inhabitants were massa- || placed crosswise, whether they cross cred without mercy and without dis- | with right angles at the top like a T, tinction. No age or sex was spared, or in the middle of their length like an not even sucking children. According || X. The cross to which our Saviour to Voltaire, some Christians, who had was fastened, and on which he died, been suffered by the Turks to live in was of the former kind; being thus rethat city, led the conquerors into the presented by old monuments, coins, and most private caves, where women had crosses. The death of the cross was concealed themselves with their chil- | the most dreadful of all others, both for dren, and not one of them was suffered the shame and pain of it; and so scanto escape. What eminently shows the dalous, that it was inflicted as the last enthusiasm by which these conquerors mark of detestation upon the vilest of were animated, is, their behaviour after || people. It was the punishment of robthis terrible slaughter. They marched | bers and murderers, provided that they over heaps of dead bodies towards the | were slaves too; but otherwise, if they holy sepulchre; and while their hands were free, and had the privilege of the were polluted with the blood of so many city of Rome, this was then thought a innocent persons, sung anthems to the prostitution of that honour, and too incommon Saviour of Mankind! Nay, so I famous a punishment for such a one, far did their religious enthusiasm over-| let his crimes be what they would. The come their fury, that these ferocious form of a cross being such as has been conquerors now burst into tears. If the already described, the body of the criabsurdity and wickedness of their con- minal was fastened to the upright piece duct can be exceeded by any thing, it by nailing the feet to it, and on the must be by what follows. In 1204, the other transverse piece generally, by frenzy of croisading seized the children, nailing the hands on each side. Now, who are ever ready to imitate what because these parts of the body, being
the instruments of action and motion, sometimes with three. The criminal are provided by Nature with a much was fixed to the cross quite naked; and, greater quantity of nerves than others in all probability, the Saviour of sinners have occasion for; and because all sen was not used with any greater tendersation is performed by the spirit con ness than others upon whom this putained in the nerves; it will follow, as nishment was inflicted. The text of the Stanhope observes, that wherever they || Gospel shows clearly that Jesus Christ abound, the sense of pain must needs in was fastened to the cross with nails; proportion be more quick and tender. and the Psalmist (Ps. xxii. 16.) had
The Jews confess, indeed, that they foretold long before, that they should crucified people in their nation, but pierce his hands and his feet; but there deny that they inflicted this punishment || are great disputes concerning the numupon any one alive. They first put | ber of these nails. The Greeks reprethem to death, and then fastened them sent our Saviour as fastened to the cross to the cross, either by the hands or with four nails; in which particular neck. But there are indisputable proofs Gregory of Tours agrees with them, of their crucifying men frequently alive.one on each hand and foot. But several The worshippers of Baal-peor, and the are of opinion that our Saviour's hands king of Ai were hung up alive; as were and feet were pierced with three nails also the descendants of Saul, who were only, viz. one on each hand, and one out into the hands of the Gibeonites,|| through both his feet: and the custom 2 Sam. xxi. 9.
of the Latins is rather for this last Before crucifixion, the criminal was opinion; for the generality of the old generally scourged with cords; some- || crucifixes made in the Latin church times little bones, or pieces of bones, have only three nails. Nonnus thinks were tied to these scourges, so that the that our Saviour's arms were besides condemped person might suffer more bound fast to the cross with chains; and severely. It was also a custom, that he St. Hilary speaks of the cords wherewho was to be crucified should bear his with he was tied to it. Sometimes they own cross to the place of execution. who were fastened upon the cross lived After this manner, we find Christ was a good while in that condition. St. Ancompelled to bear his cross; and as he drew is believed to have continued three sunk under the burden, Simon the Cy- | days alive upon it. Eusebius speaks of renian was constr ned to bear it after certain martyrs in Egypt who were kept him and with him. But whereas it is upon the cross till they were starved to generally supposed that our Lord bore death. Pilate was amazed at Jesus the whole cross, i. e. the long and trans-Christ's dying so soon, because naturalverse part both, this seems to be a thing | ly he must have lived longer, if it had impossible; and therefore Lipsius (in not been in his power to have laid down his treatise De Supplicio Crucis) has his life, and to take it up again. The set the matter in a true light, when he thighs of the two thieves, who were tells us that Jesus only carried the crucified with our Saviour, were broken, transverse beam; because the long in order to hasten their death, that their beam, or the body of the cross, was bodies might not remain upon the cross either fixed in the ground before, or on the Sabbath day, John xix. 31, 33; made ready to be set up as soon as the and to comply with the law of Moses, prisoner came; and from hence he ob- which forbids the bodies to be left there serves, that painters are very much after sun-set. But, among other nations, mistaken in the description of our Sa-|| tney were suffered to remain upon the viour carrying the whole cross. There cross a long time. Sometimes they were were several ways of crucifying; some- || devoured alive by birds and beasts of times the criminal was fastened with prey. Guards were appointed to obcords to a tree, sometimes he was cru serve that none of their friends or relacified with his head downwards. This tions should take them down and bury way, it is said, Peter chose, out of re- | them. The Roman soldiers, who had spect to his master, Jesus Christ, not crucified Jesus Christ and the two thinking himself worthy to be crucified thieves, continued near the crosses till like him; though the common way of the bodies were taken down and buried. crucifying was by fastening the criminal Invention of the Cross, an ancient with nails, one through each hand, and | feast solemnized on the 3d of May, in one through both feet, or one through memory of St. Helena's (the mother of each of them; for this was not always Constantine) finding the true cross of performed in the same manner; the Christ deep in the ground on Mount ancients sometimes represent Jesus Calvary, where she erected a church Christ crucified with four nails, and for the preservation of part of it; the