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GEMARA. See TALMUD.
Father. Again : he expressly tells us GENERAL CALL. See CALLING. himself, that “the Son can do nothing of
GENERATION, ETERNAL, is a himself; that the Father showeth him term used as descriptive of the Father's all things that he doth; and that he communicating the Divine Nature to giveth him to have life in himself,” the Son. The Father is said by some John v. 19, 20, 26. which expressions, divines to have produced the Word, or if applied to him as God, not as mediaSon, from all eternity, by way of gene-| tor, will reduce us to the disagreeable ration; on which occasion the word necessity of subscribing either to the generation raises a peculiar idea: that creed of Arius, and maintain him to be procession which is really affected in God of an inferior nature, and thus a the way of understanding is called gene- plurality of Gods, or to embrace the ration, because, in virtue thereof, the doctrine of Socinus, who allows him Word becomes like to Him from whom only to be a God by office. But if this he takes the original; or, as St. Paul title belong to him as mediator, every expresses it, the figure or image of his difficulty is removed. And, lastly, it is substance; i. e. of his being and nature. observed, that though Jesus be God, -And hence it is, they say, that the and the attributes of eternal existence second person is called the Son; and ascribed to him, yet the two attributes, that in such a way and manner as never eternal and son, are not once expressed any other was, is, or can be, because in the same text as referring to 'eternal of 'his own divine nature, he being the generation. See article Son of God; true, proper, and natural Son of God, Owen on the Person of Christ ;
Pearson begotten by him before all worlds. Thus, on the Creed; Ridgley's Body of Divihe is called his own Son, Rom. viii. 3. nity, p. 73, 76. 3d edition; Gill's Ditto; his only begotten Son, John iii. 16. p. 205, vol. i. 8vo. edition ; Lambert's Many have attempted to explain the Sermons, ser. 13. text John xi. 35.; manner of this generation by different || Hodson's Essay on the Eternal Filiasimilitudes; but as they throw little ortion of the Son of God; Watts's Works, no light upon the subject, we shall not vol. v. p. 77. trouble the reader with them. Some, GENEROSITY,the disposition which however, suppose that the term Son of prompts us to bestow favours which are God refers to Christ as mediator; and not the purchase of any particular merit. that his Sonship does not lie in his di- It is different from humanity. Humavine or human nature, separately con- nity is an exquisite feeling we possess sidered, but in the union of both in one in relation to others, so as to grieve for person. See Luke i. 35. Matt. iv. 3. their sufferings, resent their injuries, or John i. 49. Matt. xvi. 16. Acts ix. 20, 22. to rejoice at their prosperity; and as it Rom. i. 4. It is observed, that it is im- arises from sympathy, it requires no possible that a nature properly divine great self-deníal, or self-command; but should be begotten, since begetting, generosity is that by which we are led whatever idea is annexed to it, must to prefer some other person to our signify some kind of production, deriva-selves, and to sacrifice any interest of tion, and inferiority ; consequently, that our own to the interest of another. whatever is produced must have a be GENIUS, a good or evil spirit or dæginning, and whatever had a beginning mon, who the ancients supposed was was not from eternity, as Christ is said set over each person to direct his birth, to be, Is. ix. 6. Col. i. 16, 17. That | accompany him in his life, and to be his the Sonship of Christ respects him as guard. mediator will be evident, if we com Genius signifies that aptitude which pare John X. 30. with John xiv. 28. _In | a man naturally possesses to perform the former it is said, “I and my Fa- well and easily that which others can ther are one;" in the latter, “ My Fa- do but indifferently, and with a great ther is greater than I.” These decla- deal of pain. rations, however opposite they seem, GENTILE, in matters of religion, a equally, respect him as he is the Son; Pagan, or worshipper of false gods. but if his Sonship primarily and properly The origin of this word is deduced from signify the generation of his divine na- the Jews, who called all those who ture, it will be difficult, if not impossi- were not of their name "a gojim, i. e. ble, according to that scheme, to make | gentes, which in the Greek translation them harmonize. Considered as a dis- of the Old Testament is rendered ra tinct person in the Godhead, without | søvn, in which sense it frequently occurs respect to his office as mediator, it is in the New Testament; as in Matt. vi. impossible, that, in the same view, he | 32. “All these things the nations or should be both equal and inferior to his Gentiles scek.” Whence the Latin
church also used gentes in the same || ries; meekness restrains our angry sense as our Gentiles, especially in the passions; candour our severe judgNew Testament. But the word gentes ments; but gentleness corrects whatsoon got another signification, and no ever is offensive in our manner, and, by longer meant all such as were not Jews, a constant train of humane attentions, but those only who were neither Jews studies to alleviate the burden of comnor Christians, but followed the super mon misery.” stitions of the Greeks and Romans, &c. GENUFLECTION, the act of bowIn this sense it continued among the ing or bending the knee, or rather of Christian writers, till their manner of kneeling down. The Jesuit Rosweyd, speech, together with their religion, | in his Onomasticon, shows that genuwas publicly, and by authority, received | fection, or kneeling, has been a very in the empire, when gentiles, from gen- || ancient custom in the church, and even tes, came into use; and then both words | under the Old Testament dispensation ; had two significations; viz. in treatises and that this practice was observed or laws concerning religion, they signi- | throughout all the year, excepting on fied Pagans, neither Jews nor Chris- | Sundays, and during the time from Eastians; and in civil affairs they are used | ter to Whitsuntide, when kneeling was for all such as were not Romans. See forbidden by the council of Nice. Others HEATHEN. PAGANISM.
have shown, that the custom of not GENTLENESS, softness or mildness kneeling on Sundays had obtained from of disposition and behaviour. Little as the time of the apostles, as appears from this disposition is thought of by many, St. Irenæus and Tertullian; and the we find it considered in Scripture as a Ethiopic church, scrupulously attached characteristic of the true Christian. || to the ancient ceremonies, still retains "The wisdom that is from above,” that of not kneeling at divine service. saith St. James, “is gentle, ch. iii. 17. | The Russians esteem it an indecent pos“This gentleness, indeed, is to be dis- ture to worship God on the knees. The tinguished from passive tameness of Jews usually prayed standing. Baronius spirit, and from unlimited compliance || is of opinion that genuflection was not with the manners of others. That pas- established in the year of Christ 58, sive tameness, which submits without a from that passage in Acts xx. 36, where struggle to every encroachment of the St. Paul is expressly mentioned to kneel violent and assuming, forms no part of down at prayer; bút Saurin shows that Christian duty; but, on the contrary, || nothing can be thence concluded. The is destructive of general happiness and same author remarks, also, that the order. That unlimited complaisance,|| primitive Christians carried the pracwhich on every occasion falls in with || tice of genuflection so far, that some of the opinions and manners of others, is them had worn cavities in the floor so far from being a virtue, that it is it- | where they prayed: and St. Jerome reself a vice, and the parent of many | lates of St. James, that he had convices. It overthrows all steadiness of tracted a hardness on his knees equal principle, and produces that sinful con- | to that of camels. formity with the world which taints GHOST, HOLY. See Holy Ghost. the whole character. In the present
GIFT OF TONGUES, an ability corrupted state of human manners, al- || given to the apostles of readily and inways to assent and to comply, is the telligibly speaking a variety of languages very worst maxim we can adopt. True which they had never learnt. This was gentleness, therefore, is to be carefully || a most glorious and important attestadistinguished from the mean spirit of tion of the Gospel, as well as a suitable, cowards and the fawning assent of syco- and indeed, in their circumstances, a phants. It renounces no just right from necessary furniture for the mission for fear; it gives up no important truth which the apostles and their assistants from flattery: it is, indeed, not only con were designed. Nor is there any reasistent with a firm mind, but it neces- son, with Dr. Middleton, to understand sarily requires a manly spirit and a fix-|| it as merely an occasional gift; so that ed principle, in order to give it any | a person might speak a language most real value. Ít stands opposed to harsh-| fluently one hour, and be entirely ignoness and severity, to pride and arro rant of it in the next; which neither gance, to violence and oppression : it is agrees with what is said of the abuse of properly that part. of charity which it, nor would have been sufficient to anmakes us unwilling to give pain to any | swer the end proposed. See Acts ii. of our brethren. Compassion prompts See Gill and Henry in Loc.; Jortin's us to relieve their wants; forbearance Remarks, vol. i. p. 15–21; Essay on the prevents is from retaliating their inju- || Gift of Tongues ; Middleton's Miscel.
Works, vol. ii. p. 379; Doddridge's || rise. The name was adopted by this Lect. lec. 141.
sect, on the presumption that they were GILBERTINES; a religious order; the only persons who had the true thus called from St. Gilbert, of Sem- | knowledge of Christianity. Accordingly pringham, in the county of Lincoln, who they looked on all other Christians as founded the same about the year 1148; simple, ignorant, and barbarous persons, the monks of which observed the rule who explained and interpreted the saof St. Augustine, and were accounted cred writings in a low, líteral, and uncanons, and the nuns that of St. Bene- edifying signification. At first, the Gnosdict. The founder of this order erected tics were the only philosophers and wits a double monastery, or rather two dif- || of those times, who formed for themferent ones, contiguous to each other; selves a peculiar system of theology, the one for men, the other for women, agreeable to the philosophy of Pythagobut parted by a very high wall. St. Gil ras and Plato; to which they accombert himself founded thirteen monaste- | modated all their interpretations of ries of this order; viz.four for men alone, Scripture. But Gnostics afterwards beand nine for men and women together,came a generical name, comprehending which had in them 700 brethren, and divers sects and parties of heretics, who 1500 sisters. At the dissolution, there rose in the first centuries; and who, were about twenty-five houses of this though they differed among themselves order in England and Wales.
as to circumstances, yet all agreed in GLASSITES. See SANDEMANIANS, some common principles. They cor
GLORY, praise, or honour, attributed | rupted the doctrine of the Gospel by a to God, in adoration or worship. The profane mixture of the tenets of the oristate of felicity prepared for the righ-ental philosophy, concerning the origin teous. See HEAVEN.
of evil and the creation of the world, The glory of God is the manifestation with its divine truths. Such were the of the divine perfections in creation, Valentinians, Simonians, Carpocratians, providence, and grace. We may be said Nicholaitans, &c. to give glory to God when we confess Gnostics sometimes also occurs in a our sins, when we love him supremely, good sense, in the ancient ecclesiastical when we commit ourselves to him, are writers, particularly Clemens Alexanzealous in his service, improve our ta- drinus, who, in the person of his Gnoslents, walk humbly, thankfully, and | tic, describes the characters and qualicheerfully before him, and recommend, ties of a perfect Christian. This point proclaim, or set forth his excellencies, he labours in the seventh book of his to others. Josh. vii. 19. Gal. ii. 20. John Stromata, where he shows that none xv. 8. Ps. 1. 23. Mat. v. 16.
but the Gnostic, or learned person, has GNOSIMACHI, a name which dis- || any true religion. He affirms, that, tinguished those in the seventh century || were it possible for the knowledge of who were professed enemies to the God to be separated from eternal salvaGnosis ; i. e. the studied knowledge ortion, the Gnostic would make no scruple science of Christianity, which they rest- || to choose the knowledge; and that if ed wholly on good works; calling it a God would promise him impunity in useless labour to seek for knowledge in doing of any thing he has once spoken the Scripture. In short, they contended | against, or offer him heaven on those for the practice of morality in all sim- | terms, he would never alter a whit of plicity, and blamed those who aimed at his measures. In this sense the father improving and perfecting it by a deeper uses Gnostics, in opposition to the hereknowledge and insight into the doctrines tics of the same name; affirming, that and mysteries of religion. The Gnosi- | the true Gnostic is grown old in the machi were the very reverse of the study of the holy Scripture, and that he Gnostics.
preserves the orthodox doctrine of the GNOSTICS, (from wwotinos, know- apostles, and of the church; whereas ing,) ancient heretics, famous from the the false Gnostic abandons all the aposfirst rise of Christianity, principally in tolical traditions, as imagining himself the east. It appears from several pas- wiser than the apostles: sages of Scripture, particularly 1 John Gnostics was sometimes also more ii. 18; 1 Tim. vi. 20; Col. ii. 8; that particularly used for the successors of many persons were infected with the the Nicholaitans and Carpocratians, in Gnostic heresy in the first century ; || the second century, upon their laying though the sect did not render itself aside the names of the first authors. conspicuous, either for numbers or re-Such as would be thoroughly acquainted putation, before the time of Adrian, with all their doctrines, reveries, and viwhen some writers erroneously date its || sions may consult St. Írenzens, Tertul
lian, Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, deal of their æons, or emanations, under and St. Epiphanius; particularly the the terms the word, the life, the light, first of these writers, who relates their &c. They divided all nature into three sentiments at large, and confutes them. kinds of beings, viz. hylic, or material; Indeed he dwells more on the Valen- psychic, or animal; and pneumatic, or tinians than any other sect of Gnostics ; spiritual. On the like principle they but he shows the general principles | also distinguished three sorts of men ; whereon all their mistaken opinions material, animal, and spiritual. The were founded, and the method they fol- first, who were material, and incapable lowed in explaining Scripture. He ac- of knowledge, inevitably perished, both cuses them of introducing into religion soul and body; the third, such as the certain vain and ridiculous genealogies, Gnostics themselves pretended to be, i.e. a kind of divine processions or ema- were all certainly saved; the psychic, nations, which had no other foundation or animal, who were the middle between but in their own wild imagination. The the other two, were capable either of Gnostics confessed, that these æons, or being saved or damned, according to emanations, were no where expressly their good or evil actions. With regard delivered in the sacred writings; but to their moral doctrines and conduct, insisted that Jesus Christ had intimated they were much divided. The greatest them in parables to such as could under-part of this sect adopted very austere stand them. They built their theology rules of life, recommended rigorous abnot only on the Gospels and the epistles stinence, and prescribed severe bodily of St. Paul, but also on the law of Mo- mortifications, with a view of purifying ses and the prophets. These last were and exalting the mind. However, some peculiarly serviceable to them, on ac- maintained that there was no moral difcount of the allegories and allusions ference in human actions; and thus conwith which they abound, which are ca- founding right with wrong, they gave a pable of different interpretations; though loose rein to all the passions, and asserttheir doctrine concerning the creation ed the innocence of following blindly all of the world by one or more inferior their motions, and of living by their tubeings of an evil or imperfect nature, multuous dictates. They supported led them to deny the divine authority of their opinions and practice by various the books of the Old Testament, which | authorities: some referred to fictitious contradicted this idle fiction, and filled and apocryphal writings of Adam, Abrathem with an abhorrence of Moses and ham, Zoroaster, Christ, and his aposthe religion he taught; alleging, that he tles; others boasted that they had dewas actuated by the malignant author of duced their sentiments from secret docthis world, who consulted his own glory trines of Christ, concealed from the vuland authority, and not the real advan- gar; others affirmed that they arrived tage of men. Their persuasion that evil at superior degrees of wisdom by an inresided in® matter, as its centre and nate vigour of mind; and others asserted source, made them treat the body with that they were instructed in these myscontempt, discourage marriage, and re- terious parts of theological science by ject the doctrine of the resurrection of Theudas, a disciple of St. Paul, and by the body, and its re-union with the im- Matthias, one of the friends of our Lord. mortal spirit. Their notion, that ma- The tenets of the ancient Gnostics were levolent genii presided in nature, and revived in Spain, in the fourth century, occasioned diseases and calamities, wars by a sect called the Priscillianists. At and desolations, induced them to apply length the name Gnostic, which origithemselves to the study of magic, in nally was glorious, became infamous, by order to weaken the powers, or suspend the idle opinions and dissolute lives of the influence of these malignant agents. the persons who bore it. The Gnostics considered Jesus Christ GOD, the self-existent, infinitely as the Son of God, and inferior to the perfect, and infinitely good Being, who Father, who came into the world for created and preserves all things that the rescue and happiness of miserable have existence. As the Divine Being mortals, oppressed by matter and evil possesses a nature far beyond the combeings; but they rejected our Lord's prehension of any of his creatures, of humanity, on the principle that every course that nature is inexplicable. “All thing corporeal is essentially and intrin- our knowledge of invisible objects is obsically evil; and therefore the greatest tained by analogy; that is, by the repart of them denied the reality of his semblance which they bear to visible sufferings. They set a great value on objects; but as there is in nature no exthe beginning of the Gospel of St. John, act resemblance of the nature of God, where they fancied they saw a great an attempt to explain the divine nature
is absurd and impracticable. All simi- || virtue; and by these means lay themlitudes, therefore, which are used in at- selves under an indispensable obligation tempting to explain it must be rejected.” to instruct them, and watch over their Yet, though we cannot fully understand conduct. his nature, there is something of him we GODLINESS, strictly taken, is right may know. He hath been pleased to worship or devotion; but in general it discover his perfections, in a measure, imports the whole of practical religion, by the works of creation and the Scrip- 1 Tim. iv. 8. 2 Pet. i. 6. It is difficult, as tures of truth; these, therefore, we Saurin observes, to include an adequate ought to study, in order that we may idea of it in what is called a definition. obtain the most becoming thoughts of " It supposes knowledge, veneration, him. For an account of the various at- affection, dependence, submission, gratitributes, or perfections of God, the tude, and obedience; or it may be rereader is referred to those articles in duced to these four ideas; knowledge this work.
in the mind, by which it is distinguished There are various nameş given to the from the visions of the superstitious; Almighty in the Scriptures, though pro- rectitude in the conscience, that distinperly speaking, he can have no name; guishes it from hypocrisy ; sacrifice in for as he is incomprehensible, he is not the life, or renunciation of the world, by nominable; and being but one, he has which it is distinguished from the unno need of a name to distinguish him; meaning obedience of him who goes as nevertheless, as names are given him in a happy constitution leads him; and, the Scriptures, to assist our ideas of his lastly, zeal in the heart, which differs greatness and perfection, they are wor- from the languishing emotions of the thy of our consideration. These names lukewarm." The advantages of this are, El, which denotes him the strong disposition, are honour, peace, safety, and powerful God, Gen. xvii. 1. Eloah, usefulness, support in death, and proswhich represents him as the only proper pect of glory; or, as the apostle sums object of worship, Psal. xlv. 6,7. Shad-up all in a few words, “ It is profitable dai, which denotes him to be all-suffi- unto all things, having the promise of cient and all-mighty, Exod. vi. 3. the life that now is, and of that which is Hheeljon, which represents his incom- to come,” 1 Tim. iv. 8. Saurin's Serm. parable excellency, absolute supremacy vol. v. ser. 3. Eng. trans.; Barrow's over all, and his peculiar residence in Works, vol. I, p. 9; Scott's Christian the highest heavens, Psalm 1. 11. Adoni, Life: Scougalls Life of God in the Soul which makes him the great connector, of Man. supporter, lord, and judge, of all crea GOOD, in general, is whatever intures, Psal. cx. 1. Jah, which may decreases pleasure, or diminishes pain in note his self-existence, and giving of be-us; or, which amounts to the same, ing to his creatures, or his infinite come- whatever is able to procure or preserve liness, and answerableness to himself, to us the possession of agreeable sensaand to the happiness of his creatures, tions, and remove those of an opposite Exod. xv. 2. Ehjeh, I am, or I will be, nature. Moral good denotes the right denotes his self-existence, absolute in conduct of the several senses and pasdependency, immutable eternity, and sions, or their just proportion and acall-sufficiency, to his people, Exod. ii. commodation to their respective objects 14. Jehovah, which denotes his self- and relations. existence, absolute independence, un Physical good is that which has either successive eternity, and his effectual and generally, or for any particular end, such marvellous giving of being to his crea- qualities as are expected or desired. tures, and fulfilling his promises. Gen. GOOD FRIDAY, a fast of the Chrisii. 4, &c.
tian church, in memory of the sufferings In the New Testament, God is called and death of Jesus Christ. It is obKurios, or Lord, which denotes his served on the Friday in Passion Week, self-existence, and his establishment of, and it is called, by way of eminence, and authority over all things; and Theos, good; because of the good effects of our which represents him as the maker, Saviour's sufferings. Ainong the Saxpervader, and governing observer of ons it was called Long Friday; but for the universe.
what reason does not appear, except on GODFATHERS AND GODMO-account of the long fasting and long of THERS, persons who, at the baptism fices then used. See Holy DAYS. of infants, answer for their future con GOODNESS, the fitness of a thing duct, and solemnly promise that they to produce any particular end. Perwill renounce the devil and all his fection, kindness, benevolence. works, and follow a life of picty and GOODNESS OF GOD, relates to