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ANALOGY OF FAITH, is the pro- | our readers to bishop Butler's excellent portion that the doctrines of the gospel | treatise on that subject. bear to each other, or the close con ANACHORETS, or ANCHORITES, nexion between the truths of revealed a sort of monks in the primitive church, religion, Rom. xii. 6. This is considered who retired from the society of manas a grand rule for understanding the kind into some desert, with a view to true sense of scripture. It is evident that avoid the temptations of the world, and the Almighty doth not act without a to be more at leisure for prayer, medidesign in the system of Christianity any tation, &c. Such were Paul, Anthony, more than he does in the works of na- and Hilarion, the first founders of moture. Now this design must be uniform; nastic life in Egypt and Palestine. for as in the system of the universe ANAGOGICAL, signifies mysteevery part is proportioned to the whole, | rious, transporting; and is used to exand made subservient to it, so in the sys- press whatever elevates the mind, not tem of the Gospel all the various truths, only to the knowledge of divine things, doctrines, declarations, precepts, and but of divine things in the next life. The promises, must correspond with and word is seldom used, but with regard to tend to the end designed. For instance, the different senses of Scripture. The supposing the glory of God in the salva- anagogical sense is when the sacred tion of man by free grace be the grand text is explained with regard to eternal design; then, whatever doctrine, asser- life, the point which Christians should tion, or hypothesis, agree not with this, have in view; for example, the rest of it is to be considered as false.-Great the sabbath, in the anagogical sense, care, however, must be taken in making signifies the repose of everlasting hapuse of this method, that the enquirer pre- piness. viously understand the whole scheme, ANATHEMA, imports whatever is and that he harbour not a predilection set apart, separated, or divided; but is only for a part; without attention to this most usually meant to express the cutwe shall be liable to error. If we come ting off of a person from the communion to the scriptures with any pre-conceived of the faithful. It was practised in the opinions, and are more desirous to put primitive church against notorious uffenthat sense upon the text which quad- ders. Several councils also have prorates with our sentiments rather than nounced anathemas against such as they the truth, it becomes then the analogy thought corrupted the purity of the of our faith, rather than that of the faith. Anathena Maranatha, mentionwhole system. This was the source of ed by Paul, (1 Cor. xiv. 22.) imports that the error of the Jews, in our Saviour's he who loves not the Lord Jesus will be time. They searched the scriptures: accursed at his coming. Anathema sigbut, such were their favourite opinions, nifies a thing devoted to destruction, and that they could not or would not disco- Maranatha is a Syriac word, signifying ver that the sacred volume testified of the Lord comes. It is probable in this Christ. And the reason was evident, passage there is an allusion to the form for their great rule of interpretation of the Jews, who when unable to inflict was what they might call the analogy so great a punishment as the crime deof faith; i. e. the system of the Phari- served, devoted the culprit to the imsean scribes, the doctrine then in vogue, médiate vindictive retribution of divine and in the profound veneration of which vengeance, both in this life and in a futhey had been educated. Perhaps there ture state. is hardly any sect but what has more or ANDRONA, a term used for that less been guilty in this respect. It may, part in churches which was destined for however, be of use to the serious and the men. Anciently it was the custom candid enquirer; for, as some texts may for the men and women to have sepaseem to contradict each other, and dif- rate apartments in places of worship, ficulties present themselves, by keeping where they performed their devotions the analogy of faith in view, he will the asunder, which method is still religiousmore easily resolve those difficulties, ly observed in the Greek church. and collect the true sense of the sacred ANGEL, a spiritual intelligent suboracles. What “the aphorisms of Hip- stance, the first in rank and dignity pocrates are to a physician, the axioms among created beings. The word angel in geometry to a mathematician, the (2778195) is Greek, and signifies a mesadjudged cases in law to a counsellor, or senger.' The Hebrew word 785p signithe maxims of war to a general, such is fies the same. Angels, therefore in the the analogy of faith to a Christian.” Of proper signification of the word, do not the analogy of religion to the constitu- import the nature of any being, but only tion and course of nature, we must refer the office to which they are appointed

especially by way of message or inter- || pure spirits divested of all matter, or course between God and his creatures. i united to some thin bodies, or corporeal Hence the word is used differently in vehicles, has been a controversy of long various parts of the scripture, and signi- standing: the more general opinion is, fies, 1. 'Human messengers, or agents that they are substances entirely spifor others, 2 Sam. ii. 5. “David sent ! ritual, though they can at any time asMessengers (Heb. angels) to Jabesh sume bodies, and appear in human Gilead, Prov. xii. 17. Mark i. 2. James shape, Gen. xviii. and xix. Gen. xxuj. ii. 25.-2. Officers of the churches, Matt. xxviii. Luke i. &c. The scripwhether prophets or ordinary minis-tures represent them as endued with ters, Hag. i. 13. Rev. 1. 20.-3. Jesus extraordinary wisdom and power, 2 Christ, Mal. ii. 1. Isa. Ixiii. 9.4. Some Sam. xiv. 20. Ps. ciii. 20; holy and readd the dispensations of God's provi- gular in their inclinations; zealous in dence, either beneficial or calamitous, their employ, and completely happy in Gen. xxiv. 7. Ps. xxxiv. 7. Acts xii. 23. ! their minds, Job xxxviii. 7. Heb. i. 7. 1 Sam. xiv. 14; but I must confess, that, Matt. xviii. 10. Their number seems to though I do not at all see the impro-" be great, Ps. Ixviii. 17. Heb. xii

. 22; and priety of considering the providences of perhaps have distinct orders, Col. i. 16, God as his angels or messengers for 17. 1 Pet. iii. 22. 1 Thes. iv. 16. Dan. x. good or for evil, yet the passages gene- || 13. They are delighted with the grand rally adduced under this head do not scheme of redemption, and the converprove to me that the providences of sion of sinners to God, Luke ii. 12. 1 Pet. God are meant in distinction from cre- | i. 12. Luke xv. 10. They not only worated angels.-5. Created intelligences, ship God, and execute hís commands at both good and bad, Heb. i. 14. Jude 6. large, but are attendant on the saints of the subject of the present article.-As God while here below, Ps. xci. 11, 12. to the time when the angels were crea- Heb. i. 13. Luke xvi. 22. Some conjected, much has been said by the learned. ture that every good man has his parSome wonder that Moses, in his account ticular guardian angel, Matt. xviii. 10. of the creation, should pass over this in Acts xii

. 15; but this is easier to be supsilence. Others suppose that he did this posed than to be proved; nor is it a because of the proneness of the Gentile matter of consequence to know. “What world, and even the Jews, to idolatry; need we dispute,” says Henry, “whether but a better reason has been assigned by every particular saint has a guardian others, viz. that this first history was angel, when we are sure he has a guard purposely and principally written for in- of angels about him?” They will gather formation concerning the visible world; the elect in the last day, attend the final the invisible, of which we know but in judgment, Matt. xxv. 31. Rev. xiv. 18. part, being reserved for a better life. Matt. xii. 39, and live for ever in the Some think that the idea of God's not world of glory, Luke xx. 36. creating them before this world was Althoug! the angels were originally made, is very contracted. To suppose, created perfect, yet they were mutable: say they, that no creatures whatever, some of them sinned, and kept not their neither angels nor other worlds, had | first estate; and so, of the most blessed been created previous to the creation and glorious, became the most vile and of our world, is to suppose that a Being miserable of all God's creatures. They of infinite power, wisdom, and good were expelled the regions of light, and ness, had remained totally inactive from with heaven lost their heavenly dispoall eternity, and had permitted the in-sition, and fell into a settled rancour finity of space to continue a perfect va- against God, and malice against men. cuum till within these 6000 years; that what their offence was is difficult to such an idea only tends to discredit re- determine, the scripture being silent velation, instead of serving it. On the about it. Some think envy, others unother hand it is alleged, that they must belief; but most suppose it was pride. have been created within the six days; il As to the time of their fall, we are cerbecause it is said, that within this space tain it could not be before the sixth day God made heaven and earth, and all of the creation, because on that day it things that are therein. It is, however, is said, “God saw every thing that he a needless speculation, and we dare not had made, and behold it was very good;" indulge a spirit of conjecture. It is our but that it was not long after, is very prohappiness to know that they are all mi- bable, as it must have preceded the fall nistering spirits, sent forth to minister of our first parents. The number of the to them who are heirs of salvation. As fallen angels scems to be great, and, like to the nature of these beings, we are the holy angels, perhaps have various told that they are spirits; but whether orders among them, Matt. xii. 24. Eph.

12. Eph. vi. 12. Col. ii. 15. Rev. xii. 7.) they were construed into indications of Their constant employ is not only doing malice; the inducement which prompted evil themselves, but 'endeavouring, by our adversary to act as he did, and how all arts to seduce and pervert mankind, powerfully the same inducement has, at 1 Pet. v. 8. Job i. 6. It is supposed they one time or other, operated upon ourwill be restrained during the millen- selves; that he is suffering, perhaps, nium, Rev. xx. 2, but afterwards again, under a contrition, which he is ashamed, for a short time, deceive the nations, Rev. or wants opportunity to confess; and XX. 8, and then be finally punished, Matt. how ungenerous it is to triumph by coldxxv. 41. The authors who have written ness or insult over a spirit already humon this subject have been very nume- i bled in secret; that the returns of kindrous; we shall only refer to a few: Reyness are sweet, and that there is neither noldo's Enquiry into the State and Eco- honour, nor virtue, nor use, in resisting nomy of the Angelical World; Dod- | them; for some persons think themdridge's Lect. p. 10. lect. 210. to 214; selves bound to cherish and keep alive Milton's Paradise Lost; Bp. Nervton's their indignation, when they find it dyWorks, yol. iii. p. 538, 568; Shepherd ing away of itself

. We may remember of Angels ; Gilpin on Temptation ; Cas- that others have their passions, their manni Angelographia ; Gill and Kidge- prejudices, their favourite aims, their ley's Bodies of Divinity.

fears, their cautions, their interests, ANGELICS, an ancient sect, sup- ' their sudden impulses, their varieties of posed by some to have got this appella- apprehension, as well as we: we may letion from their excessive veneration of collect what hath sometimes passed in angels, and by others from maintaining our own minds when we have got on the that the world was created by angels. wrong side of a quarrel, and imagine the

ANGELITES, a sect in the reign of same to be passing in our adversary's the emperor Anastasius, about the year mind now: when we became sensible 194; so called from Angelium, a place of our misbehaviour, what palliations in the city of Alexandria, where they we perceived in it, and expected others held their first meetings. They were to perceive; how we were affected by called likewise Severites, from Severus, the kindness, and felt the superiority who was the head of their sect; as also of a generous reception, and ready Theodosians, from one Theodosius, forgiveness; how persecution revived whom they made pope at Alexandria. our spirits with our enmity, and seemed They held that the persons of the tri- to justify the conduct in ourselves, nity are not the same; that none of which we before blamed. Add to this them exists of himself, and of his own the indecency of extravagant anger; nature; but that there is a common how it renders us while it lasts, the God or Deity existing in them all

, and scorn and sport of all about us, of which that each is God by a participation of it leaves us, when it ceases, sensible and this Deity.

ashamed; the inconveniences and irre ANGER, a violent passion of the trievable misconduct into which our mind, arising from the receipt, or sup- irascibility has sometimes betrayed us; posed receipt, of any injury, with a pre- the friendships it has lost us; the dissent purpose of revenge. All anger istresses and embarrassments in which by no means sinful; it was designed by we have been involved by it; and the the Author of our nature for self-de-repentance which, on one account or fence; nor is it altogether a selfish pas- other, it always costs us. But the reflecsion, since it is excited by injuries offer- tion calculated above all others to allay ed to others as well as ourselves, and that haughtiness of temper which is sometimes prompts us to reclaim offen- ever finding out provocations, and which ders from sin and danger, Eph. iv. 26; renders anger so impetuous, is, that but it becomes sinful when conceived which the Gospel proposes; namely, upan trivial occasions or inadequate that we ourselves are, or shortly shali provocations; when it breaks forth into be, suppliants for mercy and pardon at outrageous actions; vents itself in re- the judgment seat of God. Imagine our viling language, or is concealed in our secret sins all disclosed and brought to thoughts to the degree of hatred. To light; imagine us thus humbled and exsuppress this passion the following re- posed; trembling under the hand of flections of arch-deacon Paley, may not God; casting ourselves on his compasbe unsuitable: “We should consider the sion; crying out for mercy; imagine possibility of mistaking the motives from such a creature to talk of satisfaction which the conduct that offends us pro- and revenge; refusing to be entreated, ceeded; how often our offences have disdaining to forgive; extreme to mark been the effect of inadvertency, when | and to resent what is done

amiss; ima

name

gine, I say, this, and you can hardly || particular solemnity. Anthems were feign to yourself an instance of more first introduced in the reformed service impious and unnatural arrogance." of the English church, in the beginning Paley's Mor. Phil. ch. 7. vol. i. ; Faw- of the reign of queen Elizabeth. cett's excellent Treatise on Anger; ANTHROPOMORPHITES, a sect Seed's Posth, Ser. ser. 11.

of ancient heretics, who, taking every ANGER OF GOD. See WRATH. thing spoken of God in the scripture in

ANGLO-CALVINISTS, a a literal sense, particularly that passage given by some writers to the members of Genesis in which it is said, “God of the church of England, as agreeing made man after his own image," mainwith the other Calvinists in most points, tained that God had a human shape. excepting church government.

ANTHROPOPATHY, a figure, exANNIHILATION, the act of reduc- pression, or discourse, whereby some ing any created being into nothing. The passion is attributed to God whích prosentiments of mankind have differed perly belongs only to man. Anthropowidely as to the possibility and impos- pathy is frequently used promiscuously sibility of annihilation. According to with anthropology; yet in strictness some, nothing is so difficult; it requires they ought to be distinguished, as the the infinite power of God to effect it: genus from the species. Anthropology according to others, nothing so easy. may be understood of any thing human Existence, say they, is a state of vio- attributed to God, as eyes, hands, &c. lence; all things are continually endea- but anthropopathy only of human affecvouring to return to their primitive no- tions and passions, as joy, grief. We thing: it requires no power at all; it will have frequent instances of the use of do it itself: nay, more, it requires an these figures in holy scripture. infinite power to prevent it. With re ANTIBURGHERS, a numerous and spect to human beings, it appears pro- respectable body of dissenters from the bable from reason; but it is confirmed church of Scotland, who differ from the by Scripture that they will not be anni- established church chiefly in matters of hilated, but exist in a future state, Matt. church government; and who differ, x. 28. Ecc. xii. 7. John v. 24. 1 Thess. v. also, from the Burgher seceders, with 10. Matt. xxv. 34, 41. Luke xvi. 22, 28. whom they were originally united, chiefLuke xx. 37, 38. 1 Cor. xv. See 158, &c. ly, if not solely, respecting the lawfulvol. i. Massilon's Ser. Eng. Trans.; No. ness of taking the Burgess oath. For an 129, Guardian; Blair's Ser. vol. i. p. account of their origin and principles, 461; and articles DESTRUCTIONISTS, see SECEDERS. RESURRECTION, SOUL.

ANTICHRIST, an adversary to JeANNUNCIATION, the tidings sus Christ. There have been various brought by the angel Gabriel to the opinions concerning the Antichrist menvirgin Mary of the incarnation of Christ. tioned in the Scripture, 1 John ii. 18. It is also used to denote a festival kept Some have held that the Jews are to be by the church on the 25th of March, in reputed as Antichrist; others Caligula; commemoration of these tidings. others Mahomet; others Simon Magus;

ANOMOEANS, the name by which others infidelity; and others, that the the pure Arians were called in the devil himself is the Antichrist. Most fourth century, in contradistinction to authors agree, however, that it applies the Semi-arians. The word is formed to the church of Rome. Grotius, Hamfrom the Greek cromosos, different. See mond, Bossuet, and others, supposed ARIANS and SEMI-ARIANS.

Rome pagan to be designed; but Rome ANTEDILUVIANS, a general name Christian seems more evident, for John for all mankind who lived before the saw the beast rise up out of the sea,' flood, including the whole human race Rev. xiii. 1. Now, as heathen Rome had from the creation to the deluge. For risen and been established long before the history of the Antediluvians, see his time, this could not refer to the RoBook of Genesis

. Whiston's Josephus, man empire then subsisting, but to a Cockburn's Treatise on the Deluge, and form of government afterwards to arise. article DELUGE.

As, therefore, none did arise, after ANTHEM, a church song performed Rome was broken to pieces by the barin cathedral service by choristers who barians, but that of the papal power, it sung alternately. It was used to denote must be considered as applying to that. both psalms and hymns, when perform- The descriptions also, of the beast as ed in this manner; but, at present, an- the great apostacy, the man of sin, the them is used in a more confined sense, mystery of iniquity, and the son of perbeing applied to certain passages taken dition, will apply only to Christian out of the scriptures, and adapted to a Rome. See Daniel vi. 2 Thess. ü. and

Rev. xiii. Besides the time allowed for ' epoch agrees best with the time when, the continuance of the beast will not according to prophecy, he was to be reapply to heathen Rome; for power was vealed. The rise of Antichrist was to given to the beast for 1260 years, where- be preceded by the dissolution of the as heathen Rome did not last 400 years Roman empire, the establishment of a after this prophecy was delivered. Au-different form of government in Italy, thors have differed as to the time when and the division of the empire into ten Antichrist arose. Some suppose that kingdoms; all these events taking place, his reign did not commence till he be- make it very probable that the year 606 came a temporal prince, in the year 756, was the time of his rise. Nor have the when Pepin wrested the exarchate of events of the last century made it less Ravenna from the Lombards, and made probable. The power of the pope was it over to the pope and his successors. never so much shaken as within a few Others think that it was in 727, when years: “his dominion is, in a great meaRome and the Roman dukedom came sure, taken from him;" and every thing from the Greeks to the Roman pontiff. seems to be going on gradually to terMede dates this rise in the year 456; but 'minate his authority; so that, by the others, and I think with the greatest time this 1260 years shall be concluded, reason, place it in the year 606. Now, it we may suppose that Antichrist shali is generally agreed that the reign of An- be finally destroyed. tichrist is 1260 years; consequently, if As to the cruelties of Antichrist, the his rise is not to be reckoned till he was persecutions that have been carried on, possessed of secular authority, then his and the miseries to which mankind have fall must be when this power is taken been subject, by the power of the beast, away. According to the first opinion, he the reader may consult the articles Inmust have possessed his temporal power QUISITION and Persecution. In this till the year 2016; according to the se we have to rejoice, that, however varicond, he must have possessed it till the ous, the opinions of the learned may be year 1987. If this rise began, according as to the time when Antichrist rose, it to Mede, in 456, then he must have fall- is evident to all that he is fast declining, en in 1716. Now that these dates were and will certainly fall, Rev. xviii

. 1, 5. wrong, circumstances have proved; the What means the Almighty may farther first and second being too late, and the use, the exact time when, and the manthird too early. As these hypotheses, ner how, all shall be accomplished, we therefore, must fall to the ground, it re must leave to him who ordereth all mains for us to consider why the last things after the counsel of his own will. mentioned is the more probable. It was See Bp. Newton on the Prophecies ; about the year 606 that pope Boniface i Simpson's Key to ditto ; Moseley's Ser. III. by tlattering Phocas, the emperor on Fall of Babylon; Ward's Three of Constantinople, one of the worst of Discourses on Prophecy, and books tyrants, procured for himself the title of under that article. Universal Bishop. The bishops of Rome ANTIDORON, a name given by the and Constantinople had long been strug- Greeks to the consecrated bread ; out of gling for this honour; at last, it was de which the middle part, marked with cided in favour of the bishop of Rome; the cross, wherein the consecration reand from this time he was raised above sides, being taken away by the priest, all others, and his supremacy establish- the remainder is distributed after mass ed by imperial authority: it was now, to the poor. also, that the most profound ignorance, ANTINOMIANS, those who maindebauchery, and superstition, reigned. tain that the law is of no use or obligaFrom this time the popes exerted alltion under the gospel dispensation, or their power in promoting the idolatrous who hold doctrines that clearly superworship of images, saints, reliques, and sede the necessity of good works. The angels. The church was truly deplora- Antinomians took their origin from John ble; all the clergy were given up to the Agricola, about the year 1558, who most flagrant and abominable acts of li- taught that the law is no way necessary centiousness. Places of worship resem- under the Gospel; that good works do bled the temples of heathens more than not promote our salvation, nor ill one's the churches of Christians; in fine, no- hinder it; that repentance is not to be thing could exceed the avarice, pride, preached from the decalogue, but only and vanity of all the bishops, presbyters, from the Gospel. This sect sprang up deacons, and even the cloistered monks in England during the protectorate of All this fully answered the description Cromwell, and extended their system St. Paul gave of Antichrist, 2 Thess. ii

. of libertinism much farther than AgriIt is necessary also to observe, that this cola did. Some of them it is said, main

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