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To this it may be replied, that if it || conjecture that the diversity of languabe allowed that the saints shall know | ges shall then cease, inasmuch as it took that some whom they loved on earth | its first rise from God's judicial hand, are not in heaven, this will give them no when he confounded the speech of those uneasiness : since that affection which who presumptuously attempted to build took its rise principally from the rela- | the city and tower of Babel; and this tion which we stood in to persons on has been ever since attended with many earth, or the intimacy, that we have inconveniences. And, indeed, the aposcontracted with them, will cease in an tle seems expressly to intimate as much, other world, or rather run in another when he says, speaking concerning the channel, and be excited by superior heavenly state, that tongues shall motives; namely, their relation to cease, 1 Cor. xüi. 8. that is, the present Christ; that perfect holiness which variety of languages.-Moreover, since they are adorned with; their being the gift of tongues was bestowed on joined in the same blessed society, and the apostles for the gathering and engaged in the same employment, to- | building up the church in the first ages gether with their former usefulness one thereof, which end, when it was anto another in promoting their spiritual | swered, this extraordinary dispensation welfare, as made subservient to the ceased; in like manner it is probable happiness they enjoy there. And as that hereafter the diversity of languafor others, who are excluded from their ges shall cease.society, they will think themselves obli “I am sensible,” says Dr. Ridgley, ged, out of a due regard to the justice “there are some who object to this, that and holiness of God to acquiesce in his || the saints understanding all languages, righteous judgments. Thus, the inha- will be an addition to their honour, globitants of heaven are represented as ry, and happiness. But to this it may adoring the divine perfections, when the be answered, that though it is, indleed, vials of God's wrath were poured out an accomplishment, in this world, for a upon his enemies, and saying, Thou art person to understand several languages, righteous, O Lord, because thou hast | that arises from the subserviency therejudged thus: true and righteous are of to those valuable ends that are anthy judgments, Rev. xvi. 5, 7.

swered thereby; but this would be en* Another question has been some- || tirely removed, if the diversity of lantimes asked, viz. Whether there shall be guages be taken away in heaven, as a diversity of languages in heaven, as some suppose it will." there is on earth? This we cannot “ There are some, who, it may be, pretend to determine. Some think that give too much scope to a vain curiosity, there shall; and that, as persons of all when they pretend to enquire what nations and tongues shall make up that this language shall be, or determine, as blessed society, so they shall praise God the Jews do, and with them some of the in the same language which they be- fathers, that it shall be Hebrew, since fore used when on earth; and that this their arguments for it are not suffiworship may be performed with the ciently conclusive, which are principally greatest harmony, and to mutual edifi- || these, viz. That this was the language cation, all the saints shall, by the imme- || with which God inspired man at first in diate power and providence of God, be paradise, and that which the saints and able to understand and make use of patriarchs spake, and the church geneevery one of those different languages, rally made use of in all ages till our Saas well as their own. This they found viour's time; and that it was this lan

on the apostle's words, in which he says, guage which he himself spake while , That at the name of Jesus every knee here on earth; and since his ascension should bow, and that every tongue into heaven, he spake to Paul in the should confess that Jesus Christ is Hebrew tongue, Acts xxvi. 14. And Lord; which they suppose has a respect when the inhabitants of heaven are deto the heavenly state, because it is said scribed in the Revelations as praising to be done both by those that are in God, there is one word used by which heaven, and those that are on earth, their praise is expressed, namely, HalPhil

. č. 10, 11. But though the apos- || lelujah, which is Hebrew; the meaning tle speaks by a metonymy of different whereof is, Praise ye the Lord. But all tongues, that is, persons who speak these arguments are not sufficiently condifferent languages being subject to vincing, and therefore we must reckon Christ, he probably means thereby per- it no more than a conjecture.” sons of different nations, whether they However undecided we may be as to shall praise him in their own language this and some other circumstances, this in heaven, or no. Therefore some we may be assured of, that the happi

ques. 90.

Paven will be eternal. Whether || are represented as the ingredients of e progressive or not, and that the torment of the wicked, Rev. xiv.

s shall always be increasing in 10, 11. Rev. xx. 10. That as the body is their knowledge, joy, &c. is not so clear to be raised, and the whole man to be Some suppose that this indicates an im- condemned, it is reasonable to believe perfection in the felicity of the saints there will be some corporeal punishfor any addition to be made; but others ment provided, and therefore probably think it quite analogous to the dealings material fire. On the negative side it of God with us here; and that, from is alleged, that the terms above-metthe nature of the mind itself, it may be tioned are metaphorical, and signify no concluded. But however this be, it is more than raging desire or acute pain; certain that our happiness will be com- and that the Divine Being can sufficientplete, 1 Pet. v. 10. 1 Pet. v. 4. Heb. xi. ly punish the wicked, by immediately 10. Watts': Death and Heaven ; Gill's acting on their minds, or rather leaving Body of Divinity, vol. ii. p. 495; Sau- them to the guilt and stings of their own rin's Sermons, vol. ij. p. 321, Ton- conscience. According to several paslady's Works, vol. iii. p. 471; Bates's | sages, it seems there will be different Works; Ridgley's Body of Divinity, degrees of punishment in hell, Luke xi.

47. Rom. ii. 12. Matt. x. 20, 21. Matt. HEBREWS. See Jews.

xii. 25, 32. Heb. X. 28, 29. HELL, the place of divine punish As to its duration, it has been obserment after death. As all religions have ved that it cannot be eternal, because supposed a future state of existence there is no proportion between tempoafter this life, so all have their hell, or rary crimes and eternal punishments; place of torment, in which the wicked | that the word everlasting is not to be are to be punished. Even the

heathens taken in its utmost extent; and that it had their tartara; and the Mahome- || signifies no more than a long time, or a tans, we find, believe the eternity of time whose precise boundary is unrewards and punishments; it is not, known. But in answer to this it is altherefore, a sentiment peculiar to Chris- leged, that the same word is used, and tianity.

that sometimes in the very same place, There have been many curious and to express the eternity of the happiness useless conjectures respecting the place of the righteous, and the eternity of the of the damned: the ancients generally misery of the wicked; and that there supposed it was a region of fire near is no reason to believe that the words the centre of the earth. Mr. Swinden express two such different ideas, as endeavoured to prove that it is seated standing in the same connection. Bein the sun. Mr. Whiston advanced a sides, it is not true, it is observed, that new and strange hypothesis ; according temporary crimes do not deserve eterto him, the comets are so many hells, || nal punishments, because the infinite appointed in their orbits alternately to majesty of an offended God adds a kind carry the damned to the confines of the of infinite evil to sin, and therefore exsun, there to be scorched by its violent poses the sinner to infinite punishment; heat; and then to return with them be- and that hereby God vindicates his inyond the orb of Saturn, there to starve jured majesty, and glorifies his justice them in those cold and dismal regions. See articles DESTRUCTIONISTS and But, as Dr. Doddridge observes, we UNIVERSALISTS. Berry St. Lect. vol. must here confess our ignorance; and ii. p. 559, 562; Dawes on Hell, ser. X.; shall be much better employed in stu- w'histon on ditto; Swinden, Drexelius, dying how we may avoid this place of and Edwards on ditto. A late popular horror, than in labouring to discover writer has observed, that in the 35th where it is.

sermon of Tillotson, every thing is said Of the nature of this punishment we upon the eternity of hell torments that may form some idea from the expres- can be known with any certainty. sions made use of in Scripture. It is HELL, Christ's descent into. That called a place of torment, Luke xvi. Christ locally descended into hell, is a 21. the bottomless pit, Rev. xx. 3 to 6. doctrine believed not only by the paa prison, 1 Pet. iii. 19. darkness, Matt. pists, but by many among the reformed. viii. 12. Jude 13. fire, Matt. xii. 42, 50. 1. The text chiefly brought forward in a worm that never dies, Mark ix. 44, support of this doctrine is the 1st Peter, 48, the second death, Rev. xxi. 8. the i. 19.“ By which he went and preachwrath of God, Rom. ii. 5. It has beened to the spirits in prison;" but it evidebated whether there will be a mate- dently appears that the "spirit” there rial fire in hell. On the affirmative side mentioned was not Christ's human soul, it is observed, that fire and brimstone | but a divine nature, or rather the Holy

Spirit (by which he was quickened, and || Greek version of the Old Testament, raised from the dead ;) and by the in- commonly called the Septuagint, or spiration of which, granted to Noah, he that of the Seventy. preached to those notorious sinners who Salmasius and Vossius are of a differare now in the prison of hell for their ent sentiment with respect to the Heldisobedience.

lenists: the latter will only have them 2. Christ, when on the cross, promis- | to be those who adhered to the Grecian ed the penitent thief his presence that interests. Scaliger is represented in the day in paradise; and accordingly, when Scaligerana as asserting the Hellenists he died, he committed his soul into his to be the Jews who lived in Greece and heavenly Father's hand: in heaven other places, and who read the Greek therefore, and not in hell, we are to seek Bible in their synagogues, and used the the separate spirit of our Redeemer in Greek language in sacris; and thus they this period, Luke xxiii. 43, 46.

were opposed to the Hebrew Jews, who 3. Had our Lord descended to preach || performed their public worship in the to the damned, there is no supposable | Hebrew tongue; and in this sense St. reason why the unbelievers in Noah's Paul speaks of himself as a Hebrew of time only should be mentioned rather the Hebrews, Phil. iii

. 5, 6. i. e. a Hethan those of Sodom, and the unhappy | brew both by nation and language. multitudes that died in sin. But it may | The Hellenists are thus properly disbe said, do not both the Old and New || tinguished from the Hellenes, or Greeks, Testaments intimate this? Ps. xvi. 10. | mentioned John xii. 20. who were Greeks Acts ii

. 34. But it may be answered, || by birth and nation, and yet proselytes that the words, “thou wilt not leave to the Jewish religion. my soul in hell,” may be explained (as HEMEROBAPTISTS, a sect among is the manner of the Hebrew poets) in the ancient Jews, thus called from their the following words: “Neither wilt washing and bathing every day, in all thou suffer thine holy one to see cor- seasons; and performing this custom ruption.” So the same words are used, with the greatest solemnity, as a reliPs. Ixxxix. 48.—“What man is he that gious rite necessary to salvation. liveth, and shall not see death? shall Epiphanius, who mentions this as the he deliver his soul from the hand of the fourth heresy among the Jews, observes, grave?” In the Hebrew (5182) the that in other points these heretics had word commonly rendered hell properly much the same opinion as the Scribes signifies “the invisible state," as our || and Pharisces; only that they denied word hell originally did; and the other the resurrection of the dead, in common word (v22) signifies not always the im- | with the Sadducees, and retained a few mortal soul, but the animal frame in other of the improprieties of these last. general, either living or dead. Bishop The sect who pass in the East under Pearson and Dr. Barrow on the Creed; the denomination of Sabians, calling Edwards': Hist. of Redemption, notes, themselves Mendai liahi, or the discip. 351, 377; Ridgley's Body of Div. p. ples of St. John, and whom the Ell308, 3d edit. Doddridge and"Guise on ropeans entitle the Christians of St. 1 Pet. iii. 19.

John, because they yet retain some HELLENISTS, a term occurring in knowledge of the Gospel, is probably the Greek text of the New Testament, il of Jewish origin, and seems to have been and which in the English version is ren- derived from the ancient Hemerobapdered Grecians, Acts vi. 1. The critics | tists; at least it is certain that Jolin, are divided as to the signification of the whom they consider as the founder of word. Some observe, that it is not to be their sect, bears no sort of similitude to understood as signifying those of the re-John the Baptist, but rather resembles ligion of the Greeks, but those who the person of that name whom the anspoke Greek. The authors of the Vul- cient writers represent as the chief of gate version render it like our Græci; | the Jewish Hemerobaptists. These ambut Messieurs Du Port Royal, more ac- biguous Christians dwell in Persia anı! curately, Juifs Grecs, Greek or Gre- | Arabia, and principally at Bassora; an! cian Jews; it being the Jews who spoke their religion consists in bodily washGreek that are here treated of, and who ings, performed frequently and with are hereby distinguished from the Jews great solemnity, and attended with cercalled Hebrews, that is, who spoke the tain ceremonies which the pri minHebrew tongue of that time.

gle with this superstitious service. The Hellenists, or Grecian Jews, HENOTICON, a famous edict of the were those who lived in Egypt, and emperor Zeno, published A. D. 482, other parts where the Greek tongue and intended to reconcile and re-unité prevailed: it is to them we owe the the Eutychians with the Catholics. It

was procured of the emperor by means || of the essential doctrines of Christianity, of Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, publicly and obstinately avowed. It must with the assistance of the friends of Pe- be acknowledged, however, that par ter Mongus and Peter Trullo. The sting|| ticular modes of belief or unbelief, not of this edict lies here; that it repeats and tending to overturn Christianity, or to confirms all that has been enacted in the sap the foundations of morality, are by councils of Nice, Constantinople, Ephe- no means the object of coercion by the sus, and Chalcedon, against the Arians, civil magistrate. What doctrines shall Nestorians, and Eutychians, without therefore be adjudged heresy, was left making any particular mention of the by our old constitution to the determicouncil of Chalcedon. It is in the form nation of the ecclesiastical judge, who of a letter, addressed by Zeno to the had herein a most arbitrary latitude albishops, priests, monks, and people of lowed him; for the general definition Egypt and Libya. It was opposed by of an heretic, given by Lyndewode, exthe Catholics, and condemned in form tends to the smallest deviations from the by pope Felix II.

doctrines of the holy church: “ Hæreti HENRICIANS, a sect so called from cus est qui dubitat de fide catholica, et Henry, its founder, who, though a monk qui negligit servare ea quæ Romana ecand hermit, undertook to reforın the clesia statuit, seu servare decreverat:” superstition and vices of the clergy. For or, as the statute, 2 Hen. IV. cap. 15, this purpose he left Lausanne, in Swit-expresses it in English, “teachers of zerland, and, removing from different erroneous opinions, contrary to the places, at length settled at Tholouse, in faith and blessed determinations of the the year 1147, and there exercised his holy church.". Very contrary this to ministerial function; till, being over the usage of the first general councils, come by the opposition of Bernard, ab- | which defined all heretical doctrines bot of Clairval, and condemned by pope with the utmost precision and exactness; Eugenius III. at a council assembled at and what ought to have alleviated the Rheims, he was committed to a close punishment, the uncertainty of the prison in 1148, where he soon ended his crime, seems to have enhanced it in days. This reformer rejected the bap- those days of blind zeal and pious tism of infants, severely censured the cruelty. The sanctimonious hypocrisy corrupt manners of the clergy, treated of the Canonists, indeed, went, at first, the festivals and ceremonies of the no farther than enjoining penance, exchurch with the utmost contempt, and communication, and ecclesiastical deheld private assemblies for inculcating privation, for heresy; but afterwards his peculiar doctrines.

they proceeded boldly to imprisonment HERACLEONITES, a sectof Chris- by the ordinary, and confiscation of tians, the followers of Heracleon, who goods in pios usus. But in the mean refined upon the Gnostic divinity, and time they had prevailed upon the weakmaintained that the world was not the ness of bigoted princes to make the ciimmediate production of the Son of God, vil power subservient to their purposes, but that he was only the occasional | by making heresy not only a temporal cause of its being created by the demiur- but even a capital offence; the Romish gus. The Heracleonites denied the au- ecclesiastics determining, without apthority of the prophecies of the Old peal, whatever they pleased to be heTestament; maintained that they were resy, and shifting off to the secular arm mere random sounds in the air; and the odium and drudgery of executions, that St. John the Baptist was the only with which they pretended to be too true voice that directed to the Messiah. l tender and delicate to intermeddle.

HERESIARCH, an arch heretic, the Nay, they affected to intercede on befounder or inventor of an heresy; or a half of the convicted heretic, well chief of a sect of heretics.

knowing that at the same time they HERESY. This word signifies sect were delivering the unhappy victim to or choice; it was not in its earliest ac- certain death. See Act Of Faith.ceptation conceived to convey any re-Hence the capital punishments inflicted proach, since it was indifferently used on the ancient Donatists and Manieither of a party approved, or of one chæans by the emperors Theodosius and disapproved by the writer. See Acts Justinian; hence, also, the constitution v. 17. xv. 3. Afterwards it was gene- of the emperor Frederic, mentioned rally used to signify some fundamental by Lyndewode, adjudging all persons, error adhered to with obstinacy, 2 Pet. without distinction, to be burnt with fire, ii. 1. Gal. v. 20.

who were convicted of heresy by the According to the laws of this king- ecclesiastical judge. The same empedom, heresy consists in a denial of some | ror, in another constitution, ordained,

that if any temporal lord, when admo- || c. 14. the bloody law of the six articles nished by the church, should neglect to was made, which were “determined clear his territories of heretics within a | and resolved by the most godly study, year, it should be lawful for good Ca- pain, and travail of his majesty; for tholics to sieze and occupy the lands, which his most humble and obedient and utterly to exterminate the heretical subjects, the lords spiritual and tempo possessors. And upon this foundation ral, and the commons in parliament aswas built that arbitrary power, so long sembled, did render and give unto his claimed, and so fatally exerted by the higliness their most high and hearty pope, of disposing even of the kingdoms thanks!". The same statute established of refractory princes to more dutiful a mixed jurisdiction of clergy and laity sons of the church. The immediate for the trial and conviction of heretics; event of this constitution serves to illus- Henry being equally intent on destroytrate at once the gratitude of the holy ing the supremacy of the bishops of see, and the just punishment of the royal Rome, and establishing all their other bigot; for, upon the authority of this corruptions of the Christian religion. very constitution, the pope afterwards Without recapitulating the various reexpelled this very emperor Frederic peals and revivals of these sanguinary from his kingdom of Sicily, and gave it laws in the two succeeding reigns, we to Charles of Anjou. Christianity being proceed to the reign of Queen Elizabeth, thus deformed by the dæmon of perse- when the reformation was finally estacution upon the continent, our own blished with temper and decency, unisland could not escape its scourge. Ac-sullied with party rancour or personal cordingly we find a writ de hæretico resentment.-By stat. 1. Eliz. c. 1. all comburendo, i. e. of burning the heretic. former statutes relating to heresy are See that article. But the king might repealed; which leaves the jurisdiction pardon the convict by issuing no pro- of heresy as it stood at common law, viz. cess against him: the writ de hæretico as to the infliction of common censures comburendo being not a writ of course, in the ecclesiastical courts; and in case but issuing only by the special direction of burning the heretic, in the provincial of the king in council

. In the reign of synod only. Sir Matthew Hale is, inHenry IV. when the eyes of the Chris- deed, of a different opinion, and holds tian world began to open, and the seeds that such power resided in the diocesan of the Protestant religion (under the also: though he agrees that in either opprobrious name of Lollardy) took case the writ de hæretico comburendo root in this kingdom, the clergy, taking was not demandable of common right, advantage from the king's dubious title but grantable or otherwise merely at to demand an increase of their own the king's discretion. But the principal power, obtained an act of parliament, point now gained was, that by this stawhich sharpened the edge of persecu- tute a boundary was for the first time tion to its utmost keenness. See HÆRE- | set to what should be accounted heresy; Tico COMBURENDO. By statute 2 nothing for the future being to be so deHenry V. c. 7, Lollardy was also made termined, but only such tenets which a temporal offence, and indictable in the have been heretofore so declared,-1. by king's courts; which did not thereby the words of the canonical Scriptures; gain an exclusive, but only a concurrent 2. by the first four general councils, or jurisdiction with the bishop's consistory. I such others as have only used the words Afterwards, when the reformation be- of the Holy Scriptures; or,—3. which gan to advance, the power of the ec- shall hereafter be so declared by the clesiastics was somewhat moderated; parliament, with the assent of the clerfor though what heresy is was not then gy in convocation. Thus was heresy precisely defined, yet we are told in reduced to a greater certainty than some points what it is not; the statute before, though it might not have been 25 Hen. VIII. c. 14. declaring that of the worse to have defined it in terms fences against the see of Rome are not still more precise and particular; as a heresy; and the ordinary being thereby man continued still liable to be burnt for restrained from proceeding in any case what, perhaps, he did not understand to upon mere suspicion; i. e. unless the be heresy, till the ecclesiastical judge party be accused by two credible wit- | so interpreted the words of the canoninesses, or an indictment of heresy be cal Scriptures. For the writ de hærefirst previously found in the king's courtstico comburendo remained still in force, of common law. And yet the spirit of till it was totally abolished, and heresy persecution was not abated, but only di- again subjected only to ecclesiastical verted into a lay channel; for in six correction, pro salute animae, by stat. years afterwards, by stat. 31 Hen. VIII. || 29 Car. II. C. 9; when, in one and the

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