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of those symbols or creeds which were || for whoever seriously addresses his disonce deemed almost infallible rules of course to another, tacitly promises to faith and practice, and of declaring their speak the truth, because he knows that dissent in the manner they judge the the truth is expected,” There are vamost expedient. Mosheim attributes | rious kinds of líes. 1. The pernicious lie, this change in their sentiments to the uttered for the hurt or disadvantage of maxims which they generally adopted, our neighbour.–2. The officious lie, that Christians were accountable to God uttered for our own or our neighbour's alone for their religious opinions; and advantage.-3. The ludicrous and jothat no individual could be justly pun- | cose lie, uttered by way of jest, and only ished by the magistrate for his erro- | for mirth's sake in common converse. neous opinions, while he conducted him- || 4. Pious frauds as they are improperly self like a virtuous and obedient subject, || called, pretended inspirations, forged and made no attempts to disturb the books, counterfeit miracles, are species peace and order of civil society. In of lies.-5. Lies of the conduct, for a lie Sweden the Lutheran church is epis- || may be told in gestures as well as in copal: in Norway the same. In Den- || words; ss when a tradesman shuts up mark, under the name of superintendent, his windows to induce his creditors to all episcopal authority is retained ; || believe that he is abroad.—6. Lies of whilst through Germany the superior || omission, as when an author wilfully power is vested in a consistory, over | omits what ought to be related : and which there is a president, with a dis- | may we not add,-7. That all equivocatinction of rank and privileges, and a tion and mental reservation come unsubordination of inferior clergy to their | der the guilt of lying. The evil and insuperiors, different from the parity of justice of lying appear, 1. From its bePresbyterianism. Mosheim': Eccles. I ing a breach of the natural and univerHistory; Life of Luther: Hawies's Ch. sal right of mankind to truth in the inHist. vol. ii. p. 454; Enc. Brit. Robert- tercourse of speech.—2. From its being son's Hist. of Charles V. vol. ii. p. 42;|| a violation of God's sacred law, Phil. iv. Luther on the Galatians.

8. Lev. xix. 11. Col. ii. 9.-3. The faLUXURY, a disposition of mind ad culty of speech was bestowed as an indicted to pleasure, riot, and superfluities. strument of knowledge, not of deceit; Luxury implies a giving one's self up to communicate our thoughts, not to to pleasure ; voluptuousness, an indul- | hide them.—4. It is esteemed a regence in the same to excess. Luxury || proach of so heinous and hateful a namay be farther considered as consisting ture for a man to be called a liar, that in i. Vain and useless expenses.-2. In sometimes the life and blood of the slana parade beyond what people can afford. | derer have paid for it.-5. It has a ten-3. In affecting to be above our own dency to dissolve all society, and to inrank.--4. In living in a splendour that dispose the mind to religious impressions. does not agree with the public good. In | .-6. The punishment of it is considera; order to avoid it, we should consider | ble: the loss of credit, the hatred of that it is ridiculous, troublesome, sinful, those whom we have deceived, and an and ruinous. Robinson's Claude, vol. i. eternal separation from God in the p. 382; Ferguson on Society, part. vi. world to come, Rev. xxi. 8. Rev. xxii. sec. 2.

15. Psalm ci. 7. See EQUIVOCATION.LYING, speaking falsehoods wilfully, || Grove's Mor. Phil. vol. i. ch. 11; Pawith an intent to deceive. Thus, by ley's Moral Phil. vol. i. ch. 15; DodGrove, “A lie is an affirmation or de-dridge's Lect. lect. 68; Watts's' Serm. nial by words, or any other signs to vol. i. ser. 22; Evans's Serm. vol. ii. which a certain determinate meaning is ser. 13; South's Serm. vol. i. ser. 12; affixed, of something contrary to our Dr. Lamont's Serm. vol. i. ser. 11 and real thoughts and intentions.". Thus, by || 12. Paley, “a lie is a breach of promise;


MACARIANS, the followers of Ma- || tue. In his writings there are some carius, an Egyptian monk, who was superstitious tenets, and also certain distinguished towards the close of the opinions that seem tainted with Origenfourth century for his sanctity and vir- || ism. The name has been also applied


to those who adopted the sentiments of MAGI, or MAGIANS, an ancient reMacarius, a native of Ireland, who ligious sect of Persia and other eastern about the close of the ninth century, countries, who, abominating the adorapropagated in France the tenet after-tion of images, worshipped God only by wards maintained by Averrhoes, that fire, in which they were directly oppoone individual intelligence or soul per- site to the Sabians. See Sábians. The formed the spiritual and rational func- Magi believed that there were two tions in all the human race.

principles, one the cause of all good, MACEDONIANS, the followers of and the other the cause of all evil; in Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople, which opinion they were followed by who, through the influence of the Euno- || the sect of the Manichees. See MANImians, was deposed by the council of CHEES: They called the good princiConstantinople in 360, and sent into ple Jazden, and Ormuzd, and the evil exile. He considered the Holy Ghost principle Ahraman or Aherman. The as a divine energy diffused throughout | former was by the Greeks called Orothe universe, and not as a person dis- | masdes, and the latter Arimanius. The tinct from the Father and the Son. The reason of their worshipping fire was, sect of the Macedonians was crushed || because they looked upon it as the trubefore it had arrived at its full maturity, est symbol of Oromasdrs, or the good by the council assembled by Theodosius | god; as darkness was of Arimanius, or in 381, at Constantinople. See SEMI- | the evil god. In all their temples they ARIANS.

had fire continually burning upon their MACHIAVELIANISM, the doc- | altars, and in their own private houses. trine or principles of Machiavel, as laid The religion of the Magi fell into disdown in his treatise entitled The Prince, grace on the death of those ringleaders and which consists in doing any thing to of that sect who had usurped the sovecompass a design, without any regard to reignty after the death of Cambyses; the peace or welfare of subjects, the and the slaughter that was made of the dictates of honesty and honour, or the chief men among them sunk it so low, precepts of religion. This work has that Sabianism every where prevailed been translated into many languages, against it; Darius and most of his foland wrote against by many authors, lowers on that occasion going over to it. though the world is not agreed as to the | But the affection which the people had motives of the writer; some thinking for the religion of their forefathers not he meant to recommend tyrannical being easily to be rooted out, the famaxims; others, that he only delineated | mous impostor Zoroaster, some *ages them to excite. abhorrence.

after, undertook to revive and reform MAGDALEN, religious of St. a de- it. nomination given to divers communities The chief reformation this pretended of nuns, consisting generally of penitent prophet made in the Magian religion courtezans; sometimes also called Mag- was in the first principle of it; for he dalanettes. They were established at | introduced a god superior both to OroMentz in 1542; at Paris in 1492; at Na- || masdes and Arimanius. Dr. Prideaux ples in 1324; at Rouen and Bordeaux is of opinion that Zoroaster took the in 1618. In each of these monasteries hint of this alteration in their theology there were three kinds of persons and from the prophet Isarah, who brings in congregations; the first consisted of God, saying to Cyrus king of Persia, ! those who were admitted to make vows, am the Lord, and there is none else: I and those bear the name of St. Magda-form the light, and create darkness; I len; the congregation of St. Martha || make peace and create evil, ch. xlv.7. was the second, and was composed of In short, Zoroaster held that there was those whom it was not thought proper one supreme independent Being, and to admit to vows finally; the congrega- | under him two principles, or angels; tion of St. Lazarus was composed of one the angel of light or good, and the such as were detained by force. The other the angel of evil or darkness; religious of St. Magdalen at Rome were that there is a perpetual struggle beestablished by Pope Ley X. Clement|tween them, which shall last to the end VIIIsettled a revenue on them; and of the world; that then the angel of farther appointed, that the effects of all darkness and his disciples shall go into public prostitutes dying intestate should a world of their own, where they shall fall to them; and that the testaments of be punished in everlasting, darkness; the rest should be invalid, unless they and the angel of light and his disciples bequeathed a portion of their effects, shall also go into a world of their own, which was to be at least a fifth part of where they shall be rewarded in everthem.

lasting light.

Zoroaster was the first who built fire- || three orders; the inferior clergy, the semples; the Magians before his time superintendents, or bishops, and the performing their devotion on the tops archimagus, or arch-priest. of hills and in the open air, by which Zoroaster had the address to bring means they were exposed to the incen- over Darius to his new-reformed relivenience of rain and tempests, which i| gion, notwithstanding the strongest opoften extinguished their sacred fires. position of the Sabians; and from that To procure the greater veneration for time it became the national religion of these sacred fires, he pretended to have all that country, and so continued for received fire from ficaven, which he many ages after, till it was supplanted placed on the altar of the first fire-tem- || by that of Mahomet. Zoroaster comple he erected, which was that of Xis, posed a book containing the principles in Media, from whence they say it was of the Magian religion. It is called propagated to all the rest. The Manduvesta, and by contraction Zend. gian priests kept their sacred fire with See ZEND. the greatest diligence, watching it clay MAGIC, a science which teaches to and night, and never suffering it to be produce surprising and extraordinary extinguished. They fed it only with effects; a correspondence with bad spiwood stript of the bark, and they never il rits, by means of which a person is able blowed it with their breath or with bel- || to perform surprising things. This was lows, for fear of polluting it; to do ei- | strictly forbidden by the law of God, on ther of these was death by their law. pain of death, Lev. xix. 31. The Magian religion as reformed by MAGISTER DISCIPLINÆ, or Zoroaster, seems in many things to be MASTER OF DISCIPLINE, the appellabuilt upon the plan of the Jewish. The tion of a certain ecclesiastical officer in Jews had their sacred fire which came the ancient Christian church. It was a down from heaven upon the altar of custom in some places, particularly in burnt offerings, which they never suf- Spain, in the time of the Gothic kings, fered to go out, and with which all their about the end of the fifth century, for sacrifices and oblations were made. Zo-parents to dedicate their children very roaster, in like manner, pretended to young to the service of the church. For have brought his holy fire from heaven; || this purpose they were taken into the and as the Jews had'a Shekinah of the bishop's family, and educated under divine presence among them, resting him by some grave and discreet person over the mercy seat in the Holy of Ho- | whom the bishop deputed for that purlies, Zoroaster likewise told his Ma- | pose, and set over them, by the name of gians to look upon the sacred fire in Presbyter or Magister Disciplinæ, their temples as a Shekinah, in which whose chief business it was to inspect God especially dwelt.--From these and their behaviour, and instruct them in some other instances of analogy between the rules and discipline of the church. the Jewish and the Magian religion, MAGNANIMITY, greatness of soul; Prideaux infers that Zorvaster had been a disposition of mind cxerted in confirst educated and brought up in the temning dangers and difficulties, in Jewish religion.

scorning temptations, and despising The priests of the Magi were the earthly pomp and splendour. Cic. de most skilful mathematicians and philo- | offic. lec. i. ch. 20; Grove's Moral Phil, sophers of the age in which they lived, p. 268, vol. ii. See articles COURAGE, insomuch that a learned man and a FORTITUDE, in this work; Steel's Magian became equivalent terms. This Christian Hero; Watts on Self-Murder. proceeded so far, that the vulgar, look MAHOMET ANISM, the system of ing on their knowledge to be more than religion formed and propagated by Manatural, imagined they were inspired by homet, and still adhered to by his folsome supernatural power. And hence lowers. It is professed by the Turks those who practised wicked and diabo- and Persians, by several nations among lical arts, taking upon then selves the the Africans, and many among the East name of Magians, drew on it that ill sig- Indians. nification which the word Magician now Mahomet was born in the reign of bears among us.

Anushirwan the Just, emperor of PerThe Magian priests were all of onesia, about the end of the sixth century tribe; as among the Jews, none but the of the Christian era. He came into the son of a priest was capable of bearing world under some disadvantages. His that office among them. The royal fa- father Abdallah was a younger son of mily among the Persians, as long as this Abd'almotalleb, and dying very young sect subsisted, was always of the sacer- and in his father's life-time, left his widotal tribe. They were divided into ll dow and an infant son in very mean cir

cumstances, his whole subsistence con- now sent to Mahomet. The first oversisting but of five camels and one Ethio-ture the prophet made was in the month pian she slave. Abd'almotalleb was of Ramadan, in the fortieth year of his, therefore obliged to take care of his age, which is therefore usually called grandchild Mahomet; which he not the year of his mission. only did during his life, but at his death Encouraged by so good a beginning, enjoined his eldest son Abu Taleb, who he resolved to proceed, and try for some was brother to Abd'allah by the same time what he could do by private permother, to provide for him for the fu- suasion, not daring to hazard the whole ture; which he very affectionately did, | affair by exposing it too suddenly to the and instructed him in the business of a public.' He soon made proselytes of merchant, which he followed; and to those under his own roof, viz. his wife that end he took him into Syria, when | Khadijah, his servant Zeid Ebn Harehe was but thirteen. He afterwards tha, to whom he gave his freedom on recommended him to Khadijah, a noble that occasion (which afterwards became and rich widow, for her factor; in whose a rule to his followers,) and his cousin service he behaved himself so well, that and pupil Ali, the son of Abu Taleb, by making him her husband, she soon though then very young: but this last, raised him to an equality with the richest | making no account of the other two, in Mecca.

used to style himself the first of beAfter he began by this advantageous lievers. The next person Mahomet apmatch to live at his ease, it was, that he plied to was Abd'allah Ebn Abi Kohafa, formed the scheme of establishing a new surnamed Abu Becr, a man of great religion, or, as he expressed it, of re- authority among the Koreish, and one planting the only true and ancient one whose interest he well knew would be professed by Adam, Noah, Abraham, of great service to him; as it soon apMoses, Jesus, and all the prophets, by peared; for Abu Becr, being gained destroying the gross idolatry into which over, prevailed also on Othman Ebn the generality of his countrymen had | Affan, Abd’alraham Ebn Awf, Saad fallen, and weeding out the corruptions Ebn Abbi Wakkus, At Zobeir al Awam, and superstitions which the latter Jews and Telha Ebn Obeid'allah, all princiand Christians had, as he thought, in- pal men of Mecca, to follow his examtroduced into their religion, and re- || ple. These men were six chief comducing it to its original purity, which panions, who, with a few more, were consisted chiefly in the worship of one converted in the space of three years: God.

at the end of which Mahomet having Before he made any attempt abroad, || as he hoped, a sufficient interest to suphe rightly judged that it was necessary port him, made his mission no longer a for him to begin with the conversion of secret, but gave out that God had comhis own household. Having, therefore, manded him to admonish his near relaretired with his family, as he had done tions; and in order to do it with more several times before, to a cave in mount convenience and prospect of success, he Hara, he there opened the secret of his directed Ali to prepare an entertainmission to his wife Khadijah; and ac ment and invited the sons and descenquainted her, that the angel Gabriel dants of Abd'almotalleb, intending then had just before appeared to him, and to open his mind to them. This was told him that he was appointed the done, and about forty of them came; apostle of God: he also repeated to her but Abu Laheb, one of his uncles, maa passage which he pretended had been king the company break up before Marevealed to him by the ministry of the homet had an opportunity of speaking, angel, with those other circumstances obliged him to give them a second inof this first appearance which are rela- | vitation the next day; and when they ted by the Mahometan writers. Kha were come, he made them the following dijah received the news with great joy, / speech: "I know no man in all Araswearing by Him in whose hands herbia who can offer his kindred a more soul was, that she trusted he would be exellent thing than I now do to you; I the prophet of his nation; and imme- offer you happiness both in this life, and diately communicated what she had in that which is to come: God Almighty heard to her cousin Warakah Ebn hath commanded me to call you unto Nawfal, who, being · Christian, could him. Who, therefore, among you will write in the Hebrew character, and was be assistant to me herein, and become tolerably well versed in the Scriptures; | my brother and my vicegerent" All of and he readily came into her opinion, them hesitating and declining the matassuring her that the same angel who ter, Ali at length rose up, and declared had formerly appeared unto Moses was that he would be his assistant, and ve

hemently threatened those who should | writers unanimously attest, even pro-
oppose him. Mahomet upon this em fessed the Mahometan religion.
braced Ali with great demonstrations of In the sixth year of his mission, Ma-
affection, and desired all who were pre- homet had the pleasure of seeing his
sent to hearken to and obey him as his party strengthened by the conversion of
deputy; at which the company broke his uncle Hamza, a man of great valour
out into a great laughter, telling Abu and merit; and of Omar Ebn al Kattab,
Taleb that he must now pay obedience a person highly esteemed, and once a
to his son.

violent opposer of the prophet. As perThis repulse, however, was so far | secution generally advances rather than from discouraging Mahomet, that he obstructs the spreading of a religion, began to preach in public to the people, | Islamism made so great a progress who heard him with some patience, till | among the Arab tribes, that the Koreish, he came to upbraid them with the ido- | to suppress it effectually if possible, in latry, obstinacy, and perverseness of the seventh year of Mahomet's misthemselves and their fathers; which so sion, made a solemn league or covenant highly provoked them, that they de- || against the Hashemites, and the family clared themselves his enemies; and of Abd’almotalleb, engaging themselves would soon have procured his ruin, had to contract no marriages with any of he not been protected by Abu Taleb. | them, and to have no communication The chief of the Koreish warmly soli- | with them; and to give it the greater cited this person to desert his nephew, || sanction, reduced it into writing, and making frequent remoustrances against | laid it up in the Caaba. Upon this the the innovations he was attempting: || tribe became divided into two factions ; which proving ineffectual, they at and the family of Hasham all repaired length threatened him with an open to Abu Taleb, as their head; except rupture if he did not prevail on Maho- | only Abd’al Uzza, surnamed Abu Lamet to desist. At this Abu Taleb was so heb, who, out of inveterate hatred to far moved, that he earnestly dissuaded his nephew and his doctrine, went over his nephew from


the affair any to the opposite party, whose chief was farther, representing the great danger | Abu Sosian Ebn Harb, of the family of that he and his friends must otherwise Ommeya. run. But Mahomet was not to be in The families continued thus at vatimidated; telling his uncle plainly, that riance for three years; but in the tenth if they set the sun against him on his year of his mission, Mahomet told his right hand, and the moon on his left, he uncle Abu Taleb, that God had maniwould_nnt leave his enterprise : and festly showed his disapprobation of the Abu Taleb, seeing him so firmly re- league which the Koreish had made solved to proceed, used no farther ar- against them by sending a worm to eat guments, but promised to stand by him out every word of the instrument except against all his enemies.

the name of God. Of this accident The Koreish, finding they could pre- || Mahomet had probably some private vail neither by fair words nor menaces, notice; for Abu Taleb went immediately tried what they could do by force and to the Koreish, and acquainted them ill treatment; using Mahomet's follow- with it; offering, if it proved false, to ers so very injuriously, that it was not deliver his nephew up to them; but, in safe for them to continue at Mecca any case it were true, he insisted that they longer; whereupon Mahomet gave leave ought to lay aside their animosity, and to such of them as had no friends to annul the league they had made against protect them to seek for refuge else- the Hashemites. To this they acquiwhere. And accordingly, in the fifth | esced; and, going to inspect the writing, year of the prophet's mission, sixteen to their great astonishment found it to of them, four of whom were women, || be as Abu Taleb had said; and the fied into Ethiopia; and among them league was thereupon declared void. Othman Ebn Affan, and his wife Ra In the same year Abu Taleb died at kiah, Mahomet's daughter. This was the age of above fourscore; and it is the the first flight; but afterwards several | general opinion that he died an infidel; others followed them, retiring, one af- though others say, that when he was at ter another, to the number of eighty- the point of death he embraced Mahothree men, and eighteen women, be- metanism, and produce some passages sides children. These refugees were out of his poetical compositions to conkindly received by the Najashi, or king firm their assertion. About a month, of Ethiopia, who refused to deliver or, as some write, three days after the them up to those whom the Koreish death of this great benefactor and pasent to demand them, and, as the Arab | tron, Mahomet had the additional mor

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