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among them, and hold some of them to l of God's dealing with mankind. As to be more excellent and honourable than | brutes, after they shall have likewise others. The first place they give to taken vengeance of one another, he the revealers and establishers of new will command them to be changed into dispensations, and the next to the dust; wicked men being reserved to apostles.

more grievous punishment, so that they In this great number of prophets shall cry out, on hearing this sentence they not only reckon divers patri- | passed on the brutes, Would to God archs and persons named in Scripture, that we were dust also! As to the genii, but not recorded to have been pro- many Mahometans are of opinion that phets (wherein the Jewish and Chris- such of them as are true believers, will tian writers have sometimes led the undergo the same fate as the irrational way,) as Adam, Seth, Lot, Ishmael, animals, and have no other reward than Nun, Joshua, &c. and introduced some the favour of being converted into dust; of them under different names, as and for this they quote the authority of Enoch, Heber, and Jethro, who are their prophet. called in the Koran, Edris, Hud, and The trials being over, and the assemShoaib : but several others whose very bly dissolved, the Mahometans hold, names do not appear in Scripture that those who are to be admitted into (though they endeavour to find some Paradise will take the right hand way, persons there to fix them on,) as Selah, and those who are destined into hell-fire Khedr, Dhu'lkefi, &c.

will take the left : but both of them 5. The belief of a general resurrec must first pass the bridge called in tion and a future judgment.

Arabic Al Sirat, which, they say, is The time of the resurrection the || laid over the midst of hell, and describe Mahometans allow to be a perfect se to be finer than a hair, and sharper than cret to all but God alone; the angel the edge of a sword; so that it seems Gabriel himself aknowledging, his ig- | very difficult to conceive how any one norance in this point, when Mahomet | shall be able to stand upon it; for which asked him about it. However, they reason most of the sect of the Motasay, the approach of that day may be zalites reject it as a fable; though the known from certain signs which are to orthodox think it a sufficient proof of precede it.

the truth of this article, that it was After examination is past, (the ac- seriously affirmed by him who never count of which is too long and tedious || asserted a falsehood, meaning their for this place,) and cvery one's work prophet; who, to add to the difficulty weighed in a just balance, they say, of the passage, has likewise declared, that mutual retaliation will follow, ac that this bridge is beset on each side cording to which every creature wili with briers and hooked thorns, which take vengeance one of another, or have || will, however, be no impediment to the satisfaction made them for the injuries | good; for they shall pass with wonderwhich they have suffered. And, since | ful ease and swiftness, like lightning, or there will then be no other way of the wind, Mahomet and his Moslems returning like for like, the manner of leading the way; whereas the wicked, giving this satisfaction will be by taking what with the slipperiness and extreme away a proportional part of the good | narrowness of the path, the entangling works of him who offered the injury, of the thorns, and the extinction of the and adding it to those of him who suf- light which directed the former to Pafered it. Which being done, if the an- radise, will soon miss their footing, and gels (by whose ministry this is to be fall down headlong into hell, which is performed) say, Lord, we have given | gaping beneath them. lo every one his due, and there remain As to the punishment of the wicked, eth of this person's good works so much the Mahometans are taught, that hell as equalleih the weight of an ant, God is divided into seven stories or apartwill of his mercy, cause it to be doubled | ments, one below another, designed for unto him, that he may be admitted into the reception of as many distinct classes Paradise; but if, on the contrary, his of the damned. good works be exhausted, and there re The first, which they call Jehonan, main evil works only, and there be any they say, will be the receptacle of those who have not yet received satisfaction whó acknowledged one God, that is, from him, God will order that an equal the wicked Mahometans; who, after weight of their sins be added unto his, having been punished according to their that he may be punished for them in | demerits, will at length be released; their stead, and he will be sent to hell the second, named Ladha, they assign laden with both. This will be the method || to the Jews; the third, named al Hota

ma, to the Christians; the fourth, named || sootiness or filth from the flames and al Sair, to the Sabians; the fifth, named || smoke of hell, will be immersed in ce Sakar, to the Magians; the sixth, na of the rivers of Paradise, called the med al Jahin, to the idolaters; and the River of life, which will wash then seventh, which is the lowest and worst whiter than pearls. of all, and is called al Hawyat, to the The righteous, as the Mahometars hypocrites, or those who outwardly are taught to believe, having surmountprofessed some religion, but in their ed the difficulties, and passed the sharp hearts were of none. Over each of these bridge above-mentioned, before they apartments they believe there will be enter Paradise, will be refreshed by set a guard of angels, nineteen in num-drinking at the pond of their prophet, ber: to whom the damned will confess who describes it to be an exact square, the just judgment of God, and beg them of a month's journey in compass; its to intercede with him for some allevia- water, which is supplied by two pipes tion of their pain, or that they may be from al Cawthay, one of the rivers delivered by being annihilated.

of Paradise, being whiter than milk or Mahomet has, in his Koran and tra- || silver, and more odoriferous than musk, ditions, been very exact in describing with as many cups set around it as there the various torments of hell, which, ac are stars in the firmament; of which cording to him, the wicked will suffer water whoever drinks will thirst do both from intense heat and excessive || more for ever. This is the first taste cold. We shall, however, enter into which the blessed will have of their funo detail of them here; but only ob- ture and now near approaching felicity. serve, that the degrees of these pains Though Paradise be so very frequentwill also vary in proportion to the || ly mentioned in the Koran, yet it is a discrimes of the sufferer, and the apart- || pute among the Mahometans, whether ment he is condemned to; and that he || it be already created or to be created who is punished the most lightly of all hereafter; the Motazalites and some will be shod with shoes of fire, the fer- || other sectaries asserting, that there is vour of which will cause his skull to not at present any such place in nature, boil like a cauldron. The condition and that the Paradise which the righof these unhappy wretches, as the same teous will inhabit in the next life will prophet teaches, cannot be properly || be different from that from which Adam called either lifé or death; and their was expelled. However, the orthodox misery will be greatly increased by profess the contrary, maintaining that it their despair of being ever delivered was created even before the world, and from that place, since, according to describe it from their prophet's tradithat frequent expression in the Koran, tions in the following manner: they must remain therein for ever. It They say it is situated above the must be remarked, however, that the seven heavens, (or in the seventh heainfidels alone will be liable to eternity ven,) and next under the throne of of damnation; for the Moslems, or God; and, to express the amenity of those who have embraced the true the place, tell us, that the earth of it is religion, and have been guilty of heinous of the finest wheat-flar, or of the sins, will be delivered thence after they purest musk, or as others will have it, shall have expiated their crimes by of saffron ; that its stones are pearls and their sufferings. The time which these jacinths, the walls of its building enbelievers shall be detained there, ac- || riched with gold and silver, and that cording to a tradition handed down from the trunks of all its trees are of gold; their prophet, will not be less than nine | among which the most remarkable is hundred years, nor more than seven the tree called tuba, or the tree of hapthousand. And, as to the manner of piness. Concerning this tree, they fable, their delivery, they say that they shall || that it stands in the palace of Mahomet, be distinguished by the marks of pros- | though a branch of it will reach to the tration on those parts of their bodies || housc of every true belierer; that it with which they used to touch the will be laden with pemegranates, ground in prayer, and over which the grapes, dates, and other fruits, of surfire will therefore have no power; and prising bigness, and of tastes unknown that, being known by this characteristic, to mortals. So that, if a man desire to they will be released by the mercy of eat of any particular kind of fruit, it God, at the intercession of Mahomet || will immediately be presented him; and the blessed: whereupon those who || or, if he choose flesh, birds ready shall have been dead will be restored i dressed will be set before him, accordto life, as has been said: and those ling to his wish. They add, that the whose bodies shall have contracted any || boughs of this tree will spontaneously

bend down to the hand of the person | tination both of good and evil. The orwho would gather of its fruits, and that thodox doctrine is, that whatever hath it will supply the blessed not only with or shall come to pass in this world, food, but also with silken garments, and whether it be good, or whether it be beasts to ride on ready saddled and bri- bad, proceedeth entirely from the didled, and adorned with rich trappings, vine will

, and is irrevocably fixed and which will burst forth from its fruits; | recorded from all eternity in the preand that this tree is so large, that a per- served table; God having secretly preson mounted on the fleetest horse, would determined not only the adverse and not be able to gallop from one end of its prosperous fortune of every person in shade to the other in one hundred years. this world, in the most minute particu

As plenty of water is one of the great- lars, but also his faith or infidelity, his est additions to the pleasantness of any obedience or disobedience, and conseplace, the Koran often speaks of the ri- quently his • everlasting happiness or vers of Paradise as a principal ornament misery after death; which fate or prethereof: some of these rivers, they say, destination it is not possible by any foreflow with water, some with milk, some sight or wisdom to avoid. with wine, and others with honey; all II. Religious practice. 1. The first taking their rise from the root of the point is prayer, under which are also tree tuba.

comprehended those legal washings or But all these glories will be eclipsed purifications which are necessary preby the resplendent and ravishing girls of parations thereto. Paradise, called, from their large black For the regular performance of the eyes, Hur al oyun, the enjoyment of duty of prayer among the Mahometans, whose company will be a principal feli- it is requisite, while they pray, to turn city of the faithful. These, they say, are their faces towards the temple of Meccreated not of clay, as mortal women ca; the quarter where the same is situare, but of pure musk; being, as their | ated being, for that reason, pointed out prophet often affirms in his Koran, free within their mosques by a niche, which from all natural impurities, defects, and they call al Mehrab; and without, by inconveniences incident to the sex; of the situation of the doors opening into the strictest modesty, and secluded from the galleries of the steeples: there are public view in pavilions of hollow pearls, also tables calculated for the ready findso large, that, as some traditions haveing out their Leblah, a part towards it, one of them will be no less than four which they ought to pray, in places parasangs (or, as others say, sixty miles) where they have no other direction. long, and as many broad.

2. Alms are of two sorts, legal and The name which the Mahometans voluntary. The legal alms are of indisusually give to this happy mansion is al pensable obligation, being commanded Jannat, or, “the Garden;" and some by the law, which directs and detertimes they call it, with an addition, Jan- | mines both the portion which is to be nat al Ferdaws, “the Garden of Para- 1 given, and of what things it ought to dise;" Jannat Adan, “the Garden of consist; but the voluntary alms are left Eden," (though they generally inter- | to every one's liberty, to give more or pret the word Eden not according to less as he shall see fit. The former its acceptation in Hebrew, but accord- | kind of alms some think to be properly ing to its meaning in their own tongue, || called zacat, and the latter sadacat, wherein it signifies "a settled or per-| though this name be also frequently petual habitation;") Jannat al Mawa, given to the legal alms. They are called & the Garden of Abode; Jannat al | zacat, either because they increase a Maim, " the Garden of Pleasure;" and man's store by drawing down a blessing the like: by which several appellations thereon, and produce in his soul the virsome understand so many different gar- tue of liberality; or because they purify dens, or at least places of different de- ll the remaining part of one's substance grees of felicity (for they reckon no less from pollution, and the soul from the than one hundred such in all,) the very filth of avarice ; and sadacat, because meanest whereof will afford its inhabí- they are a proof of a man's sincerity in tants so many pleasures and delights, the worship of God. Some writers have that one would conclude they must even called the legal alms tithes ; but impro sink under them, had not Mahomet de- perly, since in some cases they fall clared that, in order to qualify the bless-short, and in others exceed that proed for a full enjoyment of them, God | portion. will give to every one the abilities of one 3. Fasting is a duty of so great mohundred men.

ment, that Mahomet used to say it was 6. God's absolute decree and predes- | the gate of religion ; and that the odour

of the mouth of him who fasteth is more || the Arabians in the conquest of several grateful to God than that of musk; and provinces, into which, of consequence, Al Ghazali reckons fasting one fourth the religion of Mahomet was afterwards part of the faith. According to the Ma- | introduced. Other causes of the sudden hometan divines, there are three de- progress of that religion will naturally grees of fasting: 1. The restraining the occur to such as consider attentively its belly and other parts of the body from spirit and genius, and the state of the satisfying their lusts.-2. The restrain- || world at this time. ing the ears, eyes, tongue, hands, feet, IV. Mahometanism, subversion of. and other members, from sin.-3. The Of things yet to come it is difficult to fasting of the heart from worldly cares, || say any thing with precision. We have, and restraining the thought from every however, some reason to believe, from thing besides God.

the aspect of Scripture prophecy, that, 4. The pilgrimage to Mecca is so ne- triumphant as this sect has been, it shall cessary a point of practice, that, accord- at last come to nought. As it arose as a ing to a tradition of Mahomct, he who scourge to Christendom about the time dies without performing it, may as well that Antichrist obtained a temporal dodie a Jew or a Christian; and the same minion, so it is not improbable but they is expressly commanded in the Koran. I will have their downfall nearly at the See PilgriMAGE.

same period. The ninth chapter of ReIII. Mahometanism, causes of the velations seems to refer wholly to this success of. The rapid success which imposture: “The four angels were attended the propagation of this new | loosed,” says the prediction, 15th verse, religion was owing to causes that are “which were prepared for an hour, and plain and evident, and must remove, or a day, and a month, and a year, for to rather prevent oir surprise, when they slay the third part of men." This peare attentively considered. The terror riod, in the language of prophecy, of Mahomet's arms, and the repeated | makes 391 years, which being added to victories which were gained by him and the year when the four angels were his successors, were, no doubt, the irre- loosed, will bring us down to 1844, or sistible arguments that persuaded such thereabouts, for the final destruction of multitudes to embrace his religion, and the Mahometan empire. It must be submit to his dominion. Besides, his law confessed, however, that though the was artfully and marvellously adapted event is certain, the exact time cannot to the corrupt nature of man; and, in a be easily ascertained. Prideaux's Life most particular manner, to the manners of Mahomet; Mosheim's Eccl. Hist. and opinions of the Eastern nations, and cent. vii. ch. 2. Sale's Preliminary Disthe vices to which they were naturally course, prefixed to his English Transaddicted: for the articles of faith which lation of the Koran; Simpson's Key to it proposed were few in number, and Proph. sect. 19. Bishop Newton, Mede, extremely simple; and the duties it re- | and Gill, on Rev. ix. Miller's Propag. quired were neither many nor difficult, of Christianity, vol. i. ch. 1. White's Ser. nor such as were incompatible with the at Bampton, Lect. Ene. Brit. empire of appetites and passions. It is MALEVOLENCE is that disposition to be observed farther, that the gross of mind which inclines us to wish ill to ignorance under which the Arabians, any person. It discovers itself in frowns Syrians, Persians, and the greatest part and a lowering countenance; in unchaof the Eastern nations, laboured at this ritableness, in evil sentiments; hard time, rendered many an easy prey to the speeches to or of its object; in cursing artifice and eloquence of this bold ad- and reviling; and doing mischief either venturer. To these causes of the pro- | with open violence or secret spite, as gress of Mahometanism we may add the far as there is power. bitter dissensions and cruel animosities MALICE is a settled or deliberate that reigned among the Christian sects, determination to revenge or do hurt to particularly the Greeks, Nestorians, another. It more frequently denotes the Eutychians, and Monoplysites; dissen-disposition of inferior minds to execute sions that filled a great pai of the East every purpose of mischief within the with carnage, assassinations, and such ! more limited circle of their abilities. It detestable enornities, as rendered the is a most hateful temper in the sight of very name of Christianity olious to God, strictly forbidden in his holy word. many. We might add here, that the Col. m. 8-12. disgraceful to rational Monophysites and Nestorians, full of creatures, and every way inimical to the resentment against the Greeks, from spirit of Christianity, Matt. V. 44. See whom they had suffered the bitterest CHARITY, LOVE. and most injurious treatment, assisted | MALIGNITY, a disposition obsti

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nately bad or malicious. Malignancy || bla, Borandians, the Greenlanders, and and malignity are words nearly synony- | the people of Kamtschatka. The visage mous. In some connections, malignity of men in these countries is large and seems rather more pertinently applied broad; the nose flat and short; the to a radical depravíty of nature; and eyes of a yellowish brown, inclining to malignancy to indications of this depra-blackness; the cheek-bones extremely vity in temper and conduct in particular high; the mouth large; the lips thick, instances.

and turning outwards; the voice thin, MAN, a being, consisting of a rational and squeaking; and the skin a dark soul and organical body: By some he is grey colour. They are short in stature, defined thus: “He is the head of the the generality being about four feet animal creation; a being who feels, re- high, and the tallest not more than five. flects, thinks, contrives, and acts; who They are ignorant, stupid and superhas the power of changing his place stitious.—2. The second are the Tartar upon the earth at pleasure ; who pos race, comprehending the Chinese and sesses the faculty of communicating his the Japanese. Their countenances are thoughts by means of speech, and who broad and wrinkled, even in youth; has dominion over all other creatures on their noses short and flat; their eyes the face of the earth.” We shall here little, cheek-bones high, teeth large, present the reader with a brief account | complexions olive, and the hair black. of his formation, species, and different || -3. The third are the southern Asiatics, state. 1. His formation. Man was made or inhabitants of India. These are of a last of all the creatures, being the chief slender shape, long straight black hair, and master-piece of the whole creation and generally Roman noses. They are on earth. He is a compendium of the slothful, submissive, cowardly, and efcreation, and therefore is sometimes feminate.-4. The negroes of Africa called a microcosm, a little world, the constitute the fourth striking variety in world in miniature; something of the the human species. They are of a black vegetable, animal, and rational world colour, having downy soft hair, short meet in him; spirit and matter; yea, || and black; their beards often turn grey, heaven and earth centre in him; he is and sometimes white; their noses are the bond that connects them both to- | fat and short; their lips thick, and their gether. The constituent and essential | teeth of an ivory whiteness. These have parts of man created by God are two; been till of late the unhappy wretches body and soul. The one was made out of who have been torn from their families, the dust; the other was breathed into friends, and native lands, and consigned him. The body is formed with the for life to misery, toil, and bondage; greatest precision and exactness: every and that by the wise, polished, and the muscle, vein, artery, yea, the least fibre, Christian 'inhabitants of Europe, and in its proper place; all in just propor above all by the monsters of England !! tion and symmetry, in subservíency to |--5. The natives of America are the the use of each other, and for the good fifth race of men : they are of a copper of the whole, Ps. cxxxix. 14. It is also colour, with black thick straight hair, made erect, to distinguish it from the fat noses, high cheek-bones, and small four-footed animals, who look down-eyes.-6. The Europeans may be consiward to the earth. Man was made to dered as the sixth and last variety of look upward to the heavens, to contem- the human kind, whose features we plate them, and the glory of God dis- need not describe. The English are played in them; to look up to God, to considered as the fairest. worship and adore him. In the Greek 3. Man, different states of. The state language, man has his name, a17 wros, of man has been divided into fourfold : from turning and looking upwards. The || his primitive state; fallen state; grasoul is the other part of man, which is a cious state; and future state. 1. His substance or subsistence: it is not an ac state of innocence. God, it is said, made cident, or quality, inherent in a subject: man upright, Eccl. vii

. 29. without any but capable of subsisting without the imperfection, corruption, or principle of body; It is a spiritual substance, imma-corruption in his body or scul; with teriál, immortal. See Soul.

light in his understanding, holiness in 2. Man, different species of. Accord his will, and purity in his affection. This ing to Linnæus and Buffon, there are constituted his original righteousness, six different species among mankind. which was universal, both with respect The first are those under the Polar re- || to the subject of it, the whole man, and gions, and comprehend the Laplanders, the object of it, the whole law. Being the Esquimaux Indians, the Samoied thus in a state of holiness, he was necesTartars, the inhabitants of Nova Zem- || sarily in a state of happiness. He was a

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