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Knight's Ordination; Neale's History The Novatians did not deny but a of the Puritans; De Laune's Plea for person falling into any sin, how grievous the Nonconformists; Palmer's Noncon- soever, might obtain pardon by repentformists' Mem. Martin's Letters on ance; for they themselves recommended Nonconformity; Robinson's Lectures; repentance in the strongest terms; but Cornish's History of Nonconformity; | their doctrine was, that the church had Dr. Calamy's Life of Baxter; Pierce's it not in its power to receive sinners Vindication of the Dissenters; Bogue | into its communion, as having no way and Bennet's History of the Dissenters. of remitting sins but by baptism : which

NONJURORS, those who refused to once received could not be repeated. take the oaths to government, and who In process of time the Novatians were in consequence under certain in- softened and moderated the rigour of capacities, and liable to certain severe their master's doctrine, and only refused penalties. It can scarcely be said that absolution to very great sinners. there are any Nonjurors now in the The two leaders, Novatian and Nokingdom; and it is well known that vatus, were proscribed, and declared all penalties have been removed both heretics, not for excluding penitents from Papists and Protestants, formerly | from communion, but for denying that of that denomination, as well in Scot- the church had the power of remitting land as in England. - The members of sins. the Episcopal church of Scotland have NOVITIATE, a year of probation long been denominated Nonjurors; but || appointed for the trial of religious, , perhaps they are now called so im- whether or no they have a vocation, properly, as the ground of their dif- and the necessary qualities for living up ference from the establishment is more to the rule, the observation whereof on account of ecclesiastical than politi- || they are to bind themselves to by vow cal principles.

The novitiate lasts a year at least; NON-RESIDENCE, the act of not in some houses more. It is esteemed residing on an ecclesiastical benefice. the bed of the civil death of a noNothing can reflect greater disgrace onvice, who expires to the world by proa clergy man of a parish, than to receive fession. the emolument without ever visiting his NUN, a woman, in several Christian parishioners, and being unconcerned for countries, who devotes herself, in a cloisthe welfare of their souls; yet this has | ter or nunnery, to a religious life. See been a reigning evil in our land, and article Monk. proves that there are too many who There were women in the ancient care little about the flock, so that they | Christian church, who made public promay but live at ease. Let such remem- |fession of virginity before the monastic ber what an awful account they will | life was known in the world, as appears have to give of talents misapplied, time from the writings of Cyprian and Terwasted, souls neglected, and a sacred tullian. These, for distinction's sake, office abused.

are sometimes called ecclesiastical vir NOVATIANS, Novatiani, a sect of gins, and were commonly enrolled in ancient heretics that arose towards the the canon or matricula of the church. close of the third century; so called They differed from the monastic virfrom Novatian, a priest of Rome. They | gins chiefly in this, that they lived priwere also called Cathari, from walagos, vately in their father's houses, wherepure, 4. d. Puritans.

as the others lived in communities : Novatian first separated from the but their profession of virginity was communion of pope Cornelius, on pre- || not so strict as to make it criminal tence of his being too easy in admitting for them to marry afterwards, if they to repentance those who had fallen off thought fit. As to the consecration of in times of persecution. He indulged | virgins, it had some things peculiar in it: his inclination to severity so far, as to | it was usually performed publicly in the deny that such as had fallen into gross | church by the bishop. The virgin made sins, especially those who had aposta- a public profession of her resolution, tized from the faith under the persecu- | and then the bishop put upon her the action set on foot by Decius, were to be customed habit of sacred virgins. One again received into the bosom of the part of this habit was a veil, called the church; grounding his opinion on that sacrum valamen; another was a kind of St. Paul: "It is impossible for those of mitre or coronet worn upon the head. “who were once enlightened, and have At present, when a woman is to be "tasted of the heavenly gift, &c. if they made a nun, the habit, veil, and ring of "shall fall away, to renew them again the candidate are carried to the altar ; "unto repentance.” Heb. vi. 4 to 6. and she herself, accompanied by her


nearest relations, is conducted to the || nounced against all who shall attempt to bishop, who, after mass and an anthem make her break her vows. In some (the subject of which is "that she ought few instances, perhaps, it may have to have her lamp lighted, because the happened that nunneries, monasteries, bridegroom is coming to meet her"? &c. may have been useful as well to pronounces the benediction : then she morality and religion as to literature; rises up, and the bishop consecrates the in the gross, however, they have been new habit, sprinkling it with holy water. highly prejudicial; and however well When the candidate has put on her re- they might be supposed to do when ligious habit, she presents herself before viewed in theory, in fact they are unthe bishop, and sings on her knees natural and impious. It was surely far Ancilla Christi sum, &c. then she re- from the intention of Providence to seceives the veil, and afterwards the ring, clude youth and beauty in a cloister, or by which she is married to Christ; and, to deny them the innocent enjoyment lastly, the crown of virginity. When of their years and sex. See Monasshe is crowned, an anathema is de- || TERY.

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OATH, a solemn affirmation, where- || frequently the substance of the oath is in we appeal to God as a witness of the repeated to the juror by the magistrate, truth of what we say, and with an im- | who adds in the conclusion, “So help precation of his vengeance, or a renun- || you God.' The energy of the sentence ciation of his favour, if what we affirm resides in the particle so; so, that is, be false, or what we promise be not hac lege, upon condition of my speakperformed.

ing the truth, or performing this proThe forms of oaths," says Dr. Paley, | mise, and not otherwise, may God help “like other religious ceremonies, have me. The juror, whilst he hears or rein all ages been various; consisting, peats the words of the oath, holds his however, for the most part, of some bo- right hand upon the Bible, or other book dily action, and of a prescribed form of containing the four Gospels, and at the words. Amongst the Jews, the juror conclusion kisses the book. This obheld up his right hand towards heaven, scure and eliptical form, together with Psal. cxliv. 8. Rev. X. 5. (The same the levity and frequency with which it form is retained in Scotland still.) || is administered, has brought about a Amongst the Jews, also, an oath of fi-| general inadvertency to the obligation delity was taken by the servant's put- of oaths, which both in a religious and ting his hand under the thigh of his lord, | political view is much to be lamented; Gen. xxiv. 2. Amongst the Greeks and and it merits public consideration," Romans, the form varied with the sub- || continues, Mr. Paley, “whether the reject and occasion of the oath: in pri- quiring of oaths on so many frivolous vate contracts, the parties took hold of occasions, especially in the customs, and each other's hand, whilst they swore to in the qualification for petty offices, has the performance; or they touched the || any other effect than to make them altar of the god by whose divinity they cheap in the minds of the people. A swore. Upon more solemn occasions ít pound of tea cannot travel regularly was the custom to slay a victim, and the from the ship to the consumer without beast being struck down, with cer- costing half a dozen oaths at least; and tain ceremonies and invocations, gave the same security for the due discharge birth to the expressions, reuvery opnov, ferire of their office, namely, that of an oath, practum; and to our English phrase || is required from a church warden and translated from these, of striking a an archbishop, from a petty constable, bargain. The forms of oaths in Chris- and the chief justice of England. Oaths, tian countries are also very different ; however, are lawful; and, whatever be but in no country in the world worse the form, the signification, is the same." contrived, either to convey the meaning, It is evident that so far as atheism preor impress the obligation of an oath | vails, oaths can be of no use. “Remove than in our own. The juror with us God once out of heaven, and there will after repeating the promise or affirma- never be any gods upon earth. If man's tion which the oath is intended to con- nature had not something of subjection firm, adds, 'So help me God;" or more l in it to a Supreme Being, and inhe


rent principles, obliging him how to || Doctrine of Oaths ; Doddridge's Lecbehave himself toward God and toward ||tures, lect. 189; Tillotson's 22d Serthe rest of the world, government could mon; Wolsely's Unreasonableness of never have been introduced, nor thought | Atheism, p. 152. of. Nor can there be the least mutual Oath of allegiance is as follows; “I, security between governors and govern- | A. B. do sincerely promise and swear, ed, where no God is admitted. For it that I will be faithful, and bear true alis acknowledging of God in his supreme | legiance to his Majesty, King George. judgment over the world, that is the So help me God." This is taken by ground of an oath, and upon which the Protestant dissenting ministers, when validity of all human engagements de- licensed by the civil magistrate; as is pend." Historians have justly remark- also the following: ed, that when the reverence for an oath Oath of supremacy'; “I, A. B. do began to be diminished among the Ro- swear, that I do from my heart abhor, mans, and the loose Epicurian system, detest, and abjure, as impious and hewhich discarded the belief of Provi- retical, that damnable doctrine and podence, was introduced, the Roman ho- sition, that princes excommunicated or nour and prosperity from that period deprived by the Pope, or any authority began to decline." The Quakers re- of the see of Rome, may be deposed or fuse to swear upon any occasion, found murdered by their subjects, or any other ing their scruples concerning the law- whatsoever. And I do declare, that no fulness of oaths, upon our Saviour's foreign prince, person, prelate, state, or prohibition, Swear not at all. Matt. potentate, hath, or ought to have any V. 34. But it seems our Lord there re- jurisdiction, power, pre-eminence, or ferred to the vicious, wanton, and un- | authority, ecclesiastical or spiritual, authorized swearing in common dis within this realm. So help me God.” course, and not to judicial oaths; for he OBEDIENCE, the performance of himself answered when interrogated the commands of a superior. Obediupon oath, Matt. xxvi. 63, 64. Mark ence to God may be considered, 1. As xiv. 61. The apostle Paul also makes virtual, which consists in a belief of the use of expressions which contain the Gospel, of the holiness and equity of its nature of oaths, Rom. i. 9. 1 Cor. xv. 31. precepts, of the truth of its promises, 2 Cor. i. 18. Gal. i. 20. Heb. vi. 13, 17. and a true repentance of all our sins. Oaths are nugatory, that is, carry with 1-2. Actual obedience, which is the practhem no proper force or obligation, tice and exercise of the several graces unless we believe that God will punish and duties of Christianity.—3. Perfect false swearing with more severity than obedience, which is the exact confora simple lie or breach of premise; for mrity of our hearts and lives to the law which belief there are the following of God, without the least imperfection. reasons: 1. Perjury is a sin of greater This last is only peculiar to a glorified deliberation.-2. Iť violates a superior state. The obligation we are under to confidence.-3. God directed the Israel | obedience arises, 1. From the relation we ites to swear by his name, Deut. vi. 13. stand in to God as creatures, Psalm X. 20. and was pleased to confirm his xcv. 6.-2. From the law he hath recovenant with that people by an oath ; | vealed to us in his word, Psalm cxix. 3. neither of which it is probable he would | 2 Peter, i. 5, 7.-3. From the blessings have done, had he not intended to re- of his providence we are constantly represent oaths as having some meaning ceiving, Acts xiv. 17. Psalm cxlv.and effect beyond the obligation of a 4. From the love and goodness of God bare promise.

in the grand work of redemption, 1 Cor. Promissory oaths are not binding vi. 20. As to the nature of this obediwhere the promise itself would not be so. ence, it must be, 1. Active, not only See PROMISES. As oaths are designed avoiding what is prohibited, but perfor the security of the imposer, it is forming what is commanded, Col. iii. 8, manifest that they must be interpreted 10.—2. Personal ; for though Christ has

and performed in the sense in which the obeyed the law for us as a covenant of imposer intends them.” Oaths, also, works, yet he hath not abrogated it as must never be taken but in matters of a rule of life, Rom. vii. 22. Rom. iii. 31. importance, nor irreverently, and with |--3. Sincere, Psalm li. 6. 1 Tim. i. 5.out godly fear. Paley's Mor. Phil. ch. 4. Affectionate, springing from love, and

16. vol. i. Grot. de Jure, 1. 11. c. 13. || not from terror, 1 John v. 19. 1 John 21; Barrow's Works, vol. i. ser. 15; | ii. 5. 2 Cor. v. 14.-5. Diligent, not Burnet's Exposition of the 39th Article slothfully, Gal. i. 16. Psalm xviii. 44. of the Church of England; Herport's Rom. xii. 11.–6. Conspicuous and open, Esay on truths of importance, and || Phil. ii. 15. Matt. v. 16.—7. Universal;


not one duty, but all must be perform OBLIGATION is that by which we ed, 2 Pet. i. 5, 10.–8. Perpetual, at all are bound to the performance of any actimes, places, and occasions, Rom, ii. 7. tion, 1. Rational obligation is that which Gal. vi. 9. The advantages of obedience arises from reason, abstractly taken, to are these, 1. It adorns the Gospel, Tit. do or forbear certain actions.-2. Áhî. 10.-2. It is evidential of grace. 2 Cor. thoritative obligation is that which arus v. 17.-3. It rejoices the hearts of the from the commands of a superior, or coe ministers and people of God, 3 John 2. who has a right or authority to prescribe 2 Thess. i. 19, 20.-4. It silences gain- rules to others.—3. Moral obligation is sayers, 2 Pet. i. 11, 12.—5. Encourages that by which we are bound to perfeto the saints, while it reproves the luke- that which is right, and to avoid that warm, Matt. v. 16.–6. Affords peace to which is wrong. It is a moral necessty the subject of it, Psalm xxv. 12, 13. of doing actions or forbearing them; Acts xxiv. 16.—7. It powerfully recom that is, such a necessity as whoever mends religion, as that which is both de- breaks through it, is, ipso facto, worthy lightful and practicable, Col. i. 10.–8. It of blame for so doing. Various, however, is the forerunner and evidence of eternal have been the opinions concerning the glory, Rom. vi. 22. Rev. xxii. 14. See ground of moral obligation, or what it HOLINESS, SANCTIFICATION; Char- | arises from. One says, from the moral nock's Works, vol. xi. p. 1212; Tillot- | fitness of things; another, because it is son's Sermons, ser. 122, 123; Saurin's conformable to reason and nature; anoSermons, vol. i. ser. 4; Ridgly’s Body | ther, because it is conformable to truth; of Divinity, qu. 92.

and another, because it is expedient, and OBEDIENCE OF CHRIST is ge- || promotes the public good. A late wrier nerally divided into active and passive. has defined obligation to be " a state of His active obedience implies what he || nind perceiving the reasons for actirg. did; his passive what he suffered. Some or forbearing to act.” But I confess divines distinguish these. They refer this has a difficulty in it to me; because our pardon to his passive, and our title it carries with it an idea that if a man to glory to his active obedience: though, || should by his habitual practice of iniquDr. Owen observes, that it cannot be ty be so hardened as to lose a sense of clearly evinced that there is any such duty, and not perceive the reasons why thing in propriety of speech as passive he should act morally, then he is under obedience : obeying is doing, to which no obligation. And thus a depraved passion or suffering doth not belong. man might say he is under no obligation Of the active obedience of Christ the to obey the laws of the land, because, Scriptures assure us that he took upon through his desire of living a licentious him the form of a servant, and really be- | life, he is led to suppose that there came one, Is. xlix. 3. Phil. ii. 5. Heb. should be none. In my opinion, a difviii. He was subject to the law of God. ference should be made between obliga

He was made under the law;" the tion and a sense of it. Moral obligation, judicial or civil law of the Jews: the I think, arises from the will of God, as ceremonial law, and the moral law, revealed in the light and law of nature, Matt. xvii. 24, 27. Luke ii. 22. Psalm and in his word. This is binding upon xl. 7, 8. He was obedient to the law of all men, because there is no situation in nature; he was in a state of subjection which mankind have not either one or to his parents; and he fulfilled the com- the other of these. We find, however, mands of his heavenly Father as it re- that the generality of men are so far spected the first and second table. His sunk in depravity, that a sense of obliobedience, 1. Was voluntary, Psalm xl. gation is nearly or quite lost. Still, how6.-2. Complete, 1 Peter i. 22.-3. ever, their losing the sense does not rerWrought out in the room and stead of der the obligation less strong. Oblihis people, Rom. X. 4. Rom. v. 19.- gation to virtue is eternal and immuta4. Well pleasing and acceptable in the ble, but the sense of it is lost by sin." sight of God. See ATONEMENT; Death See Warburton's Legation, vol. 1. p. 38, and Sufferings of Christ.

46, &c. Paley's Mor. Phil. p. 54, vol

. i. OBLATI, secular persons who de Robinson'sfireface to the Fourth Volume voted themselves and their estates to l of Saurin's Sermons ; Mason's Chris some monastery, into which they were tian Morals, ser. 23, p. 256, vol. ïi. Dodadmitted as a kind of lay-brothers. The dridge's Lect. lect. 52; Grove's Pkal. form of their adınission was putting the vol. ii. p. 66. bell-ropes of the church round their OBSERVATIONS. See Mind. necks, as a mark of servitude. They ECONOMY. See DISPENSATION. wore a religious habit, but different from ECONOMISTS, a sect of philosothat of the monks.

phers in France, who have made a great

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noise in Europe, and are generally sup OMNIPOTENCE OF GOD is his posed to have been unfriendly to reli almighty power. This is essential to gion. The founder of this sect was Dr. || his nature as an infinite, independent, Duquesnoi, who had so well insinuated and perfect being The power of God himself into the favour of Louis XV. is divided into absolute, and ordinate or that the king used to call him his Think- | actual. Absolute, is that whereby God er. The sect was called Economists, | is able to do that which he will not do, because the economy and order to be but is possible to be done. Ordinate is introduced into the finances, and other that whereby he doeth that which he means of alleviating the distresses of hath decreed to do. The power of God the people, were perpetually in their may be more especially seen, 1. In cremouths. The abbe Barruel admits that || ation, Rom. i. 20. Genesis i.-2. In the there may have been some few of them preservation of his creatures, Heb. i. who directed their speculations to no Col. i. 16, 17. Job xxvi. 3. In the reother object; but he brings very suffi- || demption of men by Christ, Luke i. cient proof that the aim of the majority 35, 37. Eph. i. 19.-4. in the converof the sect was to distribute the wri sion of sinnners, Psal. cx. 3. 2 Cor. iv. 7. tings of Voltaire, Diderot, and others, Rom. i. 16.-5. In the continuation and and thus to eradicate from the minds success of the Gospel in the world, of the people all reverence for divine Matt. xiii. 31, 32.-6. In the final perrevelation. See PHILOSOPHISTS. severance of the saints, 1 Pet. i. 5.-7.

OFFERING, or OBLATION, denotes in the resurrection of the dead, 1 Cor. whatever is sacrificed or consumed in xv.-8. In making the righteous happy the worship of God. For an account of for ever, and punishing the wicked, the various offerings under the law, the Phil. iii. 21. Matt. xxv. 34, &c. See reader is referred to the book of Levi-| Gill's Body of Div. vol. i. oct. edit. p. ticus. See also SACRIFICE.

77; Charnock's Works, vol. i. P: OFFICERS CHURCH. See Church, Saurin's Sermons, vol. i. p. 157 ; TilDEACON, ELDER.

lotson's Sermons, ser. 152. OFFICES OF CHRIST are gene OMNIPRESENCE OF GOD, is rally considered as threefold. i. A his ubiquity, or his being present in prophet to enlighten and instruct, John | every place. This may be argued from vi. 14. John iii. 2.-2. A priest to make | his infinity, Ps. cxxxix. his power, atonement for his people, Isaiah liï. which is every where, Heb. i. 3; his Heb. vii.—3. A king to reign in, and providence, Acts xvii. 27, 28. which rule over them, Zech. xi. 9. Psal. i. 6. supplies all. As he is a spirit, he is so See articles INTERCESSION, MEDIA- | omnipresent as not to be mixed with TOR, &c.

the creature, or divided, part in one OMEN is a word which, in its pro- | place, and part in another; nor is he mulper sense, signifies a sign or indication tiplied or extended, but is essentially of some future event, especially of an present every where. From the considealarming nature. Against the belief ration of this attribute we should learn to of omens it is observed, that it is con fear and reverence God, Psal. lxxxix. trary to every principle of sound phi- || 7. To derive consolation in the hour of losophy; and whoever has studied the distress, Is. xliii. 2. Ps. xlvi. 1. To be acwritings of St. Paul must be convinced tive and diligent in holy services, Psal. that it is inconsistent with the spirit of cxix. 168. See Charnock's Works, vol. genuine Christianity. We cannot pre-i. p. 240; Abernethy's Sermons, ser. 7; tend to discuss the subject here, but | Howe's Works, vol. i. p. 108, 110; Sauwill present the reader with a quota- || rin's Sermons, vol. i. ser. 3; Gill's Botion on the other side of the question. | dy of Div. b. i; Spect. vol. viii

. No. “Though it be true," says Mr. Toplady, | 565, 571; Tillotson's Sermons, ser. 154. " that all omens are not worthy of ob OMNISCIENCE OF GOD is that servation, and though they should never | perfection by which he knows all things, be so regarded as to shock our fortitude, and is, 1. Infinite knowledge, Ps. cxlvi. or diminish our confidence in God, still 5.—2. Eternal, generally called forethey are not to be constantly despised. knowledge, Acts xv. 18. Isa. xlvi. 10. Small incidents have sometimes been | Eph. i. 4. Acts ii. 23.-3. Universal, prelusive to great events ; nor is there | extending to all persons, times, places, any superstition in noticing these appa- and things, Heb. iv. 13. Psalm 1. 10. &c. rent prognostications, though there may |--4. perfect, relating to what is past, be much superstition in being either too present, and to come. He knows all by indiscriminately or too deeply swayed his own essence, and not derived from by them.”- Toplady's Works, vol. iv. any other; not successively, as we do,

but independently, distinctly, infallibly,

p. 192.

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