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Saul and Barnabas, say they, was an or- | appeared in the third century, who dedination to missionary work, including rived their opinions from the writings the administration of sacraments to the of Origen, a presbyter of Alexandria, converted Heathen, as well as public and a man of vast and uncommon abili instruction, Acts xiii. 1, 3. So Timothy ties, who interpreted the divine truths was ordained, 1 Tim. iv. 14. Acts xvi. of religion according to the tenor of the 3, and there is equal reason, by analogy, Platonic philosophy. He alleged, that to suppose that Titus and other com- the source of many evils lies in adhering panions of Paul were similarly ordain- | to the literal and external part of Scriped, without any of them having a par- ture: and that the true meaning of the ticular church to take under his pasto-sacred writers was to be sought in a ral care. So that they appear to have mysterious and hidden sense, arising bcen ordained to the work of the Chris- from the nature of things themselves. tian ministry at large.
The principal tenets ascribed to OriOn reviewing the whole of this con- | gen, together with a few of the reatroversy, I would say with Dr. Watts, sons made use of in their defence, are “ that since there are some texts in the comprehended in the following sumNew Testament, wherein single per- | mary: sons, either apostles, as Paul and Bar 1.' That there is a pre-existent state nabas, ordained ministers in the church- of human souls. For the nature of the es; or evangelists, as Timothy and soul is such as to make her capable of Titus; and since other missions or or- existing eternally, backward as well dinations are intimated to be perform- | as forward, because her spiritual esed by several persons, viz. prophets, sence, as such, makes it impossible that teachers, elders, or a presbytery, as in she should, either through age or vioActs xiii. 1. and 1 Tim. iv. 14; since lence, be dissolved: so that nothing is there is sometimes mention made of the wanting to her existence but the good imposition of hands in the mission of a pleasure of him from whom all things minister, and sometimes no mention of proceed. And if, according to the Plait; and since it is evident that in some tonic scheme, we assign the production cases popular ordinations are and must | of all things to the exuberant fulness of be valid without any bishop or elder; | life in the Deity, which, through the I think none of these differences should | blessed necessity of his communicative be made a matter of violent contest nature, empties itself into all possibiliamong Christians; nor'ought any words ties of being, as into so many capable to be pronounced against each other by | receptacles, we must suppose her existhose of the episcopal, presbyterian, or tence in a sense necessary, and in a deindependent way. Surely, all may || gree co-eternal with God. agree thus far, that various forms or 2. That souls were condemned to animodes, seeming to be used in the mis- | mate mortal bodies, in order to expiate sion or ordination of ministers in primi- || faults they had committed in a pretive times, may give a reasonable occa- existent state: for we may be assured, sion or colour for sincere and honest from the infinite goodness of their Creasearchers after truth to follow different || tor, that they were at first joined to the opinions on this head, and do therefore purest matter, and placed in those redemand our candid and charitable sen- l gions of the universe which were most timents concerning those who differ suitable to the purity of essence they from us.” See articles EPISCOPACY, then possessed. For that the souls of IMPOSITION OF HANDS, INDEPEN- || men are an order of essentially incorpoDENTS, and MINISTERIAL Call, in rate spirits, their deep immersion into this work; James Owen's Plea for terrestrial matter, the modification of Scripture Ordination ; Doddridğre's || all their operations by it, and the heaTracts, v. ii. p. 253—257; Dr. Owen’s venly body promised in the Gospel, as True Nature of a Gospel Church, p. the highest perfection of our renewed 78, 83; Brekell: Essay on Ordination; nature, clearly evince. Therefore if Watts' Rational Foundation of a our souls existed before they appeared Christian Church, sec. 3; Dr. Camp- inhabitants of the earth, they were bell's Lectures on Ecclesiastical His placed in a purer element, and enjoyed tory, vol. i. p. 345; Gill's Body of Di- far greater degrees of happiness. And vinity, p. 246. vol. iii. 8vo. ed." Theolo-certainly he, whose overflowing good
gical Magazine for 1802, p. 33, 90, 167; ness brought them into existence, would Ewing's Remarks on Dick’s Sermon, not deprive them of their felicity, till by preached before the Edinburgh Mis- their mutability they rendered themsionary Society, in 1801.
selves less pure in the whole extent of ORIGENISTS, a denomination which their powers, and became disposed for
the susception of such a degree of cor- || er, there must of necessity be something poreal life as was exactly answerable to | analogous to this in the intellectual systheir present disposition of spirit. Hence || tem; and since the spirits created by it was necessary that they should be- || God are emanations and streams from come terrestrial men.
his own abyss of being, and as self-ex3. That the soul of Christ was united | istent power must needs subject all beto the Word before the incarnation. For ings to itself, the Deity could not but the Scriptures teach us that the soul of impress upon her intimate natures and the Messiah was created before the substances a central tendency towards beginning of the world, Phil
. ii. 5, 7: || himself; an essential principle of reThis text must be understood of union to their great original. Christ's human soul, because it is 6. That the earth after its conflagraunusual to propound the Deity as an ex tion shall become habitable again, and ample of humility in Scripture. Though | be the mansion of men and animals, and the humanity of Christ was so God-like, that in eternal vicissitudes. For it is he emptied himself of this fulness of thus expressed in Isaiah: Behold I life and glory, to take upon him the make new heavens, and a new earth; form of a servant. It was this Messiah || &c. and in Heb. i. 10, 12. Thou, Lord, who conversed with the patriarchs un- | in the beginning hast laid the foundader a human form: it was he who ap- tions of the earth; as a vesture shalt peared to Moses upon the Holy Mount: thou change them, and they shall be it was he who spoke to the prophets | changed, &c. Where there is only a under a visible appearance; and it is he change the substance is not destroyed, who will at last come in triumph upon this change being only as that of a gar the clouds to restore the universe to its ment worn out and decaying. The primitive splendour and felicity. fashion of the world passes away like
4. That at the resurrection of the a turning scene, to exhibit a fresh and dead we shall be clothed with ethereal new representation of things; and if bodies. For the elements of our ter- | only the present dress and appearance restrial compositions are such as almost of things go off, the substance is supfatally entangle us in vice, passion, and posed to remain entire. misery. The purer the vehicle the soul ORIGINAL SIN. See Fall, Sin. is united with, the more perfect is her ORIGIN OF EVIL. See SIN. life and operations. Besides, the Su ORTHODOXY, soundness of docpreme Goodness who made all things, trine or opinion in matters of religion. assures us he made all things best at The doctrines which are generally confirst, and therefore his recovery of us | sidered as orthodox among us, are such to our lost happiness (which is the de- | as were generally professed at the time sign of the Gospel,) must restore us to of the reformation, viz. the fall of man, our better bodies and happier habita- regeneration, atonement, repentance, tions, which is evident from 1 Cor. xv. || justification by free grace, &c. 1 49. 2 Cor. v. 1. and other texts of Some have thought, that, in order to Scripture.
keep error out of the church, there 5. That, after long periods of time, should be some human form as a stanthe damned shall be released from their dard of orthodoxy, wherein certain torments, and restored to a new state of disputed doctrines shall be expressed in probation. For the Deity has such re-such determinate phrases as may be diserves in his gracious providence, as rectly levelled against such errors as will vindicate his sovereign goodness | shall prevail from time to time,
requiring and wisdom from all disparagement. | those especially who are to be public Expiatory pains are a part of his ado- teachers in the church to subscribe or rable plan; for this sharper kind of fa- virtually to declare their assent to such vour has a righteous place in such crea- | formularies. But as Dr. Doddridge obtures as are by nature mutable. Though serves, 1. Had this been requisite, it is sin has extinguished or silenced the di- probable that the Scriptures would have vine life, yet it has not destroyed the given us some such formularies as these, faculties of reason and understanding, or some directions as to the manner in consideration and memory, which will which they should be drawn up, proserve the life which is most powerful. posed, and received.—2. It is impossiIf, therefore, the vigorous attraction of ble that weak and passionate men, who the sensual nature be abated by a cease- have perhaps been heated in the very less pain, these powers may resume the controversy thus decided, should ex. seeds of a better life and nature. As in press themselves with greater propriety the material system there is a gravita- than the apostles did.—3. It is plain, in tion of the less bodies towards the great- || fact, that this practice has been the
cause of great contention in the Chris OSIANDRIANS, a denomination tian church, and such formularies have among the Lutherans, which was been the grand engine of dividing it, in | founded in the year 1550, by Andrew proportion to the degree in which they | Osiander, a celebrated German divine, have been multiplied and urged.-4. whose doctrine amounted to the followThis is laying a great temptation in the ing propositions way of such as desire to undertake the 1. That Christ, considered in his huoffice of teachers in the church, and man nature only, could not, by his obewill be most likely to deter and af- || dience to the divine law, obtain justififlict those who have the greatest ten- | cation and pardon for sinners; neither derness of conscience, and therefore can we be justified before God, by em(cæt par.) best deserve encourage-bracing and applying to ourselves, ment.-5. It is not likely to answer the through faith, the righteousness and end proposed, viz. the preserving an obedience of the man Christ. It is only uniformity of opinion, since persons of through that eternal and essential righlittle integrity may satisfy their con teousness which dwells in Christ, consciences, in subscribing what they do sidered as God, and which resides in his not at all believe as articles of peace, or | divine nature, that is united to the huin putting the most unnatural sense on man, that mankind can obtain complete the words. And whereas, in answer to || justification. all these inconveniences, it is pleaded, 2. That a man becomes a partaker of that such forms are necessary to keep this divine righteousness by faith, since the church from heresy, and it is better | it is in consequence of this uniting there should be some hypocrites under principle that Christ dwells in the heart such forms of orthodoxy, than that a of man with his divine righteousness. freedom of debate and opinion should Now, wherever this divine righteousbe allowed to all teachers; the answer ness dwells, there God can behold no is plain, that, when any one begins to sin; therefore, when it is present with preach doctrines which appear to those Christ in the hearts of the regenerate, who attend upon him dangerous and they are on its account considered by subversive of Christianity, it will be the Deity as righteous, although they time enough to proceed to such animad- || be sinners. Moreover, this divine and version as the nature of his error in || justifying righteousness of Christ excites their apprehension will require, and his the faithful to the pursuit of holiness, relation to them will admit. See arti- || and to the practice of virtue. cles ESTABLISHMENT and SUBSCRIP OSSENIANS, a denomination of the TION; Doddridge's Lectures, lec. first century, which taught that faith 174; Watts’s Orthodoxy and Charity || may and ought to be dissembled. United.
PACIFICATION, Edicts of, were || obliging them withal to quit the churches decrees, granted by the kings of France they had possessed themselves of during to the Protestants, for appeasing the the troubles. Another, called the Edict troubles occasioned by their persecution. || of Lonjumeau, ordering the execution The first Edict of Pacification was of that of Amboise, was published granted by. Charles IX. in January March 27, 1558, after a treaty of peace. 1562, permitting the free exercise of This pacification was but of short conthe reformed religion near all the cities tinuance ; for Charles perceiving a geand towns of the realm. March 19, | neral insurrection of the Huguenots, re1563, the same king granted a second voked the said edicts in September, 1568, Edict of Pacification, at Amboise, per- | forbidding the exercise of the Protestant mitting the free exercise of the reform- religion, and commanding all the mied religion in the houses of gentlemen nisters to depart the kingdom in fifteen and lords high justiciaries (or those who days. But on the eighth of August, 1570, had the power of life and death,) to he made peace with them again, and their families and dependents only; published an edict on the eleventh, and allowing other Protestants to have allowing the lords high justiciaries to their sermons in such towns as they had | have sermons in their houses for all them in before the seventh of March; Il comers, and granting other Protestants
two public exercises in each govern- | tion of idols and false gods. The ment. He likewise gave them four theology of the Pagans according to cautionary towns, viz. Rochelle, Mon- | themselves, as Scavola and Varra, was taubon, Cognul, and La Charite, to be of three sorts. The first of these may places of security for them during the well be called fabulous, as treating of space of two years.
the theology and genealogy of their Nevertheless, in August, 1572, he au-deities, in which they say such things thorised the Bartholomew massacre, as are unworthy of deity; ascribing to and at the same time issued a declara- | them thefts, murders, adulteries, and tion, forbidding the exercise of the Pro- | all manner of crimes; and therefore testant religion.
this kind of theology is condemned by Henry III. in April, 1576, made peace the wiser sort of heathens as nugatory with the Protestants; and the Edict of and scandalous: the writers of this sort Pacification was published in parlia- | of theology were Sancho-niatho, the ment, May 14, permitting them to build Phænician; and of the Grecians, Orchurches and have sermons where they | pheus, Hesiod, Pherecyde, &c. The pleased. The Guisian faction, enraged || second sort, called physic, or natural, at this general liberty, began the famous was studied and taught by the philosoleague for defence of the Catholic re- phers, who, rejecting the multiplicity of ligion, which became so formidable, || gods introduced by the poets, brought that it obliged the king to assemble the their theology to a more natural and rastates of the kingdom at Blois, in De- tional form, and supposed that there cember, 1576, where it was enacted | was but one Supreme God, which they that there should be but one religion in commonly make to be the sun; at least, France, and that the Protestant mi an emblem of him, but at too great a nisters should be all banished. In 1577, | distance to mind the affairs of the world, the king, to pacify the troubles, publish- || and therefore devised certain demons, ed an edict'in parliament, October 8th, which they considered as mediators begranting the same liberty to the reform tween the Supreme God and man; and ed which they had before. However, || the doctrines of these demons, to which in July 1585, the league obliged him to the apostle is thought to allude in 1 publish another edict, revoking all for- Tim. iv. 1. were what the philosophers mer edicts granted to the Protestants, had a concern with, and who treat of and ordering them to depart the king- | their nature, office, and regard to men; dom in six months, or turn Papists. | as did Thales, Pythagoras, Plato, and This edict was followed by more to the || the Stoics. The third part called polisame purpose.
tic, or civil, was instituted by legislators, Henry IV. coming to the crown, pub- statesmen, and politicians: the first lished a declaration, July 4, 1391, abo- | among the Romans was Numa Pompilishing the edicts against the Protestants. lius; this chiefly respected their gods, This edict was verified in the parlia- || temples, altars, sacrifices, and rites of ment of Chalons; but the troubles pre- || worship, and was properly their idolavented the verification of it in the par-try, the care of which belonged to the liaments of the other provinces; so that | priests; and this was enjoined the comthe Protestants had not the free exer mon people, to keep them in obedience cise of their religion in any place but to the civil state. Thus things continued where they were masters, and had ba- | in the Gentile world, until the light of nished the Romish religion. In April the Gospel was sent among them: the 1598, the king published a new Edict of times before were times of ignorance, as Pacification at Nantz, granting the Pro- | the apostle calls them: they were ignotestants the free exercise of their reli- || rant of the true God, and of the worgion in all places where they had the || ship of him; and of the Messiah, and same in 1596 and 1597, and one exer salvation by him. Their state is truly cise in each bailiwick.
described, Eph. ii. 12. that they were This Edict of Nantz was confirmed then without Christ ; aliens from the by Lewis XIII. in 1610, and by Lewis commonwealth of Israel; strangers XIV. 1652. But the latter abolished it from the covenants of promise; having entirely in 1685. See HUGUENOTS, and no hope, and without God in the world'; PERSECUTION.
and, consequently, their theology was PÆDOBAPTISTS, those who bap- || insufficient for their salvation." The tise their children. The word comes reader will find some admirable reflecfrom mais, infant, and Bartiomos, baptism. tions on the growth of heathenism among See BAPTISM.
modern Christians, in the 3d volume of PAGANISM, the religious worship the Rev. W. Jones's Works. See HEAand discipline of Pagans, or the adora- || THENS, IDOLATRY, POLYTHEISM.
PAGODA, or Pagod, a name given PANTHEOLOGY, the whole sum by the East Indians to their temples, or body of divinity. where they worship their gods.
PAPIST, one 'who adheres to the PALM SUNDAY, the Sunday next communion of the pope and church of before Easter, so called from palm Rome. See Pope, and POPERY, branches being strewed on the road by PARABLE, a fable or allegorical inthe multitude, when our Saviour made struction, founded on something real or his triumphal entry into Jerusalem. apparent in nature or history, from
PANTHEISM, a philosophical spe- which a moral is drawn, by comparing cies of idolatry, leading to atheism, in it with something in which the people which the universe was considered as are more immediately concerned: such the Supreme God. Who was the in are the parables of Dives and Laventor of this absurd system, is, per- | zarus, or the prodigal son, of the ten haps, not known, but it was of early ori- | virgins, &c. Dr. Blair observes, that gin, and differently modified by different of parables, which form a part of alphilosophers. Some held the universe | legory, the prophetical writings are full; to be one immense animal, of which the and if to us they sometimes appear incorporeal soul was properly their obscure, we must remember, that, in god, and the heavens and the earth the those early times, it was universally the body of that god; whilst others held mode throughout all the eastern nabut one substance, partly active and tions, to convey sacred truths under partly passive, and therefore looked some mysterious figures and represenupon the visible universe as the only tations." Numen. The earliest Grecian pan PARACLETE, an advocate or comtheist of whom we read was Orpheus, forter; generally applied to the third who called the world the body of God, person in the Trinity, John xv. 26. and its several parts his members, PARADISE, the garden of Eden, in making the whole universe, one divine which Adam and Eve were placed. It animal. According to Cudworth, Or- | is also used to denote heaven, Luke pheus and his followers believed in the xxiii. 44. As to the terrestrial paraimmaterial soul of the world: therein dise, there have been many inquiries agreeing with Aristotle, who certainly | about its situation. It has been placed held that God and matter are co-eter in the third heaven, in the orb of the nal; and that there is some such union | moon, in the moon itself, in the middle between them, as subsists between the region of the air, above the earth, under souls and bodies of men. An institution, the earth, in the place possessed by the imbibing sentiments nearly of this kind, Caspian sea, and under the arctic pole. was set on foot about eighty or ninety The learned Huetius places it upon the years ago, in this kingdom, by a society river that is produced by the conjunction of philosophical idolaters, who called || of the Tigris and Euphrates, now callthemselves Pantheists, because they ed the river of the Arabs, between this professed the worship of All Nature as conjunction, and the division made by their deity. They had Mr. John Toland the same river before it falls into the for their secretary and chaplain. Their Persian sea. Other geographers have liturgy was in Latin : an English trans- placed it in Armenia, between the lation was published in 1751, from which sources of the Tigris, the Euphrates, the following sentiments are extracted: the Araxes, and the Phasis, which they -“ The ethereal fire environs all suppose to be the four rivers described things, and is therefore supreme. The by Moses. But concerning the exact æther is a reviving fire: it rules all place, we must necessarily be very unthings, it disposes all things. In it is certain, if, indeed, it can be thought at soul, mind, prudence. This fire is Ho- all to exist at present, considering the race's particle of divine breath, and many changes which have taken place Virgil's inwardly nourishing spirit
. All on the surface of the earth since the things are comprised in an intelligent creation. See Man. nature.” This force they call the soul PARAPHRASE, an explanation of of the world; as also, a mind of perfect some text in clearer and more ample wisdom, and, consequently, God. Vanini terms, wherein more regard is had to the Italian philosopher, was nearly of this an author's meaning than his words. opinion: his god was nature. Some very See COMMENTARY. learned and excellent remarks are made PARDON, the act of forgiving an on this error by Mr. Boyle, in his dis- | offender, or removing the guilt of sin, course on the vulgarly received notion of that the punishment due to it may not nature. See Jones of Nayland's Works, be inflicted. Of the nature of pardon vol. ix. p. 50, and article SPINOSISM. it may be observed, that the Scripture