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earth, and hell, were all filled with di- | Jews, too, had their pontiffs ; and among vinities, yet there was One who was the Romanists the pope is styled the considered as supreme over all the rest, sovereign pontiff: or, at most, that there were but two PONTIFICATE, is used for the state self-existent gods from whom they con or dignity of a pontiff, or high priest; ceived all the other divinities to have but more particularly, in modern wridescended in a manner analogous to ters, for the reign of a pope. human generation. It appears, how POPE, a name which comes from the ever, that the vulgar Pagans considered Greek word llana and signifies Father. each divinity, as supreme, and unac- In the East, this appellation is given to countable within his own province, and all Christian priests; and in the West, therefore entitled to worship, which bishops were called by it in ancient rested ultimately in himself. The phi-times; but now for many centuries it losophers, on the other hand, seem to has been appropriated to the bishop of have viewed the inferior gods as ac- Rome, whom the Roman Catholics look countable for every part of their con- upon as the common father of all Chrisduct to him who was their sire and tians. sovereign, and to have paid to them only All in communion with the see of Rome that inferior kind of devotion which the unanimously hold that our Saviour Jechurch of Rome pays to departed saints. sus Christ constituted St. Peter the The vulgar Pagans were sunk in the apostle chief pastor under himself, to grossest ignorance, from which states- watch over his whole flock here on men, priests, and poets, exerted their earth, and to preserve the unity of it, utmost influence to keep them from giving him the power requisite for these emerging; for it was a maxim, which, ends. They also believe that our Sahowever absurd, was universally re-viour ordained that St. Peter should ceived, “that there were many things have successors, with the like charge true in religion which it was not con- and power to the end of time. Now, as venient for the vulgar to know; and St. Peter resided at Rome for many some things, which, though false, it was years, and suffered martyrdom there, expedient that they should believe." It they consider the bishops of Rome as was no wonder, therefore, that the vul- his successors in the dignity and office gar should be idolaters and polytheists. of the universal pastor of the whole The philosophers, however, were still Catholic church. worse; they were wholly “ without ex The cardinals have for several ages cuse, because that, when they knew been the sole electors of the pope. God, they glorified him not as God; These are seventy in number, when the neither were thankful, but became vain sacred college, as it is called, is comin their imaginations, and their foolish plete. Of these, six are cardinal biheart was darkened. Professing them- shops of the six suburbicarian churches; selves wise, they became fools, and wor- fifty are cardinal priests, who have all shipped and served the creature more titles from parish churches in Rome; than the Creator, who is God, blessed and fourteen are cardinal deacons, who for ever," Rom i. 20, 21, 22, 25. See have their titles from churches in Rome list of books under article IDOLATRY; of less note, called diaconias, or deaconPrideaux's Con. vol. i. p. 177, 179;ries. These cardinals are created by Kaims's Sketches of the History of the pope when there happen to be vaMan; Bishop Law's Theory of Reli- cancies, and sometimes he names one or gion, p. 58, 65 to 68, 94, 296; article two only at a time; but commonly he Polytheism in Enc. Brit.; Farmer on defers the promotion until there be ten the Worship
of Human Spirits. or twelve vacancies, or more; and PONTIFF, or High PRIEST, a per- then at every second such promotion, son who has the superintendence and the emperor, the kings of Spain and direction of divine worship, as the of- France, and of Britain, when Catholic, fering of sacrifices and other religious are allowed to present one each, to be solemnities. The Romans had a col-made cardinal, whom the pope always lege of pontiffs, and over these a sove- admits, if there be not some very great reign pontiff, instituted by Numa, whose objection. These cardinals are comfunction it was to prescribe the cere- monly promoted from among such clermonies each god was to be worshipped gymen as have borne offices in the Rowithal, compose the rituals, direct the man court; some are assumed from revestals, and for a good while to per- ligious orders; eminent ecclesiastics of form the business of augury, tili, on other countries are likewise often hosome superstitious occasion, he was pro- noured with this dignity. Sons of sovehibited intermeddling therewith. The li reign princes have frequently been
members of the sacred college. * Their || on every cell, and small papers, with distinctive dress is scarlet, to signify that corresponding numbers, are put into a they ought to be ready to shed their box; every cardinal, or some one for blood for the faith and church, when him, draws out one of these papers, the defence and honour of either re-1 which determines in what cell he is to quire it. They wear a scarlet cap and lodge. The cells are lined with cloth; hat: the cap is given to them by the and there is a part of each one separated pope if they are at Rome, and is sent to for the conclavists, or attendants, of them if they are absent; but the hat is whom two are allowed to each cardinever given but by the pope's own hand. nal, and three to cardinal princes. They These cardinals form the pope's stand- are persons of some rank, and generally ing council, or consistory, for the ma- of great confidence; but they must carnagement of the public affairs of church ry in their master's meals, serve him at and state. They are divided into differ- table, and perform all the offices of a ent congregations for the more easy menial servant. Two physicians, two despatch of business; and some of them surgeons, an apothecary, and some have the principal offices in the ponti- other necessary officers, are chosen for fical court; as that of cardinal, vicar, the conclave by the cardinals. penitentiary, chancellor, chamberlain, On the tenth day after the pope's prefect of the signature of justice, pre- death, the cardinals who are then at fect of memorials, and secretary of Rome, and in a competent state of state. They have the title given them health, meet in the chapel of St. Peter's, of eminence and most eminent.
which is called the Gregorian chapel, On the demise of a pope his pontifical where a sermon on the choice of a pope seal is immediately broken by the cham- is preached to them, and mass is said berlain, and all public business is inter- for invoking the grace of the Holy rupted that can be delayed; messengers Ghost. Then the cardinals proceed to are despatched to all the Catholic sove- the conclave in procession, two by two, reigns to acquaint them of the event, that and take up their abode. When all is they may take what measures they properly settled, the conclave is shut think proper: and that the cardinals, in up, having boxed wheels, or places of their dominions, if any there be, may communication, in convenient quarters; hasten to the future election, if they there are, also, strong guards placed choose to attend; whilst the whole at- | all around. When any foreign cardinal tention of the sacred college is turned to arrives after the inclosure, the conclave the preservation of tranquillity in the is opened for his admission. In the becity and state, and to the necessary pre- ginning, every cardinal signs a paper, parations for the future election. The containing an obligation, that, if he shall cardinal chamberlain has during the va- be raised to the papal chair, he will not cancy of the holy see, great authority; alienate any part of the pontifical dohe coins money with his own arms on it, minion; that he will not be prodigal to lodges in the pope's apartments, and is his relations; and any other such stipuattended by the body guards. He, and lations as may have been settled in forthe first cardinal bishop, the first cardi-mer times, or framed for that occasion. nal priest, and the first cardinal dea We now come to the election itself; con, have, during that time, the govern- and that this may be effectual, twoment almost entirely in their hands. thirds of the cardinals present must The body of the deceased pope is car- vote for the same person. ried to St. Peter's, where funeral ser- often not easily obtained, they, some vice is performed for him with great times remain whole months in the conpomp for nine days, and the cardinals clave. They meet in the chapel twice attend them every morning. In the every day for giving their votes; and mean time, all necessary preparations the election may be effectuated by scrufor the election are made ; and the tiny, accession, or acclamation. Scrutiny place where they assemble for that is the ordinary method, and consists in purpose, which is called the Conclave, this : every cardinal writes his own is fitted up in that part of the Vatican name on the inner part of a piece of palace, which is nearest to St. Peter's paper, and this is folded up and sealed; church, as this has long been thought on the second fold of the same paper, a the most convenient situation. Here conclavist writes the name of the per are formed, by partitions of wood, a son for whom his master votes. This, number of cells, or chambers, equal to according to agreements observed for the number of cardinals
, with a small some centuries, must be one of the site distance between every two, and a broad cred college. 'On the
outer side of the gallery before them. A number is put paper is written a sentence at random,
As this is
which the voter must well remember. | der and dignity, but has also a power Every cardinal, on entering into the and jurisdiction over all Christians, in chapel, goes to the altar, and puts his order to preserve unity and purity of paper into a large chalice.
faith and moral doctrine, and to mainWhen all are convened, two cardinals tain order and regularity in all churches, number the votes; and if there be more See SUPREMACY. Some Catholic dior less than the number of cardinals vines are of opinion that the pope canpresent, the voting must be repeated. not err when he addresses himself to all When this is not the case, the cardinal the faithful on matters of doctrine. They appointed for the purpose, reads the well know that, as a private doctor, he outer sentence, and the name of the may fall into mistakes as well as any cardinal under it; so that each voter, other man; but they think that, when hearing his own sentence, and the name he teaches the whole church, Provijoined with it, knows that there is no dence must preserve him. from error. mistake. The names of all the cardi-We have, however, already examined nals that are voted for are taken down this sentiment under the article INFALin writing, with the number of votes for LIBILITY, to which the reader may reeach; and when it appears that any one fer. has two-thirds of the number present in The see of Rome, according to Rohis favour, the election is over; but man Catholics, is the centre of catholic when this does not happen, the voting unity. All their bishops communicate papers are all immediately burnt, with- || with the pope, and by his means with out opening up the inner part. When one another, and so form one body. several trials of coming to a conclusion However distant their churches may by this method of scrutiny have been be, they all meet at Rome either in made in vain, recourse is sometimes person or by their delegates, or at least had to what is called accession. By it, by their letters. And, according to the when a cardinal perceives that when discipline of the latter ages, though they one or very few votes are wanting to are presented to the pope for their ofany one for whom he has not voted at fice from their respective countries, yet that time, he must say that he accedes from him they must receive their bulls to the one who has near the number of of consecration before they can take votes requisite; and if his one vote suf- possession of their sees. See POPERY. fices to make up the two-thirds, or if he POPERY comprehends the religious is followed by a sufficient number of doctrines and practices adopted and acceders, or new voters, for the said maintained by the church of Rome. cardinal, the election is accomplished: The following summary, extracted Lastly, a pope is sometimes elected by chiefly from the decrees of the council acclamation; and that is, when a cardí- of Trent, continued under Paul III. nal being pretty sure that he will be Julius III. and Pius IV. from the year joined by a number sufficient, cries out | 1545 to 1563, by successive sessions, and in the open chapel, that such a one the creed of Pope Pius IV. subjoined to shall be pope. If he is properly sup- it, and bearing date November 1564, ported, the election becomes unanimous;|| may not be unacceptable to the reader. those who would, perhaps, oppose it, One of the fundamental tenets strenuforeseeing that their opposition would ously maintained by popish writers, is, be fruitless, and rather hurtful to them- the infallibility of the church of Rome; selves. When a pope is chosen in any though they are not agreed whether this of the three above-mentioned ways, the privilege belongs to the pope or a geelection is immediately announced from neral council, or to both united; but the balcony in the front of St. Peter's, they pretend that an infallible living homage is paid to the new pontiff, and judge is absolutely necessary to detercouriers are sent off with the news to mine controversies, and to secure peace all parts of Christendom. The pope in the christian church. However, Proappoints a day for his coronation at St. testants allege, that the claim of infalPeter's, and for his taking possession of libility in any church is not justified by the patriarchal church of St. John La- the authority of Scripture, much less teran; all which is performed with does it pertain to the church of Rome; great solemnity. He is addressed by and that it is inconsistent with the nathe expression of holiness, and most ho-ture of religion, and the personal obliby father.
gations of its professors; and that it The Roman Catholics believe that the has proved ineffectual to the end for bishop of Rome is, under Christ, su- which it is supposed to be granted, since preme pastor of the whole church, and popes and councils have disagreed in *s such is not only the first bishop in or- | matters of importance, and they have
been incapable, with the advantage of || tisfactions ; which supposes that penithis pretended infallibility, of maintain- tents may truly satisfy, by the afflictions ing union and peace.
they endure under the dispensations of Another essential article of the popish Providence, or by voluntary penances creed is the supremacy of the pope, or to which they submit, for the temporal his sovereign power over the universal penalties of sin to which they are subchurch. See SUPREMACY.
ject, even after the remission of their Farther; the doctrine of the seven | eternal punishment. Sess. 6. can. 30. sacraments is a peculiar and distinguish- and sess. 14. can. 3 and 9. In this coning doctrine of the church of Rome ; nection we may mention the popish disthese are baptism, confirmation, the tinction of venial and mortal sins: the eucharist, penance, extreme unction, greatest evils arising from the former, orders, and matrimony.
are the temporary pains of purgatory; The council of Trent (sess. 7. can. 1.) but no man, it is said, can obtain the pronounces an anathema on those who pardon of the latter, without confessing say that the sacraments are more or to a priest, and performing the penances fewer than seven, or that any one of the which he imposes. above number is not truly and properly The council of Trent (sess. 14. can. a sacrament. And yet it does not appear | 1.) has expressly decreed, that every that they amounted to this number be one is accursed who shall affirm that fore the twelfth century, when Hugo de penance is not truly and properly a saSt. Victore and Peter Lombard, about crament instituted by Christ in the unithe year 1144, taught that there were versal church, for' reconciling those seven sacraments. The council of Flo- Christians to the Divine Majesty, who rence, held in 1438, was the first coun- have fallen into sin after baptism; and cil that determined this number. These this sacrament, it is declared, consists of sacraments confer grace, according to two parts, the matter and the form : the the decree of the council of Trent, | matter is the act of the penitent, in(sess. 7. can. 8.) ex opere operato, by cluding contrition, confession, and satisthe mere administration of them : three faction; the form of it is the act of abof them, viz. baptism, confirmation, and solution on the part of the priest. Acorders, are said (c. 9.) to impress an in- cordingly it is enjoined, that it is the delible character, so that they cannot be duty of every man who hath fallen afrepeated without sacrilege; and the ter baptism, to confess his sins once a efficacy of every sacrament depends on year, at least, to a priest ; that this the intention of the priest by whom it is confession is to be secret; for public administered: (can. 11.) Pope Pius ex- confession is neither commanded nor pressly enjoins that all these sacraments expedient: and that it must be exact should be administered according to the and particular, including every kind and received and approred rites of the act of sin, with all the circumstances atCatholic church. With regard to the tending it. When the penitent has so eucharist, in particular, we may here done, the priest pronounces an absoluobserve, that the church of Rome holdstion, which is not conditional or declarathe doctrine of transubstantiation; the tive only, but absolute and judicial. This necessity of paying divine worship to secret or auricular confession was first Christ under the form of the consecrated decreed and established in the fourth bread or host; the propitiatory sacri- || council Lateran, under Innocent III. fice of the mass, according to their ideas in 1215. (cap. 21.) And the decree of of which, Christ is truly and properly this council was afterwards confirmed offered as a sacrifice as often as the and enlarged in the council of Florence priest says mass; it practises, likewise, and in that of Trent, which ordains, that solitary mass, in which the priest alone, confession was instituted by Christ; that who consecrates, communicates, and al- || by the law of God it is necessary to sallows communion only in one kind, viz. vation, and that it has always been practhe bread of the laity Sess. 14. tised in the Christian church. As for
The doctrine of merits is another dis- | the penances imposed on the penitent tinguishing tenet of popery; with regard by way of satisfaction, they have been to which the council of Trent has ex- | commonly the repetition of certain forms pressly decreed (sess. 6. can. 32.) that of devotion, as paternosters, or ave the good works of justified persons are marias, the payment of stipulated sums, truly meritorious; deserving not only pilgrimages, fasts, or various species of an increase of grace, but eternal life and corporal discipline. But the most foran increase of glory; and it has ana-midable penance, in the estimation of thematized all who deny this doctrine. many who have belonged to the Roman Of the same kind is the doctrine of sa-l communion, has been the temporary
pains of purgatory. But under all the || And because he is sensible that these penalties which are inflicted or threat- holy pictures and images represent and ened in the Romish church, it has pro- bring to his mind such objects as in his vided relief by its indulgences, and by heart he loves, honours, and venerates, its prayers or masses for the dead, per- | he cannot but upon that account love, formed professedly for relieving and honour, and respect the images themrescuing the souls that are detained in selves. purgatory.
The council of Trent likewise deAnother article that has been long creed, that all bishops and pastors who authoritatively enjoined and observed in have the care of souls, do diligently inthe church of Rome, is the celibacy of struct their focks that it is good and her clergy. This was first enjoined at profitable to desire the intercession of Rome by Gregory VII. about the year saints reigning with Christ in heaven. 1074, and established in England by And this decree the Papists endeavour Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, to defend by the following observations: about the year 1175 ; though his prede- || They confess that we have but one mecessor Lanfranc had imposed it upon | diator of redemption : but affirm that it the prebendaries and clergy that lived is acceptable to God that we should in towns. And though the council of have many mediators of intercession. Trent was repeatedly
petitioned by se- Moses (say they) was such a mediator veral princes and states to abolish this for the Israelites; Job for his three restraint, the obligation of celibacy was friends; Stephen for his persecutors. rather established than relaxed by this The Romans were thus desired by St. council; for they decreed, that mar- Paul to be his mediators; so were the riage contracted after a vow of conti-Corinthians; so the Ephesians (Ep. nence, is neither lawful nor valid; and ad. Rom. Cor. Eph.) so almost every thus deprived the church of the possi- sick man desires the congregation to be bility of ever restoring marriage to the his mediators, by remembering him in clergy. For if marriage, after a vow, their prayers. And so the Papist debe in itself unlawful, the greatest au- | sires the blessed in heaven to be his methority upon earth cannot dispense with diators: that is, that they would pray it, nor permit marriage to the clergy to God for him. But between these who have already vowed continence. living and dead mediators there is no See CELIBACY.
similarity: the living mediator is preTo the doctrines and practices above sent, and certainly hears the request of recited, may be farther added, the wor- those who desire him to intercede for ship of images, of which Protestants ac- them; the dead mediator is as certainly cuse the Papists. But to this accusation absent, and cannot possibly hear the rethe Papist replies, that he keeps images quests of all those who at the same inby him to preserve in his mind the me- stant may be begging him to intercede mory of the persons represented by for them, unless he be possessed of the them; as people are wont to preserve divine attribute of omnipresence; and the memory of their deceased friends he who gives that attribute to any creaby keeping their pictures. He is taught ture, is unquestionably guilty of idolatry: (he says) to use them soas to cast his eyes | And as this decree is contrary to one of upon the pictures or images, and thence the first principles of natural religion, to raise his heart to the things repre- so does it receive no countenance from sented ; and there to employ it in medi-Scripture, or any Christian writer of tation, love, and thanksgiving, desire of the three first centuries. Other pracimitation, &c. as the object requires. tices peculiar to the Papists are, the re
These pictures or images have this ligious honour and respect that they advantage, that they inform the mind pay to sacred relics : by which they unby one glance of what in reading might derstand not only the bodies and parts require a whole chapter: there being no of the bodies of the saints, but any of other difference between them than that those things that appertained to them, reading represents leisurely, and by de- and which they touched; and the cegrees, and a picture all at once. Hence lebration of divine service in an unhe finds a convenience in saying his known tongue: to which purpose the prayers with some devout pictures be- council of Trent hath denounced an fore him, he being no sooner distracted, anathema on any one who shall say that but the sight of these recalls his wan mass ought to be celebrated only in the dering thoughts to the right object; and vulgar tongue. (Sess. 25, and sess. 22, as certainly brings something good into can. 9.) Though the council of Latehis mind, as an immodest picture dis-ran, under Innocent III. in 1215 (can. turbs his heart with filthy thoughts. ll 9.) had expressly decreed, that, be