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cause, in many parts within the same | mind is a state of ignorance, or a mind city and diocese, there are many peo- void of religious principle, Rev. ii. 17. ple of different manners and rites mix- 1-3. Poverty of spirit, consists in an ined together, but of one faith, the bishops ward sense and feeling of our wants and of such cities or dioceses should provide defects; a conviction of our wretched fit men for celebrating divine offices, and forlorn condition by nature; with a according to the diversity of tongues dependence on divine grace and meret and rites, and for administering the sa- for pardon and acceptance, Mat. v. 3 h craments.

must be distinguished from a poor se We shall only add, that the church of ritedness, a sneaking fearfulness, whíd Rome maintains, that unwritten tradi- bringeth a snare. It is the effect of the tions ought to be added to the Holy operation of the Divine Spirit on the Scriptures, in order to supply their de- heart, John xvi. 8.; is attended with fect, and to be regarded as of equal au- submission to the divine will ; contentthority; that the books of the Apocry- ment in our situation; meekness and pha aré canonical Scripture; that the forbearance as to others, and goane Vulgate edition of the Bible is to be humility as to ourselves. It is a spirit deemed authentic; and that the Scrip- approved of by God, Isa. lxvi

. 2. evitures are to be received and interpreted dential of true religion, Luke, xviu 1 according to that sense which the holy and terminates in endless felicity, Matt

. mother church, to whom it belongs to v. 3. Isa. lvii. 15. Ps. xxxiv. 18. Du judge of the true sense, hath held, and lop's Ser. Iec. 1, vol. i. ; Barclay': Duty doth hold, and according to the unani- South's Ser. vol. x. ser. 1; NO. 464 mous consent of the fathers.

Spec. vol. vi.; Robert Harris's Somos Such are the principal and distin- ser. 3. part 3. guishing doctrines of popery, most of POWER, ability, force, strength which have received the sanction of the Power includes a particular relation to council of Trent, and that of the creed the subordinate execution of superior of pope Pius IV. which is received, pro- orders. In the word authority we find fessed, and sworn to, by every one who a sufficient energy to make us perceive enters into holy orders in the church of a right. Dominion carries with it an Rome; and at the close of this creed, idea of empire. we are told, that the faith contained in POWER OF GOD. See OMNIPOit is so absolutely and indispensably ne- | TENCE. cessary, that no man can be saved with POWERS OF THE MIND are out it." See ANTICHRIST; Bowers's those faculties by which we think, reaHistory of the Popes; Smith's Errors son, judge, &c. “ They are so various," of the Church of Rome detected; Ben- says Dr. Reid, “so many, so connected, net's Confutation of Popery; Sermons and complicated in most of their opeat Salter's Hall against Popery; Bi- rations, that there never has been any shop Burnet's Travels, &c.; Moore's division of them proposed which is not View of Society and Manners in Italy ; liable to considerable objections. The Dr. Middleton's Letters from Rome ; most common division is that of underStevenson's Historical and

Critical standing and will. Under the will we View of some of the Doctrines of the comprehend our active porrers, and all Church of Rome.

that lead to action, or influence the POSITIVE INSTITUTES. See mind to act; such as appetites, pasINSTITUTIONS.

sions, affections. The understanding POSSESSION OF THE DEVIL. comprehends our contemplative posere, See DÆMONIACS.

by which we perceive objects; by which POVERTY is that state or situation, we conceive or remember them; by opposed to riches, in which we are de- which we analyze or compound then; prived of the conveniences of life. In- and by which we judge and reason digence is a degree lower, where we concerning them. Or the intellecia want the necessaries, and is opposed to powers are commonly divided into simsuperfluity., Want seems rather to ar- ple apprehension, judgment, and reae rive by accident, implies a scarcity of soning.' See Reid on the Active Porprovision rather than a lack of money, || ers, also on the Human Mind, and it and is opposed to abundance. Need Intellectual Powers; Locke on the and necessity relate less to the situation Understanding. For the influence of life than the other three words, but Christianity has had on the moral and more to the relief we expect, or the re-intellectual powers, see White's admimedy we seek; with this difference be- rable Sermons, ser. 9. tween the two, that need seems less PRAISE, an acknowledgment made pitssing 'than necessity.-2. Poverty of || of the excellency or perfection of 25

person or action, with a commendation || his mercies.” Nothing can be more of the same. “The desire of praise," rational or consistent than the exercise says an elegant writer, “is generally of this duty. It is a divine injunction connected with all the finer sensibilities that men should always pray, and not of human nature. It affords a ground | faint, Luke, xviii. 1. It is highly proper on which exhortation, counsel, and re we should acknowledge the obligations proof, can work a proper effect. To we are under to the Divine Being, and be entirely destitute of this passion be- || supplicate his throne for the blessings tokens an ignoble mind, on which nowe stand in need of. It is essential to moral impression is easily made; for our peace and felicity, and is the happy where there is no desire of praise, there mean of our carrying on and enjoying will also be no sense of reproach ; but fellowship with God. It has an influwhile it is admitted to be a natural and ence on our tempers and conduct, and in many respects an useful principle of evidences our subjection and obedience action, we are to observe that it is en to God. We shall here consider the titled to no more than our secondary object, nature, kinds, matter, manner, regard. It has its boundary set, by | and forms of prayer, together with its transgressing which, it is at once trans- efficacy, and the objections made formed from an innocent into a most against it. dangerous passion. When passing its 1. The object of prayer is God alone, natural line, it becomes the ruling spring through Jesus Christ, *as the Mediator. of conduct; when the regard which || All supplications, therefore, to saints or we pay to the opinions of men encroaches | angels, are not only useless but blason that reverence which we owe to the phemous. All worship of the creature, voice of conscience and the sense of du- | however exalted that creature is, is ty; the love of praise, having then gone | idolatry, and strictly prohibited in the out of its proper place, instead of im- sacred law of God. Nor are we to proving, corrupts; and instead of ele- || pray to the Trinity, as three distinct vating, debases our nature.” Young's || Gods; for though the Father, Son, and Love of Fame; Blair's Sermons, ser. 6. || Holy Ghost be addressed in various vol. ii.;

Jortin's Dis.dis. 4. passim ; Wil- || parts of the Scripture, 2 Cor. xiii. 14. berforce's Pract. View, ch. iv. sec. 3; || 2 Thess. ii. 16, 17, yet never as three Smith's Theory of Mor. Sent. vol. 1, p. Gods, for that would lead us directly 233; Fitzosborne's Letters, let. 18. to the doctrine of polytheism : the more

PRAISE OF GOD, the acknow- ordinary mode the Scripture points out ledging his perfections, works, and be- || is, to address the Father through the nefits. Praise and thanksgiving are Son, depending on the Spirit to help our generally considered as synonymous, infirmities, Eph. ii. 18. Rom. viii. 26. yet some distinguish them thus. "Praise II. As to the nature of this duty: it properly terminates in God, on account must be observed, that it does not conof his natural excellencies and perfec- || sist in the elevation of the voice, the tions, and is that act of devotion by posture of the body, the use of a form, which we confess and admire his se or the mere extemporary use of words, veral attributes: but thanksgiving is a nor, properly speaking, in any thing of more contracted duty, and imports only an exterior nature; but simply the ofa grateful sense and acknowledgment | fering up of our desires to God, Matt. of past mercies. We praise God for all xv. &. (See the definition above.) It his glorious acts of every kind, that re has been generally divided into adoragard either us or other men; for his tion, by which we express our sense of very vengeance, and those judgments the goodness and greatness of God, whích he sometimes sends abroad in Dan. iv. 34, 35; confession, by which the earth ; but we thank him, properly we acknowledge our unworthiness, 1 speaking, for the instances of his good- John, i. 9; supplication, by which we ness alone, and for such only of these pray for pardon, grace, or any blessing as we ourselves are some way concern we want, Matt. vii 7; intercession, by ed in. See THANKSGIVING; Bishop which we pray for others, James, v. 16; Atterbury's Sermon on Psalm 1..,14; || and thanksgiving, by which we express Saurin's Sermons, vol. i. ser. 14; Tillot- our gratitude to God, Phil. iv. 6. To son's Sermons, ser. 146. concl.

which some add invocation, a making PRAYER, a request or petition for mention of one or more of the names of mercies; or it is an offering up our God; pleading, arguing our case with desires to God, for things agreeable to God in an humble and fervent manner; his will, in the name of Christ, by the dedication, or surrendering ourselves to help of his Spirit, with confession of our God; deprecation, by which we desire sins, and thankful acknowledgment of that evils may be averted; blessing, in

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some places which have a special re some part of the matter of our prayer. gard to the state of the nation and A great acquaintance with God in his churches : missionary prayer-meetings nature, perfections, works and word ; for the spread of the Gospel : weekly an intimate acquaintance with ourselves, meetings held in most of the congrega- and a lively sense of our own frames, tions wbich have a more particular re wants, sorrows, and joys, will supply us ference to their own churches, ministers, with abundant furniture. We should also the sick, feeble, and weak of the flock. I be watchful observers of the dealings of Christians are greatly encouraged to God with us in every ordinance, and in this kind of prayer from the considera- every providence. We should observe tion of the promise, Matt. xviii. 20; the the working of our heart towards God, benefit of mutual supplications; from or towards the creature, and often exthe example of the most eminent pri- | amine our temper and our life, both in mitive saints, Mal. iii. 16. Acts, xii. 12; our natural, our civil, and religious acthe answers given to prayer, Acts, xii. tions. For this purpose, as well as 1-12. Josh. X. Isaiah, xxxvii. &c. and upon many other accounts, it will be the signal blessing they are to the of great advantage to keep by us in churches, Phil. i. 19. 2 Cor. i. 11. These writing some of the most remarkable meetings should be attended with regu- providences of God, and instances of larity; those who engage should study his mercy or anger towards us, and simplicity, brevity, Scripture language, some of our most remarkable carriages seriousness of spirit, and every thing towards him, whether sins, or duties, or that has a tendency to edification. We the exercises of grace.-2. We should now come, lastly, to take notice of not content ourselves merely with gepublic prayer, or that in which the nerals; but if we wish to be furnished whole congregation is engaged, either in with larger supplies of matter, we must repeating a set form, or acquiescing descend to particulars in our confessions, with the prayer of the minister who petitions, and thanksgivings. We should leads their devotions. This is both an enter into a particular consideration of ancient and important part of religious the attributes, the glories, the graces, exercise; it was a part of the patri- and the relations of God. We should archical worship, Gen. iv. 56; it was express our sins, our wants, and our also carried on by the Jews, Exod. xxix. | sorrows, with a particular sense of the 43. Luke, i. 10. It was a part of the mournful circumstances that attend temple service, Is. Ivi. 7. 1 Kings, viii. them: it will enlarge our hearts with 59. Jesus Christ recommended it both prayer and humiliation if we confess the by his example and instruction, Matt. aggravations that increase the guilt of xviii. 20. Luke, iv. 16. The disciples our sins, viz. whether they have been also attended to it, Acts, ii. 41, 42; and committed against knowledge, against the Scriptures in many places counte- the warnings of conscience, &c. It will nance it, Exod. xx. 24. Psal. lxi. 1, 2. || furnish us with large matter, if we run Psal. Ixxxiv. 11. Psal. xxvii. 4. For the over the exalting and heightening cirnature, necessity, place, time, and at- cumstances of our mercies and comtendance on public worship, see Wor- forts, viz. that they are great, and spi

ritual, and eternal, as well as temporal. IV. Of the matter of prayer. “It is Our petitions and thanksgivings, in a necessary,” says Dr. Watts, “to fur- | special manner, should be suited to the nish ourselves with proper matter, that place and circumstances of ourselves, we may be able to hold much converse and those that we pray with, and those with God; to entertain ourselves and that we pray for.-3. It is very proper, others agreeably and devoutly in wor- | at solemn seasons of worship, to read ship; to assist the exercise of our own some part of the word of God, or some grace and others, by a rich supply of di- spiritual treatise written by holy men; vine thought and desires in prayer, that or to converse with fellow Christians we may not be forced to make too long about divine things, or to spend some and indecent pauses whilst we are per- time in recollection or meditation of forming that duty; nor break off abrupt- things that belong to religion : this will ly as soon as we have begun for want of not only supply us with divine matter, matter; nor pour out abundance of words but will compose our thoughts to a soto dress up narrow and scanty sense lemnity. Just before we engage in that for want of variety of devout thoughts. work, we should be absent a little from 1. We should labour after a large ac the world, that our spirits may be freer quaintance with all things that belong for converse with God.—4. If we find to religion; for there is nothing that re our hearts, after all very barren, and lates to religion but may properly make | hardly know how to frame a prayer be

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fore God of ourselves, it has been of- || the general and the particular heads in tentimes useful to take a book in our prayer be well distinguished, and usually hand, wherein are contained some spi- let generals be mentioned first, and parritual meditations in a petitionary form, ticulars follow.-2. Let things of the some devout reflections, or excellent same kind, for the most part, be put topatterns of prayer; and, above all, the gether in prayer. We should not run Psalms of David, some of the prophe- from one part to another by starts, and cies of Isaiah, some chapters in the sudden wíld thoughts, and then return Gospels, or any of the Epistles. Thus often to the same part again, going we may lift up our hearts to God in se- backward and forward in confusion: cret, according as the verses or para-, this bewilders the mind of him that graphs we read are suited to the case of prays, disgusts our fellow-worshippers our own souls. This many Christians and injures their devotion.—3. Let have experienced as a very agreeable those things, in every part of prayer, help, and of great advantage in their which are the proper objects of our secret retirement.-5. We must not judgment, bę first mentioned, and then think it absolutely necessary to insist those that influence and more our afupon all the parts of prayer in every | fections; not that we should follow address to God; though in our stated such a manner of prayer as is more like and solemn prayers there are but few preaching, as some imprudently have of them that can be well left ont. What done, speaking many divine truths withwe omit at one time we may, perhaps, out the form or air of prayer. Yet it pursue at another with more lively af- must be granted that there is no nefection. But let us be sure to insist cessity of always confining ourselves to most upon those things which are this, or to any other set method, no more warmest in our hearts, especially in than there is of confining ourselves to a secret. We should let those parts of form in prayer. Sometimes the mind praver have the largest share in the ; is so divinely full of one particular part performance for which our spirits is of prayer, that high expressions of petition, confession, or thanksgination

, ser atitude, and of devoting

ourselves to 6. We should suit the matter of our however, that if young Christians did prayers to the special occasion of each not give themselves up to a loose and particular duty, to the circumstances of negligent habit of speaking every thing the time, place, and persons with and that comes uppermost, but attempted to for whom we pray. This will direct us learn this holy skill by a recollection of to the choice of proper thoughts and the several parts of prayer, and prolanguage for every part of prayer.—7.perly disposing their thoughts, there We should not affect to pray long for would be great numbers in our churches the sake of length, or to stretch out our that would arrive at a good degree of matter by labour and toil of thought, be- the gift of prayer, and that to the great yond the furniture of our own spirit. edification of our churches, as well as of Sometimes a person is betrayed by an their own families.” affectation of long prayers into crude, As to expression in prayer, it may be rash, and unseemly expressions; we are observed, that though prayer be the tempted hereby to tautologies, to say 'proper work of the heart, yet in this the same thing over and over again. I present state, in secret as well as in We are in danger of tiring those that social prayer, the language of the lips is join with us. We exceed the season an excellent aid in this part of worship. that is allotted for us in prayer, espe- Expressions are useful not only to dress cially when others are to succeed in the our thoughts, but sometimes to form, same work.”

and shape, and perfect the ideas and afV.of the method of prayer. “Me-'fections of our minds. They serve to thod,” continues Dr. Watts, “is ne- awaken the holy passions of the soul as cessary to guide our thoughts, to regu- well as to express them. They fix late our expressions, and dispose of the and engage all our powers in religion several parts of prayer in such an or- and worship; and they serve to regulate der, as is most easy to be understood by as well as to increase our devotion, those that join with us, and most proper The directions to attain a treasure of to excite and maintain our own devo- expressions are these : 1. We should lation and theirs. This will be of use to ' bour after a fresh, particular, and lively secure us from confusion, prevent repe- sense of the greatness and grace of titions, and guard us against roving di- God, and of our own wants, and sins, gressions. The general rules of me and mercies. The passions of the mind, thod in prayer are these three: 1. Let i when they are moved, do mightily help

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