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long confined either to that city or pro- | Both parties maintained their tenets vince. In 1520, the Franciscan friars, with the utmost obstinacy; and, by their who had the care of promulgating in- divisions, first gave their adversaries an dulgences in Switzerland, were opposed argument against them, which to this by Zuinglius, a man noi inferior in un- day the Catholics urge with great force; derstanding and knowledge to Luther namely, that the Protestants are so dihimself. He proceeded with the great videol, that it is impossible to know who est vigour, even at the very beginning, are right or wrong; and that there to overturn the whole fabric of popery; || cannot be a stronger proof than these dibut his opinions were declared 'erro- visions that the whole doctrine is false. neous by the universities of Cologne and To these intestine divisions were added Louvain. Notwithstanding this, the ma- the horrors of a civil war, occasioned by gistrates of Zurich approved of his pro- oppression on the one hand, and enceedings; and that whole canton, to- thusiasm on the other. See ANABAPgether with those of Bern, Basil, and TISTS. Chaffausen, embraced his opinions. These proceedings, however, were
In Germany, Luther continued to checked. Luther and Melancthon were make great advances, without being in ordered by the elector of Saxony to the least intimidated by the ecclesiasti- draw up a body of laws relating to the cal censures which were thundered form of ecclesiastical government, the against him from all quarters, he being method of public worship, &c. which continually protected by the German was to be proclaimed by heraldsthroughprinces, either from religious or politi- out his dominions. He, with Melanccal motives, so that his adversaries thon, had translated part of the New could not accomplish his destruction, as Testament in 1522; on the reading of they had done that of others. Melanc- which the people were astonished to thon, Carlostadius, and other men of find how different the laws of Christ eminence, also greatly forwarded the were to those which they had imposed work of Luther; and in all probability by the pope, and to which they had the popish hierarchy would have soon been subject. The princes and the come to an end, in tlie northern parts of people saw that Luther's opinions were Europe at least, had not the emperor founded on truth. They openly reCharles V. given a severe check to the nounced the papal supremacy, and the progress of reformation in Germany. happy mom of the reformation was wel
During the confinement of Luther in comed by those who had long sat in sua castle near Warburg, the reformation perstitious darkness. advanced rapidly; almost every city in This open resolution so exasperated Saxony embracing the Lutheran opi- the patrons of popery, that they intended nions. At this tine an alteration in the to make war on the Lutherans, who established forms of worship was first prepared for defence. In 1526, a diet ventured upon at Wittemberg, by abo was assembled at Spire, when the enlishing the celebration of private niasses, peror's ambassadors were desired to and by giving the cup as well as the use their utmost endeavours to suppress bread to the laity in the Lord's supper. all clisputes about religion, and to insist In a short time, however, the new opi- upon the rigorous execution of the nions were condemned by the university sentence which had been pronounced of Paris, and a refutation of them was against Luther at Worms. But this attempted by Henry VIII. of England. opinion was opposedl, and the diet proved But Luther was not to be thus intimi- favourable to the reformation. But this dated. He published his animadver-tranquillity, which they in consequence sions on both with as much acrimony as enjoyed, did not last long. In 1529, a if he had been refuting the meanest ac- new diet was formed, and the power versary; and a controversy managed by which had been granted to princes of such illustrious antagonists drew a ge managing ecclesiastical affairs till the neral attention, and the reformers daily meeting of a general council, was now gained rew converts both in France revoked, and every change declared and England.
unlawful that should be introduced into But while the efforts of Luther were the doctrine, discipline, or worship of thus every where crowned with success, the established religion, before the dethe divisions began to prevail which termination of the approaching council have since so much agitated the reform- was known. This decree was considered churches.-—The first dispute was be- ed as iniquitous and intolerable by setween Luther and Zuinglius concerning veral members of the dict; and when the manner in which the body and blood they found that all their argumenis and of Christ were present in the eucharist. I remonstrances were in vain, they enos
tered a solemn protest against the de- || so taken up with the scheme of divorce, cree on the 19th of April, and appealed and of abolishing the papal jurisdiction to the emperor and a future council. in England, he had but little leisure to Hence arose the denomination of Pro-attend to them. Meanwhile Charles testants, which from that time has been was convinced that it was not a time to given to those who separate from the extirpate heresy by violence; and at church of Rome.
last terms of pacification were agreed Charles V. was in Italy, to whom the upon at Nuremberg, and ratified sodissenting princes sent ambasadors to lemnly in the diet at Ratisbon: and aflay their grievances before him; but fairs so ordered by Divine Providence, they met with no encouraging reception that the Protestants obtained terms from him. The pope and the emperor which amounted almost to a toleration were in close union at this time, and they of their religion. had interviews upon the business. The Soon after the conclusion of the peace pope thought the emperor to be too cle- at Nuremburg, died John, elector of ment, and alleged that it was his duty Saxony, who was succeeded by his son to execute vengeance upon the heretical John Frederic, a prince of invincible faction. To this, however, the empe- fortitude and magnanimity, but whose ror paid no regard, looking upon it as reign was little better than one conunjust to condemn, unheard, a set oftinued train of disappointments and men who had always approved them- calamities. The religious truce, howselves good citizens. The emperor, || ever, gave new vigour to the reformatherefore, set out for Germany, having tion. Those who had hitherto been onalready appointed a diet of the empire ly secret enemies to the Roman pontiff, to be held at Augsburg, where he ar- | now publicly threw off his yoke; and rived, and found there a full assembly various cities and provinces of Gerof the members of the diet. Here the many enlisted themselves under the regentle and pacific Melancthon had been ligious standards of Luther. On the ordered to draw up a confession of their other hand, as the emperor had now no faith, which he did, and expressed his other hope of terminating the religious sentiments and doctrine with the great-disputes but by the meeting of a general est elegance and perspicuity; and thus council
, he repeated his requests to the came forth to view the famous confession pope for that purpose. The pontiff of Augsburg:
(Clement VII.) whom the history of This was attempted to be refuted by past councils filled with the greatest the divines of the church of Rome, and uneasiness, endeavoured to retard what a controversy took place, which the he could not with decency refuse. At emperor endeavoured to reconcile, but last, in 1533, he made a proposal by his without success; all hopes of bringing legate, to assemble à council at Mantua, about a coalition seemed utterly despe- ||Placentia, or Bologna; but the Prorate. The votaries of the church of testants refused their consent to the noRome, therefore, had recourse to the mination of an Italian council, and inpowerful arguments of imperial edicts sisted that a controversy which had its and the force of the secular arm ; and, || rise in the heart of Germany should be on the 19th of November, a decree was determined within the limits of the emissued by the emperor's orders every pire. The pope, by his usual artifices, way injurious to the reformers. Upon eluded the performance of his own prowhich they assembled at Smalcald, mise; and in 1534, was cut off by death, where they concluded a league of mu- in the midst of his stratagem. His suctual defence against all aggressors, by cessor Paul III. seemed to show less rewhich they formed the Protestant states luctance to the assembling a general into one body, and resolved to apply to council, and, in the year 1535, expressed the kings of France and England to im- his inclination to convoke one at Manplore them to patronize their new con- tua; and, in the year following, actualfederacy. The king of France, being ly sent circular letters for that purpose the avowed rival of the emperor, de-| through all the states and kingdoms untermined secretly to cherish those der his jurisdiction. This council was sparks of political discord; and the summoned by a bull issued out on the king of England, highly incensed against second of June 1536, to meet at ManCharles, in complaisance to whom the tua the following year: but several obpope had long retarded, and now open- stacles prevented its meeting; one of ly opposed, his long solicited divorce, the most material of which was, that was equally disposed to strengthen a Frederic duke of Mantua had no inclileague which might be rendered formi- nation to receive at once so many guests, dable to the emperor. Being, however, some of them very turbulent, into the
place of his residence. On the other || of the pontiff. But this protestation hand, the Protestants were firmly per- produced no effect. Paul Ill. persisted suaded, that, as the council was assem in his purpose, and issued out his cir bled in Italy, and by the authority of the cular letters for the convocation of the pope alone, the latter must have had an council, with the approbation of the emundue influence in that assembly; of peror. In justice to this pontiff, howconsequence that all things must have ever, it must be observed, that he showbeen carried by the votaries of Rome. led himself not to be averse to every For this reason they assembled at Smal- || reformation. He appointed four cardicald in the year 1537, where they so- | nals, and three other persons eminent lemnly protested against this partial and for their learning, to draw up a plan for corrupt council; and, at the same time, the reformation of the church in genehad a new summary of their doctrineral, and of the church of Rome in par drawn up by Luther, in order to pre- ticular. The reformation proposed in sent it to the assembled bishops, if it this plan was, indeed, extremely supershould be required of them. This sum- ficial and partial; yet it contained some mary, which had the title of The Arti-particulars which could scarcely have cles of Smalcald, is commonly joined || been expected from those who comwith the creeds and confessions of the posed it. Lutheran church.
All this time the emperor had been After the meeting of the general | labouring to persuade the Protestants council in Mantua was thus prevented, to consent to the meeting of the counmany schemes of accommodation were cil at Trent; but, when he found them proposed both by the emperor and the fixed in their opposition to this meaProtestants; but, by the artifices of the sure, he began to listen to the sanguinary church of Rome, all of them came to measures of the pope, and resolved to nothing. In 1541, the emperor appointed terminate the disputes by force of arms. a meeting at Worms on the subject of The elector of Saxony and landgrave religion, between persons of piety and of Hesse, who were the chief supporters learning, chosen from the contending of the Protestant cause, upon this, took parties. This conference, however, || proper measures to prevent their being was, for certain reasons, removed to the surprised and overwhelmed by a sudiet'that was to be held at Ratisbon the || perior force; but, before the horrors of same year, and in which the principal || war commenced, the great reformer subject of deliberation was a memorial Luther died in peace at Ayselben, the presented by a person unknown, con- | place of his nativity, in 1546. taining a project of peace. But the The emperor and the pope had muconference produced no other effect tually resolved on the destruction of all than a mutual agreement of the con- who should dare to oppose the council tending parties to refer their matters to of Trent. The meeting of it was to a general council, or, if the meeting of serve as a signal for taking up arms; such a council should be prevented, to and accordingly its deliberations were the next German diet.
scarcely begun, in 1546, when the ProThe resolution was rendered ineffec- testants perceived undoubted signs of tual by a variety of incidents, which || the approaching storm, and a formidawidened the breach, and put off to a ble union betwixt the emperor and the farther day the deliberations which pope, which threatened to crush and were designed to heal it. The pope or- overwhelm them at once. This year, dered his legate to declare to the diet | indeed, there had been a new conference of Spire, assembled in 1542, that he || at Ratisbon upon the old subject of acwould, according to the promise he had commodating differences in religion; already made, assemble à general coun- but, from the manner in which the decil, and that Trent should be the place bates were carried on, it plainly apof its meeting, if the diet had no ob-peared that these differences could onjection to that city. Ferdinand, and the ly be decided in the field of battle. The princes who adhered to the cause of the council of Trent, in the mean time, propope, gave their consent to this propo-mulgated their decrees; while the resal; but it was vehemently objected to formed princes, in the diet of Ratisbon, by the Protestants, both because the protested against their authority, and council was summoned by the authority were on that account proscribed by the of the pope only, and also because the emperor, who raised an army to reduce place was within the jurisdiction of the them to obedience. pope; whereas they desired a free The elector of Saxony and the landcouncil , which
should not be biassed by grave of Hesse led their forces into Bathe dictates nor awed by the proximity || varia
against the emperor, and cannona
ded his camp in Ingoldstadt. It was | ences, and maintaining peace until the supposed that this would bring on an council so long expected should be engagement, which would probably. I finally obtained. With this view he orhave been advantageous to the cause of dered Julius Pelugius, bishop of Naumthe reformed; but this was prevented berg, Michael Sidonius, a creature of chiefly by the perfidy of Maurice, duke the pope, and John Agricola, a native of of Saxony, who invaded the dominions | Ayselben, to draw up a formulary which of his uncle. Divisions were also fo- | might serve as a rule of faith and wormented among the confederate princes ship till the council should be assembled; by the dissimulation of the emperor; but as this was only a temporary expeand France failed in paying the subsidy dient, and had not the force of a perwhich had been promised by its mo manent or perpetual institution, it narch; all which so discouraged the thence obtained the name of the Inheads of the Protestant party, that their terim. army soon dispersed, and the elector of This project of Charles was formed Saxony was obliged to direct his march partly with a design to vent his resenthomewards. But he was pursued by ment against the pope, and partly to anthe emperor, who made several forced swer other political purposes. "It conmarches with a view to destroy his tained all the essential doctrines of the enemy before he should have time to church of Rome, though considerably recover his vigour. The two armies softened by the artful terms which met near Muhlbers, on the Elbe, on the were employed, and which were quite 24th of April, 1547 ; and, after a bloody different from those employed before action, the elector was entirely defeat- and after this period by the council of ed, and himself taken prisoner. Mau- Trent. There was even an affected rice, who had so basely betrayed him, ambiguity in many of the expressions, was now declared elector of Saxony ; || which made them susceptible of differand, by his entreaties, Philip, landgrave | ent senses, and applicable to the sentiof Hesse, the other chief of the Pro- | ments of both communions. The contestants, was persuaded to throw him-sequence of all this was, that the impeself on the mercy of the emperor, and rial creed was reprobated by both parto implore his pardon. To this he con- ties. (See INTERIM.) In the year 1542, sented, relying on the promise of Charles the pope (Paul III.) died; and was sucfor obtaining forgiveness, and being re- ceeded by Julius fII. who, at the restored to liberty ; but, notwithstanding peated solicitations of the emperor, conthese expectations, he was unjustly de- sented to the re-assembling of a countained prisoner, by a scandalous viola- cil of Trent. A diet was again held at tion of the most solemn convention. Augsburg, under the cannon of the im
The affairs of the Protestants nowperial army, and Charles laid the matseemed to be desperate. In the diet of ter before the princes of the empire. Augsburg, which was soon after called, Most of those present gave their conthe emperor required the Protestants sent to it, and, among the rest, Maurice to leave the decision of these religious elector of Saxony; who consented on disputes to the wisdom of the council the following conditions: 1. That the which was to meet at Trent. The points of doctrine which had already greatest part of the members consented been decided there should be re-exto this proposal, being convinced by the amined.-2. That this examination powerful argument of an imperial ar- should be made in presence of the Promy, which was at hand to dispel the testant divines.—3. That the Saxon darkness from the eyes of such as might Protestants should have a liberty of otherwise have been blind to the force voting as well as of deliberating in the of Charles's reasoning: However, this council.-4. That the pope should not general submission did not produce the pretend to preside in the assembly, effect which was expected from it. A either in person or by his legates. This plague which broke out, or was said to declaration of Maurice was read in the do so, in the city, caused the greatest diet, and his deputies insisted upon its part of the bishops to retire to Bologna, being entered into the registers, which by which means the council was in ef- the archbishop of Mentz obstinately refect dissolved; nor could all the en- fused. The diet was concluded in 1551; treaties and remonstrances of the em- | and, at its breaking up,
emperor de peror prevail upon the pope to re-as- sired the assembled princes and states semble it without delay. During this to prepare all things for the approachinterval, therefore, the emperor judged ing council, and promised to use his utit necessary to fall upon some method most endeavours to procure moderaof accommodating the religious differ- || tion and harmony, impartiality and cha
rity, in the transactions of that as- || tinued the war against the Roman Casembly.
tholics, committed such ravages in the On the breaking up of the diet, the empire, that a confederacy was at last Protestants took such steps as they formed against him. At the head of thought most proper for their own safety. this confederacy was Maurice, elector The Saxons employed Melancthon, and of Saxony, who died of a wound he rethe Wirtembergers Brengius, to draw ceived in a battle fought on the occaup confessions of faith to be laid before sion in 1553. the new council. The Saxon divines, The assembly of the diet promised by however, proceeded no farther than Charles was prevented by various acNuremberg; having received secret cidents; however, it met at Augsburg, orders from Maurice to stop there; for in 1555, where it was opened by Ferdithe elector perceiving that Charles had nand in the name of the emperor, and formed designs against the liberties of terminated those deplorable calamities the German princes, resolved to take which had so long desolated the empire. the most effectual measures for crush- After various debates the following acts ing his ambition at once. He therefore were passed on the twenty-fifth of Sepentered with the utmost secrecy and tember:That the Protestants who expedition into an alliance with the king followed the confession of Augsburg of France and several of the German should be for the future considered as princes, for the security of the rights entirely free from the jurisdiction of the and liberties of the empire; after which, Roman pontiff and from the authority assembling a powerful'army in 1552, he and superintendence of the bishops; marched against the emperor, who lay that they were left at perfect liberty to with a handful of troops at Inspruck, I enact laws for themselves relating to and expected no such thing. By this, their religious sentiments, discipline, and sudden and unforeseen accident, Charles worship; that all the inhabitants of the was so much dispirited, that he was German empire should be allowed to willing to make peace almost on any i judge for themselves in religious matterms. The consequence of this was, ters, and to join themselves to that that he concluded a treaty at Passau, church whose doctrine and worship which by the Protestants is considered they thought the most pure and consoas the basis of their religious liberty. nant to the spirit of true Christianity; By the first three articles of this treaty and that all those who should injure or it was agreed that Maurice and the prosecute any person under religious confederates should lay down their arms, pretences, and on account of their opiand lend their troops to Ferdinand, to nions, should be declared and proceeded assist him against the Turks; and that against as public enemies of the empire, the landgrave of Hesse should be set at invaders of its liberty, and disturbers of liberty. By the fourth it was agreed its peace. that the rule of faith called the Interim Thus was the reformation established should be considered as null and void ; in many parts of the German einpire, that the contending parties should en- where it continues to this day; nor have joy the free and undisturbed exercise the efforts of the popish powers at any of their religion until a diet should time been able to suppress it, or even to be assembled to determine amicably prevent its gaining ground. It was not, the present disputes (which diet was however, in Germany alone that a reto meet in the space of six months ;) formation of religion took place. Aland that this religious liberty should most all the kingdoms of Europe began continue always, in case it should be to open their eyes to the truth about the found impossible to come to a uni- same time. The reformed religion was formity in doctrine and worship. It propagated in Sweden, soon after Luwas also determined, that all those who ther's rupture with the church of Rome, had suffered banishment or any other by one of his disciples named Olaus calamity, on account of their having | Patri. The zealous efforts of this misbeen concerned in the league or war of sionary were seconded by Gustavus Smalcald, should be reinstated in their Vasa, whom the Swedes had raised to privileges, possessions, and employ- the throne in the place of Christiern, ments; that the imperial chamber at king of Denmark, whose horrid barSpire should be open to the Protestants barity lost him the crown. This prince, as well as to the Catholics; and that however, was as prudent as he was there should always be a certain num-zealous; and, as the minds of the ber of Lutherans in that high court. Swedes were in a Auctuating state, he To this peace Albert, marquis of Bran- wisely avoided all kinds of vehemence denburg, refused to subscribe; and con- and precipitation in spreading the new