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sermon with a concealed division, is | reasoning is persuasion ; and that themvery improper for the generality of selves, as often as any men, slide into hearers, especially the common people, personal application, especially in disas they can neither remember it, nor so cussing certain favourite points in diviniwell understand it.” Another observes: ty. Application is certainly one of the « We should ever remember that we most important parts of a sermon. Here are speaking to the plainest capacities; both the judgment and the passions and as the arranging our ideas properly should be powerfully addressed. Here is necessary to our being understood, so the minister must reason, expostulate, the giving each division of our discourse invite, warn, and exhort; and all withits denomination of number, has a happy out harshness and an insulting air. Here effect to assist the attention and memory pity, love, faithfulness, concern, must of our hearers.”
be all displayed. The application, howAs to the amplification. After having | ever, must not be too long, unnatural, laid a good foundation on which to build, nor, I think, concluded abruptly.-We the superstructure should be raised with shall now subjoin a few remarks as to care." Let every text have its true the style and delivery. meaning, every truth its due weight, As to style; it should be perspicuous. every hearer his proper portion.” The Singular terms, hard words, bombastic reasoning should be clear, deliberate, expressions, are not at all consistent. and strong: No flights of wit should be || Quoting Latin and Greek sentences indulged ; but a close attention to the will be of little utility. Long argumensubject, with every exertion to inform tations, and dry metaphysical reasoning, the judgment and impress the heart. It should be avoided. A plain manly is in this part of a sermon that it will be style, so clear that it cannot be misunseen whether a man understands his derstood, should be pursued. The subject, enters into the spirit of it, or Scriptures are the best model. Mr. whether, after all his parade, he be a Flavel says, “The devil is very busy mere trifler. I have known some, who, with ministers in their studies, temptafter having giving a pleasing exordium | ing them to lofty language, and terms of and ingenious plan, have been very de- | art, above their hearers' capacities.” ficient in the amplification of the sub The style should be correct. That a ject; which shows that a man may be man may preach, and do good, without capable of making a good plan, and not knowing much of grammar, is not to be a good sermon, which, of the two, per- doubted; but certainly it cannot be naps, is worse than making a good ser pleasing to hear a man, who sets himmon without a good plan. The best of self up as a teacher of others, continually men, however, cannot always enter in- | violating all the rules of grammar, and to the subject with that ability which at rendering himself a laughing-stock to certain times they are capable of. If in the more intelligent part of the congreour attempts, therefore, to enlarge on gation; "and yet," "says one, “I have particulars, we find our thoughts do not heard persons, who could scarce utter run freely on any point, we should not three sentences without a false conurge them too much-this will tire and struction, make grammatical criticisms jade the faculties too soon; but pursue not only on the English language, but our plan. Better thoughts may occur on Latin, Greek, and Hebrew." afterwards, which we may occasionally Care should always be taken not to insert.
use a redundancy of words, and a jingle As to the application. It is much to of sentences and syllables, as they carry be lamented that this is a part which more an air of pedantry than of prudoes not belong to the sermons of somedence. divines. They can discuss a topic in a As to the use of figures. “A noble megeneral way, show their abilities, and taphor, when it is placed to advantage, give pleasing descriptions of virtue and || casts a kind of glory round it, and darts religion; but to apply, they think will a lustre through a whole sentence." hurt the feelings of their auditors. But But the present and the past age have I believe it has been found that, among | abounded with preachers, who have such, little good has been done; nor is murdered and distorted figures in a it likely, when the people are never | shameful manner. Keach's metaphors led to suppose that they are the parties are run beyond all due bounds. Yet I interested. There are also some doc- | know of nó method so useful in preachtrinal preachers who reject application | ing as by figures, when well chosen, altogether, and who affect to discharge || when they are not too mean, nor drawn their office by narrating and reasoning out into too many parallels. The Scrip; only: but such should remember that || tures abound with figures. Our Lord
and his disciples constantly used them; || chants, who, with the approbation of and people understand a subject better the bishop of Florence, renounced the when represented by a figure, than by world, and lived together in a religious learned disquisitions.
community on Mount Senar, two leagues As to the delivery of sermons, we from that city. refer to the articles DECLAMATION and SETHIAŃS, heretics who paid diELOQUENCE. See also MINISTER and vine worship to Seth, whom they looked PREACHING
upon to be Jesus Christ, the Sori of God, SERPENTINIANS, or Ophites, but who was made by a third divinity, heretics in the second century, so called and substituted in the room of the two from the veneration they had for the families of Abel and Cain, which had serpent that tempted Eve, and the wor been destroyed by the deluge. They apship, paid to a real serpent: they pre-peared in Egypt in the second century; tended that the serpent was Jesus and, as they were addicted to all sorts of Christ
, and that he taught men the debauchery, they did not want followers. knowledge of good and evil. They dis- They continued in Egypt above two tinguished between Jesus and Christ. || hundred years. Jesus, they said, was born of the Vir SEVENTY. About the year B. C. gin, but Christ came down from heaven || 277, the Old Testament was translated to be united with him: Jesus was cruci- into Greek, by the united labouts of fied, but Christ had left him to return about seventy learned Jews, and that to heaven. They distinguished the God translation has been since known by the of the Jews, whom they termed Jalda- | version of the LXX. See SEPTUAGINT. baoth, from the supreme God: to the SEVERITIES. See ANGELITES. former they ascribed the body, to the SEXAGESIMA, the second Sunday latter the soul of men. It is said they before Lent; so called because about had a live serpent, which they kept in a the 60th day before Easter. kind of cage: at certain times they SHAKERS, a sect which was instiopened the cage-door, and called the tuted about the year 1774, in America. serpent: the animal came out, and, || Anna Leese, whom they style the Elect mounting upon the table, twined itself Lady, the head of this party. They about some loaves of bread. This bread assert that she is the woman spoken of they broke, and distributed it to the in the 12th chap. of Revelations, and company; and this they called their that she speaks seventy-two tongues; Eucharist.
and though those tongues are unintelliSERVANTS. The business of ser-gible to the living, she converses with vants is to wait upon, minister to, sup- the dead, who understand her language. port and defend their masters; but there | They add farther, that she is the mo are three cases, as Dr: Stennett observes, | ther of all the elect, and that she trawherein a servant may he justified in re- vails for the whole world; that, in fine, fusing obedience: 1. When the master's | no blessing can descend to any person commands are contrary to the will of but only by and through her, and that God.--2. When they are required to do in the way of her being possessed of what is not in their power.-3. When their sins by their confessing and resuch service is demanded as falls not penting of them, one by one, according within the compass of the servant's to her direction. They vary in their agreement. The obligations servants exercises: their heavy dancing, as it is are under to universal obedience, are called, is performed by a perpetual from these considerations : 1. That it is springing from the house floor, about fit and right.-2. That it is the expressed || four inches up and down, both in the command of God.-3. That it is for the men's and women's apartment, moving interest both of body and soul.-4. That || about with extraordinary transport, singit is a credit to our holy religion. The ing sometimes one at a time, and somemanner in which this service is to be || times more. This elevation affects the performed is, 1. With humility, Prov. nerves, so that they have intervals of xxx. 21, 22; Eccl. x. 7.—2. Fidelity, shuddering, as if they were in a violent Titus ii. 10; Matt. xxiv. 45.-3. Dili- || fit of the ague. They sometimes clap gence, Prov. x. 4. xxi. 5; 1 Thess. iv. I their hands, and leap so high as to strike 11.-4. Cheerfulness. Stennett's Do- the joists above their heads. They throw mestic Duties, ser. 7; Fleetwood's Re- off their outside garment in these exerlative Duties, ser. 14, 15; Paley's Mo- cises, and spend their strength very ral Philosophy, vol. i. chap. 11.
cheerfully this way: their chief speakSERVITES, a religious order in the er often calls for their attention, when church of Rome, founded about the they all stop and hear some harangue, year 1233 by seven Florentine mer- ll and then begin dancing again. They as
sert that their dancing is the token of said to bear to the sin of Simon Magus, the great joy and happiness of the Jeru- though the purchasing of holy orders salem state, and denotes the victory seems to approach nearer to this ofover sin. One of their most favourite || fence. It was by the canon law a very exertions is turning round very swiftly grievous crime; and is so much the for an hour or two. This, they say, is more odious, because, as Sir Edward to show the great power of God. Such Coke observes, it is ever accompanied is the account which different writers with perjury; for the presentee is have given us of this sect; but others sworn to have committed no esimony, observe, that though, at first, they used | However, it was not an offence punishthese violent gesticulations, now they able in criminal way at the common have“a regular, solemn, uniform dance, law, it being thought sufficient to leave or genuflection, to a regular, solemn the clergy to ecclesiastical censures. But hymn which is sung by the elders, and as these did not affect the simoniacal as regularly conducted as a proper band patron, nor were efficacious enough to of music.” See New York Theol. Mag. repel the notorious practice of the thing, for Nov. and Dec. 1795.
divers acts of parliament have been SHAME, a painful sensation, occa made to restrain it, by means of civil sioned by the quick apprehension that forfeitures, which the modern prevailreputation and character are in danger, ing usage with regard to spiritual preor by the perception that they are lost. | ferments calls aloud to be put in exeIt may arise, says Dr. Cogan, from the cution. immediate detection, or the fear of de SIN, the transgression of the law, or tection, in something ignominious. It want of conformity to the will of God, may also arise from native difiidence in 1 John iii. 4. 1. "Original sin is that young and ingenuous minds, when suir- | whereby our whole nature is corrupted, prised into situations where they attract and rendered contrary to the law of the peculiar attention of their superiors. God; or, according to the 9th article of The glow of shame indicates, in the first the church of England, “It is that instance, that the mind is not totally whereby man is very far gone from oriabandoned; in the last, it manifests a ginal righteousness, and is, of his own nice sense of honour and delicate feel- | nature, inclined to evil.” This is someings, united with inexperience and igno- times called indwelling sin, Rom. vii. rance of the world.
The imputation of the sin of Adam to SHASTER, the name of a book in his posterity is also what divines gehigh estimation among the idolaters of nerally call, with some latitude of exHindostan, containing all the dogmas of pression, original sin.-2. Actual sin is the religion of the Bramins, and all the a direct violation of God's law, and geceremonies of their worship.
nerally applied to those who are capaSHROVE TUESDAY. The day ble of committing moral evil; as opbefore Ash Wednesday or Lent, on posed to idiots, or children, who have which, in former times, persons went to not the right use of their powers. 3. Sins their parish churches to confess their of omission consist in the leaving those sins.
things undone which ought to be done. SIBYLLINE ORACLES, prophe- || 4. Sins of commission are those which cies delivered, it is said, by certain wo are committed against affirmative premen of antiquity, showing the fates and cepts, or doing what should not be done. revolutions of kingdoms. We have a -5. Sins of in firmity are those which collection of them in eight books. Dr. | arise from the infirmity of the flesh, igJorton observes, that they were com norance, surprise, snares of the world, posed at different times by different &c. See INFIRMITY.–6. Secret sins persons; first by Pagans, and then, per- are those committed in secret, or those haps, by Jews, and certainly by Chris which we, through blindness or prejutians. They abound with phrases, dice, do not see the evil of, Psalm xix. words, facts, and passages, taken from 12.-7. Presumptuous sins are those the LXX, and the New Testament which are done boldly, and against They are, says the Doctor, a remarka- | light and conviction. See PRESUMPble specimen of astonishing impudence TiON.-8. Unpardonable sin is the deand miserable poetry, and seem to have nial of the truths of the Gospel; with an been, from first to last, and without any open and malicious rejection of it. The one exception, mere impostures. reason why this sin is never forgiven, is
SIMONY, is the corrupt presenta- not because of any want of sufficiency in tion of any one to an ecclesiastical be- the blood of Christ, nor in the pardonnefice, for money, gift, or reward. Iting mercy of God, but because such is so called from the resemblance it is las commit it never repent of it, but
continue obstinate and malignant until || all
. But such deceive themselves, for a death.
tree is known by its fruits; and true The corruption of human nature is, godly sincerity will evidence itself by 1. Universal as to the subjects of it. | serious inquiry, impartial examination, Rom. iii. 23. Isa. liii. 6.—2. General, as | desire of instruction, unprejudiced judg to all the powers of man, Isa. i. 6.- ment, devotedness of spirit, and uni3. Awful, filling the mind with con- | formity of conduct. The reader will stant rebellion against God and his law. find this subject ably handled in Gier--4. Hateful to God, Job xv. 16; and, nail's Christian Armour, vol. ii. p. 121, -5. Punishable by him, 1 Sam. ii. 9, to 148. See HYPOCRISY. 10. Rom. ii. 9. Why the Almighty per
SINGING, an ordinance of divine mitted it, when his power could have worship, in which we express our joy prevented it, and how it is conveyed in God, and gratitude for his mercies. from parents to their children, form It has always been a branch both of sasome of those decp. things of God, of tural and revealed religion, in all ages which we can know but little in the and periods of time. It was a part of present state; only this we are assured the worship of the Heathens. It was of, that he is a God of truth, and that practised by the people of God before whatever he does, or permits, will ulti- the giving of the law of Moses, Exod. mately tend to promote his glory. / xv. also under the ceremonial law. UnWhile we contemplate, therefore, the ider the Gospel dispensation it is partinature, the evil, the guilt, the conse- 1 cularly enjoined, Col. iii. 16. Eph. v. quence of sin, it is our happiness to re 19. It was practised by Christ and his flect, that he who permitted it hath pro- apostles, Matt. xxvi. 30. and in the vided a remedy for it; and that he's so earliest times of Christianity. The loved the world, that he gave his only praises of God may be sung privately in begotten Son, that whosoever believeth the family, but chiefly in the house of on him should not perish, but have ever God; and should be attended to with Jasting life.” See ATONEMENT, RE- reverence, sincerity, joy, gratitude, and DEMPTION; and Edwards, Wesley, and with the understanding, 1 Cor. xiv. 15. Taylor, on Original Sin ; Gill's Botly Among the Baptists, during the early of Div. article Sin ; King's and Jenyne's l part of their existence, psalmody was Origin of Evil; Burroughs' Exceed generally excluded as a human ordiing Sinfulness of Sin; Dr. Owen on nance; but some congregations having Indwelling. Sin ; Dr. Wright's Deceit- | adopted it about the beginning of the 18th fulness of Sin; Fletcher's Appeal to century, a violent controversy was exMatter of Fact; Williams's Answer to cited. About the middle of the centuBelsham; Watts's Ruin and Recovery; | ry, however, the praises of God were Howe's Living Temple, p. 2, c. 4; Dr. sung in every Baptist church. It is to Smith's Sermon on the Permission of | be lamented, however, that this ordiEvil.
nance has not that attention paid to it SINCERITY, freedom from hypo- | which it deserves. That great divine, crisy or dissimulation. The Latin word | Dr. Jonathan Edwards, observes, that sincerus, from whence our English | “as it is the command of God that all word sincere is derived, is composed of should sing, so all should make consine and cera, and signifies without war, science of learning to sing, as it is a as pure honey, which is not mixed with thing that cannot be decently performany wax; thus denoting that sincerity ed at all without learning. Those, thereis a pure and upright principle. The fore, (where there is no natural inability) Greek word E141xgivera, translated sin- | who neglect to learn to sing, live in sin, cerity, (2 Cor. i. 12.) signifies properly a as they neglect what is necessary in orjudgment made of things by the light der to their attending one of the ordiand splendour of the sun : as, in traffic, nances of God's worship.” We leave men hold up goods they are buying, to those who are wilfully dumb in God's the light of the sun, to see if they can house to consider this pointed remark! discover any defect in them. Thus, Much has been said as to the use of those who are truly sincere can bear instrumental music in the house of God. the test of light, and are not afraid of On the one side it is observed, that we having their principles and practices ought not to object to it, because it asexamined by it. This word, however, sists devotion ; that it was used in the like many others, is abused, and often worship of God under the Old Testabecomes a subterfuge for the ungodly ment; and that the worship of heaven and the indolent, who think that their is represented by a delightful union of practice is nothing; but that sincerity, vocal and instrumental music. But on or a good heart, as they call it, is all in the other side, it is remarked, that
nothing should be done in or about God's || evil consequences which have no founworship without example or precept |dation in truth. from the New Testament; that, in Of all the characters in society, a stead of aiding devotion, it often tends to slanderer is the most odious, and the draw off the mind from the right ob- | most likely to produce mischief. “ His ject; that it does not accord with the tongue,” says the great Massilon, “ is a simplicity of Christian worship; that | devouring fire, which tarnishes whatthe practice of those who lived under ever it touches; which exercises its the ceremonial dispensation can be no fury on the good grain equally as on the rule for us; that not one text in the chaff; on the profane as on the sacred; New Testament requires or authorises which, wherever it passes, leaves only it by precept or example, by express | desolation and ruin; digs even into the words or fair inference; and that the bowels of the earth; turns into vile representation of the musical harmony || ashes what only a moment before had in heaven is merely figurative language, appeared to us so precious and brilliant; denoting the happiness of the saints. acts with more violence and danger than We have not room here to prosecute ever, in the time when it was apparentthe arguments on either side; but the ly, smothered up and almost extinct; reader may refer to p. 211 of the fourth | which blackens what it cannot convolume of Bishop Beveridge's Thesau- | sume, and sometimes sparkles and derus; Stilling fleet's and Bp. Horne's lights before it destroys. It is an asSermons on Church Music; No. 630 of | semblage of an iniquity, a secret pride, the eighth vol. of the Spectator; Bishop which discovers to us the mote in our Horne on the 150th Psalm; Theol. || brother's eye, but hides the beam which Mag. vol. ii. p. 427, and vol. iv. p. 333, || is in our own; a mean envy, which, 458; Biblical Mag. vol. i. p. 35; || hurt at the talents or prosperity of Ridgley's Body of Div. ques. 155; || others, makes them the subjects of its Haweis's Church History, vol. i. p. 403; censures, and studies to dim the splenWilliams's Historical Essay on Church dour of whatever outshines, itself; a Music, prefixed to Psalmodia Evange- disguised hatred, which sheds in its lica, vol. j. p. 56; Bedford's Temple speeches the hidden venom of the heart; Music; Lyra Evangelica; Practical an unworthy duplicity which praises to Discourses on Singing in the Wor- the face, and tears in pieces behind the ship of God, preached at the Friday back; a shameful levity, which has no Evening Lectures in Eastchea , 1708 ; command over itself or words, and often Dodwells Treatise on the Lawfulness sacrifices both fortune and comfort to of Instrumental Music in Holy Du- the imprudence of an amusing converties.
sation; a deliberate barbarity, which SIX ARTICLES, law of. See Sta- goes to pierce an absent brother; a scan
dal, where we become a subject of shame SLANDER, according to Dr. Bar- and sin to those who listen to us; an inrow, is uttering false speeches against | justice, where we ravish from our broour neighbour, to the prejudice of his ther what is dearest to him. It is a restfame, safety, welfare; and that out of | less evil, which disturbs society; spreads malignity, vanity, rashness, ill nature, dissention through cities and countries; or bad design. The principal kinds of | disunites the strictest friendship; is the slander are these : 1. Charging others source of hatred and revenge; fills with facts they are not guilty of.–2. Af- wherever it enters with disturbances and fixing scandalous names and odious cha- | confusion ; and every where is an eneracters which they deserve not.-3. As- || my to peace, comfort, and Christian persing a man's actions with foul names, good breeding. Lastly, it is an evil full importing that they proceed from evil of deadly poison : whatever flows from principles, or tend to bad ends, when it || it is infected, and poisons whatever it doth not or cannot appear.–4. Per approaches; even its praises are emverting a man's words or acts disadvan-poisoned; its applauses malicious; its tageously by affected misconstruction. - silence criminal; its gestures, motions, 5. Partial 'or lame representation of and looks, have all their venom, and men's discourse or practice, suppressing spread it each in their way. Still more some part of the truth, or concealing | dreadful is this evil when it is found some circumstances which ought to be among those who are the professed disexplained.-6. Instilling sly suggestions ciples of Jesus Christ. Ah! the church which create prejudice in the hearers. formerly held in horror the exhibitions 7. Magnifying and aggravating the faults of gladiators, and denied that believers, of others.-8. Imputing to our neigh- brought up in the tenderness and be bour's practice, judgment, or profession, || nignity of Jesus Christ, could innocently