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more common. The two kinds are it is much inferior to the other Hebrew easily distinguished from each other; Bibles of Venice, with regard to paper the former being in beautiful charac- and print: it has passed through the ters, like the Hebrew Bibles of Bom- hands of the Inquisitors, who have alberg, Stevens, and Plantin: the latter in tered many passages in the commentacharacters like those of Munster and ries of the Rabbins. Of Hebrew Bibles Gryphius. F. Simon observes, that in quarto, that of R. Stephens is esteemthe oldest manuscript Hebrew Biblesed for the beauty of the characters : are not above six or seven hundred but it is very incorrect. Plantin also years old; nor does Rabbi Menaham, printed several beautiful Hebrew Bibles who quotes a vast number of them, at Antwerp; one in eight columns, with pretend that any one of them exceeds a preface by Arius Montanus, in 1571, 600 years. Dr. Kennicott, in his Dis- which far exceeds the Complutensian sertatio Generalis, prefixel to his He- in paper, print, and contents: this is brew Bible, p. 21, observes, that the called the Royal Bible, because it was most ancient manuscripts were written printed at the expense of Philip II. between the years 900 and 1100; but king of Spain: another at Geneva, though those that are the most ancient 1619, besides many more of different are not more than 800 or 900 years old, sizes, with and without points. Manasthey were transcribed from others of a seh Ben Israel, a learned Portuguese much more ancient date. The manu- Jew, published two editions of the Hescript preserved in the Bodleian Li- brew Bible at Amsterdam; one in brary is not less than 800 years old. quart), in 1635; the other in octavo, in Another manuscript not less ancient, 1639: the first has two columns, and is preserved in the Cæsarian Library for that reason is more commodious at Vienna. The most ancient printed for the reader. In 1639, R. Jac. LomHebrew Bibles are those published by broso published a new edition in quarto the Jews of Italy, especially of Pesaro at Venice, with small literal notes at and Bresse. Those of Portugal also the bottom of each page, where he exprinted some parts of the Bible at Lis- plains the Hebrew words by Spanish bon before their expulsion. This may words. This Bible is much esteemed be observed in general, that the best by the Jews at Constantinople: in the Hebrew Bibles are those printed under text they have distinguished between the ir.spection of the Jews; there being words where the point camets is to be so many minutiæ to be observed in the read with a camets katuph; that is, by Hebrew language, that it is scarcely 0, and not an a. Of all the editions possible for any other to succeed in it. of the Hebrew Bible in octavo, the In the beginning of the 16th century, most beautiful and correct are the two Dan. Bomberg printed several Hebrew of J. Athias, a Jew, of Amsterdam. Bibles in folio and quarto at Venice, The first, of 1661, is the best paper; most of which were esteemed both by but that of 1667 is the most exact. the Jews and Christians: the first in That, however, published since at Am1517, which is the least exact, and sterdam, by Vander Hooght, in 1705, generally goes by the name of Felix is preferable to both. After Athias, Pratensis

, the person who revised it: three Hebraizing Protestants engaged this edition contains the Hebrew text, in revising and publishing the Hethe Targum, and the commentaries of brew Bible, viz. Csodius, Jablonski, and several rabbins. In 1528, Bomberg Opitius. Clodius's edition was publishprinted the folio Bible of rabbi Bencha- ed at Frankfort, in 1677, in quarto : at jim, with his preface, the masoretical the bottom of the pages it has the vadivisions, a preface of Aben Ezra, a rious readings of the former editions; double masora, and several various but the author does not appear suftireadings. The third edition was print- i ciently versed in the accenting, especd, 1618, the same with the second, cially in the poetical books; besides, as but much more correct. From the ' it was not published under his eye, many former editions, Buxtorf, the father, faults have crept in. That of Jablonski, printed his rabbinical Hebrew Bible at in 1699, in quarto, at Berlin, is very Basil, in 1618; which, though there are beautiful as to letter and print; but, many faults in it, is more correct than though the editor pretends he male any of the former. In 1623, appeared use of the editions of Athias and Cloat Venice a new edition of the rabbini- dius, some critics find it scarcely in cal Bible, by Leo of Modena, a rabbin any thing different from the quarto of that city, who pretended to have edition of Bomberg. That of Opitius corrected a great number of faults in is also in quarto, at Keil, in 1709: the the former edition ; but, besides that, | character is large and good, but the

paper bad: it is done with a great deal || copy of the Samaritan texts, and of the of care; but the editor made use of no Hebrew manuscripts from the printed manuscripts but those of the German text of Vander Hooght, are placed selibraries, neglecting the French ones, parately at the bottom of the page, and which is an omission common to all the marked with numbers referring to the three. They have this advantage, how- i copies from which they are taken. Four ever, that, besides the divisions used by quarto volumes of various readings have the Jews, both general and particular, also been published by De Rossi, of into paraskes and pesukim, they have Parma, from more than 400 manuscripts also those of the Christians, or of the (some of which are said to be of the Latin Bibles, into chapters and verses; | seventh or eighth century,) as well as the keri ketib, or various readings, La-l from a considerable number of rare tin summaries, &c. which made them and unnoticed editions. An edition of of considerable use with respect to the Reineccius's Hebrew Bible, with readLatin editions and the concordances. ings from Kennicott and De Rossi, has The little Bible of R. Stevens, in 16mo. been published by Dodderlein, and will is very much prized for the beauty of be found a useful work to the Hebrew the character. Care, however, must student. be taken, there being another edition 31. BIBLES, Italian. The first Itaof Geneva exceedingly like it, except- lian Bible published by the Romanists ing that the print is worse, and the text is that of Nicholas Malerne, a Beneless correct. To these may be added dictine monk, printed at Venice in 1471. some other Hebrew Bibles without It was translated from the Vulgate. points, in 8vo. and 24mo. which are | The version of Anthony Brucioli, pubmuch coveted by the Jews; not that lished at Venice in 1532, was prohibited they are more exact, but more portable by the council of Trent. The Calvinthan the rest, and are used in their ists likewise have their Italian Bibles. synagogues and schools. Of these there | There is one of John Diodati in 1607 are two beautiful editions; the one of and 1641; and another of Maximus Plantin, in 8vo. with two columns, and Theophilus, in 1551, dedicated to Franthe other in 24mo. reprinted by Rapha- çis de Medicis, duke of Tuscany.. The lengius, at Leyden, in 1610. There is Jews of Italy have no entire version of also an edition of them by Laurens, at the Bible in Italian; the Inquisition conAmsterdam, in 1631, in a larger cha- stantly refusing to allow them the liracter; and another in 12mo. at Frank-berty of printing one. fort, in 1694, full of faults, with a pre 32. Bibles, Latin, however nuface of Mr. Leusden at the head of it. merous, may be all reduced to three Houbigant published an elegant edition classes; the ancient Vulgate, called of the Hebrew Bible at Paris, in 1753, also Italica, translated from the Greek in 4 vols. folio: the text is that of Van- Septuagint; the modern Vulgate, the der Hooght, without points; to which greatest part of which is done from the he has added marginal notes, supplying Hebrew text; and the new Latin transthe variations of the Samaritan copy. lations, done also from the Hebrew Dr. Kennicott, after almost twenty |text, in the sixteenth century. We years' laborious collation of near 600 co- have nothing remaining of the ancient pies, manuscripts and printed, either of Vulgate, used in the primitive times in the whole or particular parts of the the western churches, but the Psalms, Bible, published the Hebrew Bible in 2| Wisdom, and Ecclesiastes. Nobilius vols. folio: the text is that of Everard has endeavoured to retrieve it from the Vander Hooght, already mentioned, dif- works of the ancient Latin fathers; but fering from it only in the disposition of it was impossible to do it exactly, bethe poetical parts, which Dr. Kennicott cause most of the fathers did not keep has printed in hemistichs, into which close to it in their citations. As to the they naturally divide themselves; how-modern Vulgate, there are a vast numever, the words follow one another in ber of editions very different from each the same order as they do in the edition other. Cardinal Ximenes has inserted of Vander Hooght. This edition is one in the Bible of Complutum, correctprinted on an excellent type: the Sa- ed and altered in many places. R. Stemaritan text, according to the copy in rens, and the doctors of Louvain, have the London Polyglot, is exhibited in a taken great pains in correcting the mocolumn parallel with the Hebrew text; dern Vulgate. The best edition of Stethose parts of it only being introduced vens's Latin Bible is that of 1540, rein which it differs from the Hebrew. printed 1545, in which are added on The numerous variations, both of the the margin the various readings of seSamaritan manuscript from the printed | veral Latin manuscripts which he had

resulted. The doctors of Louvain re- || from the originals by Protestants. The rised the molern Vulgate after R. Ste- l most esteemed are those of Munster, vens, and added the various readings of Leo Juda, Castalio, and Tremellius; several Latin manuscripts. The best the three last of which have been reof the Louvain editions are those in' printed various times. Munster pubwhich are added the critical notes of lished his version at Basil in 1534, which Francis Lucas, of Bruges. All these, he afterwards revised: he published a reformations of the Latin Bible were correct edition in 1546. Castalio's fine made before the time of pope Sixtus V. Latin pleases most people; but there and Clement VIII.; since which people are some who think it affected: the best have not presumed to make any altera- edition is that in 1573. Leo Juda's vertions, excepting in comments and sepa- | sion, altered a little by the divines of rate notes.' The correction of Clement Salamanca, was added to the ancient VIII. in 1592, is now the standard Latin edition, as published by R. Stethroughout all the Romish churches: vens, with notes, under the name of that pontiff made two reformations; Vatablus's Bible, in 1545. It was conbut it is the first of them that is follow-demned by the Parisian divines, but ed. From this the Bibles of Plantin printed, with some alterations, by the were done, and from those of Plantin Spanish divines of Salamanca. Those all the rest; so that the common Bibles of Junius, Tremellius, and Beza, are have none of the after-corrections of considerably exact, and have undergone the same Clement VIII. It is a heavy a great number of editions. We may charge that lies on the editions of pope add a fourth class of Latin Bibles, comClement, viz. that they have some new prehending the Vulgate edition, cortexts added, and many old ones altered, rected from the originals. The Bible to conntenance and confirm what they of Isidorus Clarus is of this number; call the catholic doctrine. There are that author, not contented with rea great number of Latin Bibles of the storing the ancient Latin copy, has corthird class, comprehending the versions rected the translator in a great number from the originals of the sacred books of places which he thought ill rendered. made within these 200 years. The first Some Protestants have followed the is that of Santes Pagninus, a Dominican, same method; and, among others, Anunder the patronage of Leo X. printed drew and Luke Osiander, who have at Lyons, in quarto, in 1527, much es- each published a new edition of the teemed by the Jews. This the author Vulgate, corrected from the originals. improved in a second edition. In 1542 33. BIBLES, Muscovite. See Nos. 38 there was a beautiful edition of the same and 39. at Lyons, in folio, with scholia published 34 BIBLES, Oriental. See Nos. 12, under the name of Michael Villanova- 13, 15, 19, 20, 23, 35, 41, 42. nus, i, e. Michal Servetus, author of 35. BIBLES, Persian. Some of the the scholia. Those of Zurich, have like- fathers seem to say that all the Scripwise published an edition of Pagninus's ture was formerly translated into the Bible in quarto; and R. Stevens re- language of the Persians; but we have printed it in folio, with the Vulgate, in nothing now remaining of the ancient 1557, pretending to give it more correct version, which was certainly done from than in the former editions. There is the Septuagint. The Persian Pentaalso another edition of 1586, in four i teuch, printed in the London Polyglot, columns, under the name of Vatablus; is without doubt, the work of rabbi Jaand we find it again, in the Hamburg cob, a Persian Jew. It was published edition of the Bible, in four languages. by the Jews at Constantinople in 1551. In the number of Latin Bibles is also in the same Polyglot we have likewise usually ranked the version of the same the four evangelists in Persian, with a Pagninus, corrected or rather rendered Latin translation; but this appears very literal, by Arias Montanus; which cor- | modern, incorrect, and of little use. rection being approved of by the doc- Walton says, this version was written tors of Louvain, &c. was inserted in the above four hundred years ago. Another Polyglot Bible of Philip II. and since in version of the Gospels was published at that of London. There have been va- Cambridge by Wheloc, in the sevenrious editions of this in folio, quarto, teenth century. There are also two and octavo; to which have been added Persian versions of the Psalms made the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, from the vulgar Latin. and the Greek of the New. The best 36. BIBLES, Polish. The first Polish of them all is the first, which is in folio, il version of the Bible, it is said, was that 1571. Since the reformation, there have composed by Hadewich, wife of Jagelbeen several Latin versions of the Bible lon, duke of Lithuania, who embraced

Christianity in the year 1390. In 1599 || tiful character: and since his time there there was a Polish translation of the have been several other editions. GaBible published at Cracow, which was briel Sionita published a beautiful Syriac the work of several divines of that na edition of the Psalms at Paris in 1526, tion, and in which James Wieck, a Je- with a Latin interpretation. There is a suit, had a principal share. The Pro-Syriac copy of the Bible written in the testants, in 1596, published a Polish Bi- Estrangelo character, and was brought ble from Luther's German version, and from the Christians of Travancore, dedicated it to Uladislaus, fourth king being a present from Mar Dionysius, of Poland.

the resident bishop at Cadenatte to Dr. 37. Bibles, Polyglot. See Nos. Buchanan. The size is large folio in 29, 31.

parchment: the pages are written in 38. BIBLES, Russian; or,

three columns, each column containing 39. BIBLES, Sclavonian. The Rus- | sixty lines. It is supposed to have sians or Muscovites, published the Bible been written about the seventh century. in their language in 1581. It was trans- || Dr. White, it is said, has for some tinie lated from the Greek by St. Cyril, the been engaged in reprinting the Syriac apostle of the Sclavonians; but this old Old Testament. version being too obscure, Ernest Glik, 42. BIBLES, Turkish. In 1666 a who had been carried prisoner to Mos- Turkish New Testament was printed cow after the taking of Narva, under- in London to be dispersed in the East. took a new translation of the Bible into In 1721, it is said, the grand Seignor Sclavonian; who dying in 1705, the ordered an impression of Bibles at ConCzar Peter appointed some particular stantinople, that they might be con'divines to finish the translation; but trasted with Mahomet's oracle, the Alwhether it was ever printed we cannot coran. The modern Greeks in Turkey say.

have also à translation of the Bible in 40. BIBLES, Spanish. The first Spa- their language. nish Bible that we hear of, is that men 43. BIBLES, Welch. There was a tioned by Cyprian de Valera, which he Welch translation of the Bible made says was published about 1500. The from the original in the time of queen epistles and Gospels were published in Elizabeth, in consequence of a bill that language by Ambrose de Montesian brought into the House of Commons in 1512; the whole Bible by Cassiodore for this purpose in 1563: it was printed de Reyna, a Calvinist, in 1569; and the in folio in 1588. Another version, which New Testament, dedicated to the em- is the standard translation for that lanperor. Charles V., by Francis Enzina, guage, was printed in 1620: it is called otherwise called Driander, in 1543. Parry's Bible. An impression of this The first Bible which was printed in was printed in 1690, called. Bishop Spanish for the use of the Jews was that Lloyd's Bible: these were in folio. printed at Ferrara in 1553, in Gothic The first octavo impression of the characters, and dedicated to Hercules Welch Bible was made in 1630. D'Este, duke of Ferrara. This version 44. Bibles, Bengalee. It is with is very ancient, and was probably in use pleasure we add to all the above acamong the Jews of Spain before Ferdi- counts, that a translation of the New nand and Isabella expelled them out of Testament into the Shanscrit, and the their dominions in 1492. After very last volume of the Bengalee Bible are violent opposition from the catholic now completed, by the missionaries reclergy, the court of Spain ordered Spa- | sident in that part. nish Bibles to be printed by royal autho Much has been done by the British rity in 1796, and put into the hands of and Foreign Bible Society, in printing people of all ranks, as well as to be new editions of the Scriptures in various used in public worship.

languages. The reader will find much 41. BIBLES, Syriac. There are ex-pleasing information on the subject, in tant two versions of the Old Testament the Annual Reports of that Seciety. in the Syriac language; one from the See Le Long's Bibliotheca Sacra; Septuagint, which is ancient, and made trofii Bibliotheca Hebræa, vol. ii. p: probably about the time of Constantine: 358; Johnson's Historical Account of the other called antiqua et simpler, English Translations of the Bible ; made from the Hebrew, as some sup- | Lewis's Hist. of the Translations of pose, about the time of the apostles. the Bible into English; Newcome's This version is printed in the Polyglots Historical view of English Translaof London and Paris. In 1562, Wed- tions; Butler's Höræ Biblicæ; and the manstadius printed the whole New Tes-article Bible in the Encyclopædia tament in Syriac, at Vienna, in a beau-Britannica and Perthensis.

BIBLIOMANCY, a kind of divina BIGOTRY consists in being obstition performed by means of the Bible. nately and perversely, attached to our It consisted in taking passages of Scrip- own opinions; or, as some have defined ture at hazard, and drawing indications it, "a tenacious alherence to a system thence concerning things future. It adopted without investigation, and dewas much used at the consecration of fended without argument, accompanied bishops. F. J. Davidius, a Jesuit, has with a malignant intolerant spirit topublished a bibliomancy under the bor- wards all who differ.” It must be disrowed name of Veridícus Christianus. tinguished from love to truth, which It has been affirmed that some well- || influences a man to embrace it wheremeaning people practise a kind of bi-l ever he finds it; and from true zeal, bliomancy with respect to the future which is an ardour of mind exciting its state of their souls; and, when they possessor to defend and propagate the have happened to fix on a text of an principles he maintains." Bigotry is a awful nature, it has almost driven them kind of prejudice combined with a certo despair. It certainly is not the way tain degree of malignity. It is thus exto know the mind of God by choosing emplified and distinguished by a sensible detached parts of Scripture, or by writer. “When Jesus preached, predrawing a card on which a passage may ii judice cried, Can any good thing come be written, the sense of which is to be | out of Nazareth? Crucify him, crucify gathered only from the context. him, said bigotry. Why? what evil

BIDDELIANS, so called from John hath he done replied candour.” BiBiddle, who in the year 1644 formed an ' gotry is mostly prevalent with those independent congregation in London. who are ignorant; who have taken up He taught that Jesus Christ, to the in- principles without due examination ; tent that he might be our brother, and and who are naturally of a morose and have a fellow-feeling of our infirmities, contracted disposition. It is often maniand so become the more ready to help, fested more in unimportant sentiments, us, hath no other than a human nature; or the circumstantials of religion, than and therefore in this very nature is not the essentials of it. Simple bigotry is only a person, since none but a human the spirit of persecution without the person can be our brother, but also our power; persecution is bigotry armed Lord and God.

with power, and carrying its will into Biddle, as well as Socinus and other act. As it is the effect of ignorance, so Unitarians before and since, made no l it is the nurse of it, because it precludes scruple of calling Christ God, though | free enquiry, and is an enemy to truth : he believed him to be a human creature it cuts also the very sinews of charity, only, on account of the divine sovereign- and destroys modération and mutual ty with which he was invested.

good will. If we consider the different BIDDING PRAYER. It was part makes of men's minds, our own ignoof the office of the deacons in the pri-rance, the liberty that all men have to mitive church to be monitors and di-think for themselves, the admirable rectors of the people in their public example our Lord has set us of a condevotions in the church. To this end trary spirit, and the baneful effects of they made use of certain known forms this disposition, we must at once be of words, to give notice when each part convinced of its impropriety. How of the service began. Agreeable to this contradictory is it to sound reason, and ancient practice is the form “Let us how inimical to the peaceful religion pray,” repeated before several of the we profess to maintain as Christians prayers in the English liturgy. Bishop See PERSECUTION, and books under Burnet, in his History of the Reforma- that article. tion, vol. ii. p. 20, has preserved the BIOGRAPHY, Religious, or the lives form as it was in use before the refor- of illustrious and pious men, are well mation, which was this:-After the worthy of perusing. The advantages preacher had named and opened his of religious biography are too well text, he called on the people to go to known to need a recital in this place. their prayers, telling them what they We shall only, therefore, point out some were to pray for: Ye shall pray, says of the best pieces, which the reader he, for the king, the pope, &c. After may peruse at his leisure :-, which, all the people said their beads Hunter's Sacred Biography; Robinin a general silence, and the minister son's Scripture Charucters; Hunter's kneeled down likewise, and said his : History of Christ; J. Taylor's Life of they were to say a paternoster, ave Christ; Cave's Lives of the Apostles ; maria, &c. and then the sermon pro- Cave's Lives of the Fathers; Fox's ceeded.

Lives of the Martyrs; Melchior


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