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THE IEW YA PUBLIC LIETAT? 915414

ASER LENTTI
The EN I Evelin:

Entered according to the act of Congress, in the year 1851, by

HENRY CAREY BAIRD,

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

STEREOTYPED BY L. JOHNSON AND CO.

PHILADELPHIA.
PRINTED BY T. K. AND P. G. COLLINS.

THE

PRACTICAL MODEL

CALCULATOR.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

THE UNIT OF LENGTH. THE YARD.-If a pendulum vibrating seconds in vacuo, in Philadelphia, be divided into 2509 equal parts, 2310 of such equal parts is the length of the standard yard; the measures are taken on brass rods at the temperature of 32° Fahrenheit. This yard will not be in error the ten-millionth part of an inch.

2310 : 2509 as 1. to 1.086142 nearly.

THE UNIT OF WEIGHT. The Pound, avoirdupois, is 27.7015 cubic inches of distilled water, weighed in air, at the temperature of maximum density, 390.82; the barometer at 30 inches.

THE LIQUID UNIT. The Gallon, 231 cubic inches, contains 8.3388822 pounds avoirdupois, equal 58372.1754 grains troy of distilled water, at 39°•82 Fah.; the barometer at 30 inches.

UNIT OF DRY CAPACITY. The Bushel contains 2150.42 cubic inches, 77.627412 pounds avoirdupois, 543391.89 grains of distilled water, at the temperature of maximum density; the barometer at 30 inches.

The French unit of length or distance is the metre, and is the ten-millionth of the quadrant of the globe, measured from the equator to the pole.

The French Metre = 3.2808992 English feet linear measure = 39.3707904 inches. For Multiples the following Greek For Divisors the following Latin words are used :

words are used : Deca for

10 times. Deci for the 10th part. Hecto

100 times. Centi Kilo

1000 times. Milli Myria

10000 times. Thus a Kilometre = 1000 metres.

metre Millimetre

1000 The square Deca Metre, called the Are, is the element of land measure in France, which = 1076.42996 square feet English.

The Stere is a cubic metre = 35.316582 cubic feet English.

100th part.
1000th part.

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dr. or 3

OZ.

The Litre for liquid measure is a cubic decimetre = 1.76077 imperial pints English, at the temperature of melting ice; a litre of distilled water weighs 15434 grains troy.

The unit of weight is the gramme: it is the weight of a cubic centimetre of distilled water, or of a millilitre, and therefore equal to 15.434 grains troy.

The kilogramme is the weight of a cubic decimetre of distilled water, at the temperature of maximum density, 4o centigrade.

The pound troy contains 5760 grains.
The pound avoirdupois contains 7000 grains.

The English imperial gallon contains 277.274 cubic inches; and the English corn bushel contains eight such gallons, or 2218.192 cubic inches.

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT.
Grains.....

..marked....... gr.
20 Grains make 1 Scruple

sc. or
3 Scruples — 1 Dram
8 Drams 1 Ounce

oz. or 3
12 Ounces 1 Pound

lb. or Hb.
gr. SC.
20 1 dr.
60 3 1
480 24 8 1 lb.

5760 288 = 96 12 = 1 This is the same as troy weight, only having some different divisions. Apothecaries make use of this weight in compounding their medicines; but they buy and sell their drugs by avoirdupois weight.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.
Drams

.marked dr. 16 Drams. make 1 Ounce...

oz. 16 Ounces... 1 Pound..

lb. 28 Pounds... 1 Quarter...

qr. 4 Quarters

1 Hundred Weight... cwt. 20 Hundred Weight... 1 Ton

ton. dr.

OZ.
16

1 Ib.
256
16 1

qr.
7168 448 28 1 cwt.
28672 1792

4 1 ton. 573440 35840 2240 = 80 = 20 = 1 By this weight are weighed all things of a coarse or drossy nature, as Corn, Bread, Butter, Cheese, Flesh, Grocery Wares, and some Liquids; also all Metals except Silver and Gold.

=

112 =

Oz. Dwt. Gr. Note, that 1 lb. avoirdupois

14 11 157 troy.

0 18 51 1 dr.

0 1 37

.

1 oz.

TROY WEIGHT. Grains....

...marked Gr. Gr. Dwt. 24 Grains make 1 Pennyweight Dwt. 24 1 Oz.

Oz. 20 Pennyweights 1 Ounce

480
20 =

1 Lb. 12 Ounces 1 Pound Lb. 5760 = 240 12 = 1 By this weight are weighed Gold, Silver, and Jewels.

LONG MEASURE. 3 Barley-corns.

.make 1 Inch.... marked In. 12 Inches...

1 Foot.......

Ft. 3 Feet.......

1 Yard

Yd. 6 Feet...

1 Fathom...

Fth. 5 Yards and a half....... 1 Pole or Rod..... Pl. 40 Poles.......

1 Furlong

Fur. 8 Furlongs..

1 Mile..........

Mile. 3 Miles.......

1 League ...

Lea. 691 Miles nearly..

1 Degree...
In. Ft.
12

1 Yd.
36 3

1 Pl.
161 51

1 Fur.
7920 = 660 220 40 = 1 Mile.
63360 = 5280 1760 320 8

= 1

Deg. or o.

=

198 =

=

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EF.

.....

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CLOTH MEASURE. 2 Inches and a quarter....make 1 Nail ......

.marked Ni. 4 Nails

1 Quarter of a Yard.. Qr. 3 Quarters.

1 Ell Flemish.. 4 Quarters......

1 Yard .....

Yd. 5 Quarters......

1 Ell English......

EE. 4 Qrs. 13 Inch..

1 Ell Scotch

ES. SQUARE MEASURE. 144 Square Inches........make 1 Sq. Foot.............marked Ft. 9 Square Feet.......... 1 Sq. Yard

Yd. 301 Square Yards........ 1 Sq. Pole.

Pole. 40 Square Poles...... 1 Rood....

Rd. 4 Roods..... 1 Acre....

Acr. Sq. Inc.

1

Sq. Ya.
1296 = 9

1
39204 = 2727 301 1 Rd.
1568160 10890 1210 40 1 Acr.
6272640 = 43560.

= 4840

160 4 = 1 When three dimensions are concerned, namely, length, breadth, and depth or thickness, it is called cubic or solid measure, which is used to measure Timber, Stone, &c.

The cubic or solid Foot, which is 12 inches in length, and breadth, and thickness, contains 1728 cubic or solid inches, and 27 solid feet make one solid yard.

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Sq. Ft.

144 =

Sq. Pl.

....

....C

DRY, OR CORN MEASURE. 2 Pints......

.make 1 Quart ..., ....marked Qt. 2 Quarts

1 Pottle...

Pot. 2 Pottles...

1 Gallon.

Gal. 2 Gallons......

1 Peck...

Pec. 4 Pecks.....

1 Bushel

Bu. 8 Bushels ...

1 Quarter........

Qr. 5 Quarters.

1 Weigh or Load...

Wey. 2 Weys......

1 Last

Last. Pts. Gal.

8 1 Pec.
16

1 Bu.
64 8 4 1 Qr.
512 64 32

1
2560 = 320 = 160 40 = 5 1 Last.
5120

= 320
80 10

2 1

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2 =

Wey.

= 640

WINE MEASURE. 2 Pints..... .make 1 Quart

marked Qt. 2 Quarts.... 1 Gallon

Gal. 42 Gallons..

1 Tierce.......

Tier. 63 Gallons or 11 Tier.. 1 Hogshead...

Hhd. 2 Tierces.. 1 Puncheon.....

Pun. 2 Hogsheads...

1 Pipe or Butt..... Pi. 2 Pipes.. 1 Tun.

Tun.
Pts. Qts.
2

1 Gal.
8 4 1 Tier.
336 168 42 1 Hhd.
504 252

- 11

:1 Pun.
672 336 84 2 11 : 1 Pi.
1008 504 126 3 = 2 11 =1 Tun.
2016 : 1008

= 252

6 4 = 3 = 2 = 1.

63

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Bar.

ALE AND BEER MEASURE. 2 Pints..... ...... make 1 Quart.... .marked Qt. 4 Quarts.... 1 Gallon

Gal. 36 Gallons....

1 Barrel..... 1 Barrel and a half.... 1 Hogshead......... Hhd. 2 Barrels........ 1 Puncheon...

Pun. 2 Hogsheads..

Butt. 2 Butts.... 1

Tun.
Pts. Qt.
2 1 Gal.
8

1 Bar.
288 144 36 = 1 Hhd.
432 216 54 11 1 Butt.
864 = 432 = 108

3 2 1

1 Butt......

Tun......

4 =

=

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