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.gonin non 'oh nieyh ny “ There is a time, when such a law should be repealed, in honour of the Eternal."*
114. What do our sages, the Talmudists, say on this subject?
-And all , who are en " וכל העוסקים עם הצבור יהיו עוסקים עמהם לשם
Tyynydiy onp7yt on you dnias nidiu din gaged in the affairs
.on'vy 1587 793977 970 baby sithyn ons of the congregation, are bound to transact their business from pure motives ; then does the merit of their forefathers assist them, and their virtue remains for ever imperishable. • For each good intention I promise you as much reward, as for the deed.''" (Aboth, ii.)
115. What duties have we then to observe, according to the rules just laid down?
Religion makes it the most sacred duty of every Israelite, to honour the learned in the law, and to support them according to his means; also to obey willingly the ordinances of the chief tribunals (consistoriest) of any time, in which he lives; to acknowledge gratefully the good tendency of their regulations, and live strictly according to their decisions, as they are only intended for the promotion of the happiness of the community.
* The above-mentioned Rev. Chief Rabbi remarked to me in this place, that he must again refer me to the passage cited in a note to $14.
Author. † The strict obedience to the mandates of the Sanhedrin, can only then be required, when they have been elected according to our old established custom
by the free voice of the community-not if called together by the will of a despot of a foreign people; much less can this obedience be due, when their deliberations are controlled through open or secret influence from abroad; in which case the assembly deserves not the name of a Jewish Sanhedrin.
Donosna'n' TOXODOO S8 - 1831 “ Thou shalt go-to
•7071 vos bo niegs noun the judge, who may be in those times. Thou must carefully observe all as they may teach thee.” (Deut. 17 ch. 9—10 v.)
116. But, if the elders and teachers of the people are empowered to introduce certain regulations and decrees--and in fact, we have many of the like ordinances and precepts,*-how must we then understand the interdiction (Deut. 4 ch. 2 d.):
121 DƏNN nIyD INTOX 2270 Syddin A'You shall not add any thing to that, which I command you this day''?
We are enjoined by this commandment, to exercise the already existing precepts in such a manner, as they are prescribed to us by the written or oral law; that we may not disfigure the same in their own parts through addition or diminution. As for example, to fix fringes on more than four corners of a garment,t to introduce more than four paragraphs of the Law in the Thephillin, or if we would take more than the four prescribed productions of the vegetable kingdom, which we employ for the celebration of the feast of Tabernacles. For, as each commandment has been instituted, as it is now, by divine wisdom, and as we are too short-sighted to discover the real truth on every occasion; we dare not have the audacity to abstract any thing from the prescribed rules, and proceed arbitrarily with our additions and alterations. This is accordingly enjoined on us in the most impressive terms in the verse just cited, as also in the following one (Deut. 13 ch. 1 v.): ,Every commandment * את כל הדבר אשר אנכי מצוה אתכם אתר -you must strictly op תשמרו לעשות לא תסף עליו ולא תגרע ממנו •
* of this more will appear in the Appendix. + Numb. 15 ch. 38 v, and Deut. 22 ch. 12 v. | Exodus 13 ch. 16 v. Leviticus 23 ch. 40 v.
serve, just as I command it you this day (either orally or in writing), without adding or diminishing."
OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF DUTIES.
1. DUTIES TOWARDS GOD. 117. In how many classes are the duties, which religion demands of us, generally divided ?
We divide them generally in three classes; we have, namely, duties towards God, duties towards ourselves, and duties towards others; which latter comprise not only those towards individuals, but also those which we owe to the whole state.
118. In what essential particular do the two first species of duties differ from those of the latter kind, since they are all the emanation of the holy will of God?
If a man sins against God alone or against himself, he can make himself again worthy of participating of the grace of God, and may expect forgiveness from His mercy, as soon as he returns, and repents his transgressions with genuine feelings of repentance. But if a man has transgressed against his fellowman, no penance nor repentance can in the least avail him, till he has asked his forgiveness, and made him complete restititution for the injury done, or has satisfied him in some other manner. (See on this subject Talmud, Tractate Yoma.) NOM VX 777inni ochao nnx's DUN 13 77977 “ If he has been guilty
• 120 zuby in any of these respects (against God): he shall confess what he has sinned, &c.” (Lev. 5 ch. 5 v.) Sinun obran nx 'vni duni son' ng nani - Has he however pon VX yapon ne 18 pwy uk peyn ne 18 sinned against
men, then he
אתו או את האנדה אשר מצא •
must restore what he has robbed, or what he has unlawfully withheld, or that which has been entrusted to him for safe-keeping, or the lost thing which he has found.” (Lev. 5 ch. 23. v.) (See also Numb. 5 chap. 5—8 v.)
119. What is accordingly the proper meaning of doiNG PENANCE ?
A man does penance or becomes converted, when he confesses his sin before God, with a sorrowful and humble heart, and prays to him sincerely for forgiveness on account of the fault he has committed ; but the chief requisite is, that he make a positive resolution, to become better, to endeavour earnestly to obtain the mastery over his evil inclinations, to be very watchful over his conduct, and to compensate, as much as possible, for errors committed, with deeds of virtue and piety.
*DAT ZIYI 017101 n°68 'bryvu ndos' “ He, who tries to hide his sins will not prosper ; but the man, who confesses them, and acts better afterwards, will be pardoned.” (Prov. 28 ch. 13 v.)
impiya noo'yg'oka 'n wys 701V “ Return, O Israel, Non so he 1908 • 'O SNIJIVI D'927 Dany to the Eternal thy
•13'nov o'n 803 314 mpi yw God, though degraded through thy sins! Turn but with prayer to the Eternal and say: Thou most perfect, pardoner of sins! accept our return to good, and let our words be as acceptable to thee, as the offered steers.” (Hos. 14 ch. 2 v.).
120. Does repentance also avail against heavy sins and misdeeds, which are done on purpose and from disobedience to God?
Yes, even here does repentance avail; the infinite grace of · God will be extended to every one, who but seeks it sincerely
and with an upright heart. Nothing, therefore, should withhold