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175. What does religion command us in relation to those who have offended us, or who conduct themselves in general as our enemies ?

Rejoice not , when thy » בנפל אויבך אל תשמח ובכשלו אל יגל לבן

q''ya yu 'ny OKT 10 enemy falls ; be not glad, when he stumbles ; for the Eternal would see it, and disapprove of it.” (Prov. 24 ch. 17 v.)

,Is thy enemy hungry * אם רעב שנאך האכילהו לחם ואם צמא השקהו

'Di WNT Synon NON D O ' D'n offer him bread ; is

75 ohlen he thirsty, give him water. And though thou shouldst thus heap coals on his head, yet will the Eternal reward thy deed.” (Prov. 25 ch. 21 v.)

navn en zyn von 1877"x 710 yion 3 “ If thou shouldst find the INU nan yan7NJU IM 7870 9.95 ox or the ass of thy

enemy _ going astray וחדלת מעזב לו עזב תעזב עמו • ,

thou must return the same to him. If thou seest the ass of him who hates thee, laying under his burden, thou darest not withhold thy assistance from him ; but thou shalt help him to unload.” (Exod. 23 ch. 4 v.)

na n'din noin 92aba q'na na miun “ Hate not thy brother

עמיתך ולא תשא עליו חטא לא תקם ולא תטר •

in thy heart
!
Thou

mayest reprove thy neighbour, but darest not cherish against him the remembrance of the offence. Thou shalt not take revenge, nor reserve thy anger.” (Lev. 19 ch. 17 v.)

176. How do our wise men explain the concluding part of the last verse?

“ If some one has denied thee a favour, (thus says the Talmud— Tract. Yoma, Fol. 23,) and desires at any time hereafter any service from thee; thou shalt not refuse it to him : Thou shalt not take revenge! But thou must neither say to him: • Behold, i serve thee now, although thou didst refuse the favour, which I asked of thee.' As soon, as thou speakest thus, thou hast transgressed the commandment: Thou shalt not reserve any anger !" ".

46 אל תאמר כאשר עשה לי כן אעשה לו אשיב ,Say not

,
I will treat him

hyba vix's as he has treated me; I will act towards every one, as he has acted towards me.” (Prov. 24 ch. 29 v.)

177. What else should we infer from these doctrines, and consider accordingly as a sacred duty ?

If the religion, which we profess, commands us to cherish love, forbearance, and lenity towards our personal enemies, those who have actually offended us: we must conclude, that we have even less right to hate or offend those Israelites, who have been guilty of such sins, for which they are answerable to God alone. For in the first place, a man can easily repent for any and every one of such transgressions, nay even privately and at all times. ($ 118, &c.) Secondly, it is not our business to take God's part; it would certainly be punishable arrogance in us, to presume to act as his representatives or avengers.

ydenhxoboono37 “ Secret actions are reserved for the Eternal our God alone.” (Deut. 29 ch. 28 v.)

.75 you'os nip yn opbox noen 58 “ But thou must not say, I will recompense the evil ; trust in the Eternal, and he will help thee” (to guide thy brother in the path of virtue). (Prov. 20 ch. 22 v.)

178. Which is accordingly the line of conduct, prescribed to us by our religion, in relation to those, who transgress the precepts of this religion ?

We ought to endeavour to bring back such an erring or blinded brother by mildness and indulgent love—not alone through kind words, but also by showing him ourselves a pattern of virtuous conduct. We are, however, not permitted to indulge, on any account, in any vindictive feeling, so as to offend him, or make him ashamed.

'Di nisi ang bagayo'py ng niin noin “ Endeavour to reprove yahoo bow sun thy son xbo yan? ninun thy neighbour in so 79 ): anh phony'NITIN 30 mild a manner, as

(. niyo '07":27 not to make him ashamed; for this would be drawing upon thyself a great sin, as we believe : he who makes his neighbour publicly ashamed, has no share of future happiness.”* (8 87.) In short, we must here also apply the rule ($ 158.) of 13772 nabong " Walk in his ways!” For God proves himself a merciful judge, and nowise eager to punish sinners.

Then again, an unkind demeanour towards a sinner would only tend to remove him, our erring brother, to a yet greater distance from us, and render every effort at amelioration in him yet more difficult; and thus we would be guilty of closing against him the path of virtue, to which, however, it is our duty, to lead him back by gentle means and an amiable deportment to him on our part.

•7772 D'HON 7771993 bylo 01210 The Eternal is good and upright, he therefore shows sinners the right road.” (Ps. 25 ch. 8 v.)

* It must be observed, however, that on certain occasions it becomes necessary not to be too forbearing; as for instance, when we hear acknowledged truth, or the dignity of God or his law spoken of lightly, and it might be injurious to others to let the blasphemy pass, without an immediate and public notice being taken of it; for we say:

.375 793 iphon y® DVD Sobno vv bippa “ Where the name of God is profaned, no respect is shown even to a teacher.”

Translator.

CHAPTER XI.

OF THE DUTIES TOWARDS THE STATE.

179. How are the duties called, which we owe, in accordance with the demand of our religion, to the whole community of our fellow-citizens ?

They are called the duties of a citizen, or duties towards the state and our native land.

180. In what particulars do they chiefly consist ?

In fidelity and obedience to the laws and authorities of the land, in esteem, allegiance, and respect to the government, and attachment to the country.

181. Which is properly speaking our country, as we live now dispersed in every part of the world?

Every country in which we were born, or where we have settled ourselves and are residents, and under whose laws we enjoy protection and security of person and property. Particularly however those countries, where we participate equally in the administration of the laws, and bave equal political rights with the other inhabitants.

182. What does our religion command us in this respect ?

That we shall love the land, in which we live, as our country, and contribute all in our power towards the promotion of its general prosperity, and the preservation of its peace and good order. That we are not only bound, not to separate our own welfare and that of our own family and immediate friends,

from the welfare of the great mass of citizens of the state ; but that we are also bound by the laws of our religion and of the state, to defend this our country with our property, and if necessary with our blood and life.

183. Must this duty be sacred to us ?

This law, and the love of our country, which God has implanted in the heart of every human being, must be to every upright man as a sacred call and the voice of God; for which reason it becomes also the duty of every Israelite, to join, when called upon, the defenders of the country, and to contribute under every circumstance, all his individual power is able, to co-operate with the rest of his fellow-citizens, in maintaining the independence and liberty of the country, in which he is protected

ושבו ונטעו גנות ואכלו את פרין ודרשו את

184. What did God communicate, through the prophet Jeremiah, to those Israelites, who had been carried captives to Babylon, although their stay there was to be no more than seventy years? D'na 112 5x9uuha nxJY '07 10X “ Thus speaketh the Eternal

Zebaoth, the God of Isno DON D an UN Tyndisa rael : Build houses, and

dwell therein ; plant gar

di boods dens, and eat their fruit, and seek to promote the peace of the city, whither I have banished you, and pray for the same to (me) the Eternal, for through its peace ye also shall have peace!” (Jer. 29 ch. 5—7 v.)

Again we read, (Jer. 40 ch. 9 v.): 1890 5x ons op'na ya 107.572 Dab yavu " And Gedalyahu caused

והתפללו בעדה אל ה' כי בשלומה יהיה

,the Israelites to swear מעבור הכשדים שבו בארץ יעברו את מרן

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