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of Babylon, and said : Fear nothing, in being subject to the Chaldeans, remain in the country, and serve the king of Babylon, and you will fare well.”

185. What inference are we led to draw from the foregoing ?

That we are in a much greater degree bound to serve that state with all our power, where we have really found a home, and which we can call our country; namely, that where we enjoy equal civil rights. The laws of such a country, therefore, must be sacred to us, as the laws of our religion. But it must be understood, that these laws must not circumscribe our liberty of conscience, nor in any manner tend, to compel us, to act contrary to any one of the laws and ceremonies of our religion ; in short, the authority of the laws of the land is binding upon us in the same degree, as parental authority (of which see more, g 85, in the chapter on the Decalogue).

186. What rules does the Talmud lay down, as general principles in this respect ?

'NI' Nnho NI' “ The laws of the land are valid, and must be obeyed."

-The power of the govern • מלכותא דארעא כעין מלכותא דרקיע •

ments on earth, bears resemblance to the power of the heavenly kingdom.”

'n ons 712 7139 obyn nimis gh9778977 " If thou seest a king of 9035171009 pho wurdhryn 75013077N any other nation,

•071 speak the following grace : • Praised be thou, O Eternal, our God, King of the world ! who hast communicated some portion of thy glory to man.'”

187. What does our religion recommend, relative to our conduct towards the highest authority of the state, or the king ?

syynn 5X D'I10 Dy 76039 22 'Onxxt “My son ! fear the Eternal, and respect the king ;* and never mix with those who will create disturbance.” (Prov. 24 ch. 21 v.) 790s ingnai shpr 7509 JTD2 D2 “ Even in thought curse

• Tuy shpa se not the king !' and in thy most secret sleeping chamber do not pronounce a malediction upon the superior in authority.” (Eccl. 10 ch. 20 v.) de sobrev sodbo so noiva ShanD Pray for the peace and 1942 o'n 17yn AN UN ANY prosperity of the go

(?" nian) vernment of the land; for through its authority, peace and order are preserved, and disputes repressed.” (Lit. If it were not for its fear, one man would swallow the other alive.)

188. Does Holy Writ furnish us any examples of fidelity and loyalty to kings of another religion ?

Certainly. Daniel (6 ch. 23 v.) said to the king of Babylon:

SI NOI'Y DO 701 770x ho nebo vobe " My God sent his angel, nnanvn 121 7107p ng sap soruhan who closed the mouths

ngay og buoni suho joip 9895 of the lions, that they did not wound me; because he had found me innocent, and because, O king, I had always served thee well, and never been guilty of an untruth towards thee."

Mordecai lived under the tyrannical government of Ahasuerus, who afterwards intended to exterminate the whole people of Israel. Nevertheless did Mordecai tell of the conspi. racy, which some courtiers had planned against the king's life; (Esther 2 ch. 21 v.) for he thought, “ I must do my duty, no matter what the king's intentions may be towards us.” And we should consider, that

* It must be remembered, that we are obliged to respect the institutions of the country, be the government monarchical or republican.

Translator.

• 1909 pon' On sa by 'n teagho ab o'n vaso “ The heart of kings is in the hand of the Lord like streams of water ; he directs it whithersoever it pleases him.” (Prov. 21 ch. 1 v.) ;

189. What effect should these examples have upon us ?

That we should the more endeavour, to show our attachment and fidelity to the princes and governments, under whose protection we are fortunate enough to live as citizens and members of the state. It is further our duty, to prove ourselves faithful subjects and good citizens, by a strict obedience to the laws, a blameless life, and the exercise of all the duties which we owe the state in quality of citizens.

190. Have the Israelites any peculiar motives of gratitude towards the princes and governments of the present age?

Yes; we as well as our posterity have the strongest motives to be grateful towards the princes and governments of our own days, and to call down upon them the blessing of our heavenly Father; because they have reinstated us in the enjoyment of the rights of men, and granted us a free exercise of our religion and the privileges of citizens, by placing us upon an equality with the other inbabitants of the state. They have therefore indeed broken our shackles, and pulled down that dishonourable wall of separation, which had, alas! 'for so many centuries, been standing betwixt us and our Christian fellow-citizens.

191. What other benefits have these wise governments shown to us?

Convinced, that our holy religion contains nothing, which stands in opposition to the laws of the state, they have freed the Jews from the ignominious fetters, with which ages of superstition and barbarism had loaded them; and have taken paternal care for our regeneration and the amelioration of our condition. It is therefore obligatory upon every Israelite, to support the benevolent views of these fathers of their countries, and to obey willingly and with feelings of gratitude their wise institutions.

192. In what manner do these benevolent governments endeavour to ameliorate our moral and political condition ?*

In no other manner, save that, which harmonises in every respect with the spirit and the will of our religion, since they demand only that we should become proprietors of land, and cultivate the soil ourselves, and practise useful arts and trades; since our religion, as has been said above, is so well adapted to form a race of agriculturists, men who gain their livelihood by the labour of their hand, and such as, by their frugal industry and sterling honesty, should be an honour to themselves and to the nation to which they belong. It behoves us, therefore, to consider those as benefactors, who are willing to share the liberty, they themselves enjoy, with us—the descendants of those virtuous and constant men, who suffered every thing in the physical and moral defence of their holy faith. To support ourselves by honest industry is also a religious duty, of which we are oftentimes reminded by the text of the Scriptures ; and as examples we read : .

* It must not be forgotten, that in former ages no Jew was permitted to practise any trade; and the permission, therefore, given us in many parts of Europe, and in the United States of America, to acquire property and become mechanics, must greatly tend to improve the condition of the Jews. And this is in fact the only amelioration we desire, i. e. to be permitted to follow any calling, for which we may think ourselves best qualified; but for pecuniary aid, or the inducements to forsake our faith, we can never think ourselves indebted to any one, who may be weak enough to tender the former, or infatuated enough to preach the latter.

Translator.

35 mon dpn 77701 ons you 10078 733 “ He, who ploughs his land, will have enough of bread; but he, who pursues wild specula. tions, is foolish, and will suffer want." (Prov. 12 ch. 11 v. and 28 ch. 19 v.)

.75 2101 7'90s bonn '37'95 yig' “ If thou maintainest thyself by the labour of thy hands, then wilt thou be happy, and enjoy what is good.” (Psalm 128, v. 2.)

193. Can you name any trades, which are forbidden to us by the laws of our religion ?

There are none. On the contrary, religion makes it the duty of every parent, to teach his son some trade or useful art. The Talmud adds :

niuos 1995 1983 Dis 1795 pou yo “ The man who does not teach his son some mechanical trade, is as bad, as if he had taught him to become a highwayman.”* (Tractate Kidushin, fol. 30.)

194. Hade our teachers, of blessed memory, ever set us the example in this respect ?

Certainly. Agriculture was the favourite pursuit of our ancestors, and the greater number of the Talmudists were mechanics. They even thought it honourable to be called after their trade; as for instance: R. Jochanan the Shoemaker; R. Joseph the Carpenter; R. Jehoshua the Smith ; R. Simon the

* When one Talmudist inquired : “ Is it not then enough, if he teach his son business solely?” “ No,” replied R. Yehuda, “ both money and good luck are requisite for business; these might be unattainable to him, and he would thus at last be compelled to resort to cheating or stealing."

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