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was running on the misfortune of the bridges, and endeavoured to comfort him by representing that they might be repaired in a few hours. "What," cried the Marshal," is it the bridges you are talking about all this while? That is nothing—I can put it to rights in a couple of hours. But Chantilly-I have lost her, she has deserted me." He procured a Lettre de Cachet from Louis XV., subsequently, and imprisoned Madame Favart in a convent in the country, until she consented to become his mistress. She afterwards appeared as a favorite actress at the Théatre Italien, and died in 1773.

There is an amusing description of the manner of representation of a French Opera at this period, given in his correspondence for 1765 by the Baron de Grimm. "The piece was Castor and Pollux. The actors kept singing and dancing alternately, and never to the purpose. It ended with every act, and then had to begin again, till at last Castor was fairly killed, buried, brought to life again, and received into Paradise. To celebrate his apotheosis, the dancers, male and female, took the names of the stars and planets, and danced a chaconne, and while the moon, who was called Mademoiselle Preslin, placed herself between M. Vestris, who was the sun, and Mademoiselle Allard, who was the earth, the foot-lights were lowered to imitate an eclipse. This ingenious idea was received with great applause."

Duni, Philidor, the great chess-player, and a few others, preceded Grétry, who composed for the comic Opera some 80 pieces, commencing with le Huron, the words of which are by Marmontel. He improved very much the taste for music in France, survived the Revolution, and died full of honor in 1813.

Gluck now came forward under the patronage of Marie Antoinette with the Iphigénie en Aulide, and Orphée, and was shortly after opposed by Piccini, who, under the tuition of Marmontel in the French language, of which he did not understand one word, composed Roland. At the rehearsals of the music, Piccini was thrown into despair by the singers and the band, who could not keep time for a dozen bars together. It produced, however, such an impression on the public, as to revive the old factions of Italians and French, under the names of Gluckites and Piccinistes. The rival authors met one evening at supper at the house of Berton, then director of the Opera, they embraced each other, conversed very freely, and when Gluck became warmed with wine, he turned to Piccini, and

told him, that the French understood nothing of singing, that he was a great man, composed fine music, and thought only of his reputation, but that if he was wise he should think only of making money, and nothing else. They parted very good friends, but the war between their partisans was still maintained as hotly as ever.

Piccini afterwards went to Naples, but fell under the displeasure of the Government there on account of his political opinions, and lost all his property. He obtained leave to return to France, and was about receiving an office from the First Consul, when he expired on the 7th May 1800, at the village of Passy, exhausted by mental labour and bodily suffering, at the age of seventy-two years. In his Iphigénie en Tauride a Mademoiselle Laguerre appeared upon the stage in such a state of elevation, that she could not walk, and was supported by her attendant priestesses. She had ruined by her extravagance a prince of the blood and a wealthy farmer general, but was still a great favorite. The audience treated her with the greatest kindness, did not hiss, and between the acts she had time to recover herself and finish her part creditably. She was sent, however, to the prison of Fort l'Evêque by the king, where she remained two days, and expressed great contrition on coming out, repeating the first two lines of her part :-

"O jour fatal, que Je voulais en vain,

Ne pas compter parmi ceux de ma vie."

She subsequently died from the effects of dissipation in the year 1783, leaving behind her a fortune of £75,000 sterling. After the Opera house was burned in 1781, the Academie Royale de Musique gave concerts at the Tuilleries, and on one occasion imposed on the Gluckistes, a piece announced as a production of Gluck, but really one by Jomelli, and which had been hissed in Italy. It was loudly applaused by the partisans, who finding out their mistake by a whisper passed in the hall, abandoned the field of battle altogether to the Piccinistes and did not again shew themselves. Before this, while M. Vismes was director in 1779, a rebellion arose among the corps dramatique against the despotism of the manager. La Fayette had just returned from America, and a congress was formed having at its head the elder Vestris, le Dieu de la Danse. One lady, Mademoiselle Guichard, being ordered by the government to dance, replied, "The minister orders met to dance; well-he had better look to himself, lest I make himself dance one of these days." When this was reported to

the young king he remarked to those about him, "It is all your own fault, gentlemen; if you paid these ladies fewer attentions, they would not be so insolent." She applied for a new and extravagant dress, and was refused; but she gained her point by sending the manager the dress she had, cut into ten thousand pieces. A dancer, Dauberval, and the younger Vestris were sent to prison for their rebellion, the elder Vestris saying to his son as he was taken away, "Go-this is the proudest day of your life. Take my carriage and demand the apartment of my friend the King of Poland; I shall pay every expense." The fracas ended by the Prevôt des Marchands being appointed director, M. Visons reduced to be his deputy, and all the Italians in Paris dismissed by the Government.

Gluck had left Paris in 1779, but he was succeeded by another eminent composer, Sacchini. His operas, Renaud brought out in 1783, and Edipe à Colonne in 1787, obtained complete success. Gluck died in 1787, and his rival, Piccini, generously proposed to perpetuate his memory by the establishment of an annual concert, to consist entirely of his compositions. The warfare between the two parties of which these men were the chiefs, had a most beneficial effect on French taste in music, and contributed more than anything else to raise it above the style of the productions of Rameau. The comic operas of Gretry had the same useful tendency, and were succeeded by those of Dalayrac, whose Nina, ou la folle par Amour created a great


Gossec composed a great number of successful operas which are now forgotten. He was put at the head of the Conservatoire de Musique along with Mehul and Cherubini, when that institution was established in 1795, and remained in it until a short time before his death in 1829 at the age of 96 years. "All Paris," says a French memoir of him," remembers the venerable composer, bent beneath the weight of years, quitting his lodgings precisely at five, to repair to the Theatre Feydeau (he lived at the village of Passy.) He always halted halfway at the Café des variétés, and after taking his coffee resumed his course, and was found immediately after the opening of the doors, in his accustomed corner of the pit. Like a veteran, he continued to the last, faithful to the post of his early glories." A short time before his death he suddenly fainted in the street, and when on recovering his senses he was asked where he wished to be taken to, he replied; " to the Opera Comique."

Salieri, a pupil of Gluck's, brought out in 1781, les Danaides in the name of his master with great success, and in 1787 composed the music of Tarare, an Opera by Beaumarchais, which had been read to private circles for three years before by its author. It was founded on an eastern tale, the music was considered to be of great merit, and it drew immense crowds, perhaps owing to the political notions mixed up with it, which suited the temper of the times. Another disciple of Gluck shortly followed, the more celebrated Mehul, a Belgian, who was found at 16 years of age hiding in the theatre to hear the performance of Iphigénie en Tauride, and was taken in hand by Gluck. He produced many pieces during the Revolution, and in 1806 excluded the violins from the orchestra during the performance of his Uthal, substituting violas for them. The effect was dull and monotonous, and Gretry who was present, whispered to a friend near him," I would give a louis to hear a cricket chirp just now " His master-piece, Joseph, appeared in 1816, and is considered to be a work of noble simplicity in its style, and pathetic beauties in its melodies.

We now come to the contemporary era in French music, over which it will be sufficient to cast a very hurried glance, as no doubt every person is more or less familiar with the most celebrated composers of it, and their productions. The most remarkable of these are Cherubini, Spontini, Herold, Auber, Meyerbeer and Halévy. The first was born at Florence in 1768, and produced his Opera Demopheon in 1788, which was followed by many others, les Abencevrages, his last, coming out in 1813. He was more celebrated for his church music. Bonaparte, when first consul, did not seem much to relish his operas, and once remarked to him, "my dear Cherubini, you are certainly an excellent musician, but really your music is so noisy and complicated that I can make nothing of it." To which the composer replied; " my dear general, you are an excellent soldier, but in regard to music, you must excuse me if I don't think it necessary to adapt my compositions to your comprehension." This reply annoyed Napoleon, for some years afterwards he wanted a maestro di canella and offered the office to Mehul, who suggested Cherubini; but Napoleon replied haughtily, "1 want a maestro di capella who will make music, and not noise, and he appointed Le Sueur. Cherubini was a director for some time of the Conservatoire, and died in 1841 at the age of 80 years. Spontini's principal work is Semiramis, brought out first

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in 1803. He,Berton, and Le Sueur may be placed in the same class; their works are now out of date. Boieldieu obtained a somewhat greater reputation; we know his compositions by la Dame Blanche, still occasionally produced on the French stage. It is founded on Scott's novel, the Monastery, the words by Scribe, and is considered to contain many fine passages. Herold brought out Marie in 1826, and Zampa in 1831, the latter resembling Don Giovanni in its plot. A few years ago it was Italianicised at her Majesty's Theatre in London, and much admired. Auber's Operas, Fra Diavolo, La Muette de Portici (Masaniello), Les Diamants de la Couronne, Le Domino Noir, and others, are well known to the public, as well as his brilliant style of music, on which it is unnecessary to dwell. Meyerbeer was born at Berlin in 1794, and was the son of a banker in that city. He was a pupil of the Abbé Vogler, a teacher of the old German school, but happily went to Italy, where he improved the severe style of his native country. His il Crociato, performed at Venice in 1825, gained him great reputation, and showed that he could combine the softness and flowing character of the Italian with the strict harmony of the German melody. He went shortly after to Paris, and applied himself to the French Opera, bringing out Robert le Diable at the Académie de Musique in 1831. It will be seen bereafter that it met with immense success. The words are by Scribe, who also wrote the libretto of his next piece, les Huguenots performed for the first time in 1836. This composition marks the present taste of the French theatres for horrible exhibitions and massacres, strong choruses and stunning music. Le Prophète, which came out in 1848, has equalled its predecessors in reputation, and has been translated and played in Italian and German. It is somewhat gloomy and monotonous in its expression, but the effect is generally grand and dramatic. Halévy has enjoyed a great name in France for many years, founded in the first place on la Juice and many comic Operas, Guido et Ginevra, le val d' Andorre, and others. His la Tempesta also produced considerable effect and won fame for its author. Some of those shall be noticed hereafter, as well as the effect produced by them on the Parisian public. The only remaining name is that of Adolphe Adam, whose Postillon de Longjumeau is well known, and has become popular in many other countries besides France. He died in the year 1847, shortly after producing his ballet of la Fille de Marbre, in which Fanny Cerito danced along with Carlotta Grisi and M.Saint Léon.

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