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what is good for the purpose is to be found in any quarter. But if the people, in this as in other instances, are hungry, and feed on the husks of swine, who are to blame?-It may be their providores. Now it is not possible that of the thousands who wonderingly contemplate the treasures of Art here enshrined some hundreds will not carry away more knowledge and more truth than they brought with them. Henceforth most assuredly they will be charier in their fancies, and desire with the pretty gilt frame, a picture embodying some beauty or sentiment, some idea in fine. Photography will greatly aid the encouragement of this improved taste. The outlines and much of the intrinsic worth of great pictures can be reproduced by this method to an almost infinite extent and the less wealthy becomes owners of works of real art, which now only the favoured of fortune can aspire to possess. The new art, according to all appearance is not likely to go much fartherand so best perhaps. There is a limit still to what science and mechanical ingenuity can effect. We are not yet made quite independent of the soul which is the life of all. The rays of sun light, the carefully prepared fluid, the accurately adjusted board or plate are all ready; but unless the genius of man have first spiritualised the forms, there comes out merely a scenic representation of so many lay figures, but no speaking picture. We can fancy a crew of splendid models doing a grand historical picture for the photographer to copy. We can also fancy how a Paul de la Roche, or a Kaulbach, would have transferred the image in his own brain of a similar scene. For the present the professors of the art must be satisfied to aim at nothing higher than copying the thoughts of real artists. Time and labour must be expended in still further perfecting the art: but even thus limited the mission is not insignificant.

Endless indeed are the prospects which appear to open from this same Manchester Exhibition-many the hopes which spring from its existence. No such service has ever been done for art in England. The only service at all approaching in importance Mrs. Jameson has rendered by her works. She has certainly prepared the way for much of the good which has come, and is yet to come. What are dry catalogues, however learned; academic discourses; and methodic classifications of styles, and times, and merits, compared with an earnest, fervent, heart-appealing chapter in one of her books? There is no more helpful literature in our modern times than the Art-Essays

of this gifted woman. With a style to make a dissertation ou the state of Timbuctoo a work of interest, and a tone of true womanly gentleness and intelligence sufficient to gain attention from the least informed, she has given an impulse to the study of art, and has pointed out the method of its proper appreciation with a success which cannot be overrated. Speaking from our own experience we can safely assert, that there is scarcely one among our reading acquaintance who does not gratefully refer the awakening of some intellectual power-the recollection of some pleasure which was far more than a mere passing enjoyment-to the writings of Mrs. Jameson, The influence of the individual, and the immense power of every original thinker, be the subject of his speech, art, or morals, or the topic of the day, are most strikingly shown in this case. Mrs. Jameson in her ardent desire and laborious endeavours for the advancement of true art, has actually kindled the flame in the minds and hearts of her readers: she has gained a large audience by the spell of her own peculiar earnestness; and now when she speaks of social interests, the duties of thinkers and workers, hundreds who might have been deaf to the appeal are eager listeners. But with her, in art as in morals, the aim has ever been one-the advocacy of beauty, justice, truth.


The success, in its best sense, of the Exhibition, even up to the present day, is such as to give hearty satisfaction to every Manchester man who has staked a portion of his fortune on the enterprise, and substantially to reward every generous lord and gentleman who has despoiled the walls of his mansion that the multitude might be for the moment as rich as himself in enjoyment. Earlier indeed it was surmised that the public for such an Exhibition was quite limited and as it happened that during the first months the galleries were visited only by persons well dressed, and consequently of presumed enlightenment, it was concluded that the undertaking must prove a failure. It did not appear to be imagined that the people could not starve for the sake of aesthetic rapture, especially as they knew nothing of the delights of it. No sooner, however, was the price of admission judiciously made commensurate with their circumstances, than crowds of the working population began to pour in; and now we have twenty thousand of a day spending their half-holiday in a scene where there is nothing to degrade or corrupt, or even passingly gratify the lower passions

of humanity. Truly we may repeat that those who have had a share in this achievement may be prouder than if they had given so many votes in the House for the Legislative enactment of a measure to suppress vice, or do away with misery; while they may be equally sure that thousands of pounds flung into the rotatory begging boxes of random charities might purchase less pleasure and less good.

Reading the lesson aright, let us in future weigh more nicely our individual responsibilities; more dutifully use the faculty we have to aid and further the true education of a less favoured class, and above all talk not so much of the savage, rude, terrible people. The people are savage because they are illused, inarticulate, quite artificially debased; they are rude because we of the better sort hold no refining communion with them; and terrible because it may be that our fate, and retributive justice are in their hands. Once more let us believe with an ardent, living faith, that no act of self-sacrifice can be without its immediate result of good, no appeal in vain which is made to the large heart of the people.


1. University of London. Report of the Senate on the Amended Draft Charter; Together with Communications from Affiliated Colleges, from Graduates, and from Other Individuals, Relating to the Same. August 1st, 1857. 2. The Educational Register: A Family Hand-Book, Containing an Account of the Universities, Colleges and Institutions, Foundation and Grammar Schools, Training Institutions for Teachers, The Government Schools of Design. Together with Information and Statistics Relating to the Progress of Education Generally. Oxford: Parkers. 1855.

There is printed in The Times of December 13th, 1836, a despatch dated Whitehall, December 1st, 1836, signed by Lord John Russell, and addressed to the Chancellor of the University of London, in which the following passage appears:"You may be assured that on my part also I shall esteem it an honor to co-operate in the advancement of an institution destined to confer the distinctions justly due to proficiency in literature, science, or art, without imposing a test of religious opinions, or binding by the fetters of the seventeenth century the talent and merit of the present enlightened age."

These were sentiments worthy of a scholar and of a statesman; and it has now, more than twenty years after they were written, come to pass that through not "binding by the fetters of the seventeenth century the talent and merit" of these past twenty years, the 2481 students have matriculated, and thus has the University of London proved, that it was founded, in the words of its charter, "for the advancement of religion and morality, the promotion of useful knowledge, by holding forth to all classes of Her Majesty's subjects, without any distinction whatever, an encouragement for pursuing a regular and liberal course of education.'

The success of the London University has always appeared to us a most fortunate but wonderful circumstance. It was founded at a period when there was hardly any public opinion upon educational subjects. It was reviled and misrepresented by the Tories, and only half supported by the Whigs; it was founded amidst opposition and in spite of every obstacle. The

Dissenter and the poor man, barred at the very portal of the old universities, had rushed the one into fanaticism and the other into sedition. When Henry Brougham, and the other Educational Reformers, were proclaiming that the school-master was abroad, "and that they objected not to the fullest possible illumination of the human mind," every member of the Tory press was ridiculing and maligning the men and their motives; but though founded at this period, and though exposed to all the dangers arising from the Affiliated Colleges, or the possible mischiefs of new and rival universities, the University of London did not fail, its graduates were neither demagogues, nor vulgar pedants, and it can point to names as world-known as any illustrating the rolls of Oxford, of Cambridge, or of our own Trinity College, during the last twenty years.

The subject of the new University was first brought fully before the country in the year 1835, during the administration of the Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel. At this period Mr. Tooke, then Treasurer of University College, and a member of the House of Commons, moved and carried a resolution for an address to the Crown, praying that the College might be erected into a University. It was suggested, and suggested wisely, that this erecting any existing College into a University would afford a precedent for a like erection of any other college, and thus we should have, as in Scotland, rival colleges, running races for support through lax examinations and low terms for residence, to be covered, perhaps, by inferior lecturers; and it was urged upon Sir Robert Peel that he should erect a new University in this, as in other matters, he acted, not upon his own judgment, but upon the promptings of others, and refused to adopt the suggestion.

Lord Melbourne came next into office, and the duty of dealing with the address devolved upon Mr Spring Rice, the present Lord Monteagle, who most unfortunately fell into the hands and views of those members of University and King's Colleges, who were all for what may be called a third class Oxford and Cambridge, and thus the narrow terms of the charter, confining the power of the University to the conferring of degrees on those only who should have spent the two years from Matriculation to the pass Examination at some affiliated school or college.

Having thus narrowed the sphere of usefulness of the University, an endeavour was made by some of the ecclesiastical

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