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creased 37.0 per cent., and other forgeries 14.8 per cent. In the miscellaneous offences, Class VI., there is a marked decrease of offences against the Game Laws, which, adding the large decrease on the previous year, is in the two years 54 per cent. In riots and breach of the peace the commitments are only half the nnmber in the previous year. For perjury there is a considerable increase; and also in the proceedings against disorderly houses.

The result of the proceedings in the commitments in 1855 was as follows:-Acquitted and discharged, 5,967; detained as insane, 34; sentenced to death, 50; transportation, 323; penal servitude, 2,041; imprisonment, 17,397; whipping, fine, &c., 160. Of the above 50 capitally convicted, 7 of the 11 found guilty of murder were executed, two of whom were foreigners. Under the head of secondary punishments the operation of the sentence of penal servitude instead of transportation is strikingly shown. In 1851 and 1852 the numbers sentenced to transportation were 5,371, and in 1854 and 1855, 633 persons were sentenced to transportation, and 4,149 to penal servitude.

The First Report of the Committee of the Calder Farm Reformatory School, in the County of York, is now before us. Most of our readers are aware that this is the Mirfield School, established on Mr. E. B. Wheatley's land, and of which, as we have long since shown, he was so earnest, and zealous, and yet wise a promoter, and of which he is now one of the acting managers. The following are the Principles and Rules :

I. The purpose of the Institution is,

1st-That such boys as the Managers shall approve, of those who, -having committed some offence against the law,-may be sent under the provisions of the 17 and 18 Vict., c. 86, "at the expiration of the sentence passed upon them as a punishment for their of fence," may be received therein, not for further punishment, but for reformatory education.

2ndly-That such other boys who have formed, or are in danger of forming, habits of crime, may be received therein, as may be agreed upon between the Managers and those who send them.

II. The object sought in the education of these boys is, To restrain them from what is evil, and to encourage in what is good, by admonitions, rewards, and punishments adapted to their respective cases and characters;

To train them by field labour, and such in-door work as may convenient, to hardy, industrious, and active habits ;



To teach them the necessary truths of morality and religion, endeavouring to form those truths into practical principles in their minds, so as to render them of habitual good influence upon their temper and actions, in all the various occurrences of life;"

And to give them such other elementary instruction as may guard them from the dangers of gross ignorance, and fit them to be useful members of society; avoiding anything likely to make them discontented with the humblest station of honest industry therein,

III. The Committee are responsible for the current expenditure of the Institution, and for the general management. They may add to their number, may make, from time to time, rules for management, and may delegate such of their functions therein as they think fit, to two of their number as Visitors or Acting Mana


Mr. Wheatley is an ardent follower of M. Demetz, and having examined closely the working of the establishment at Mettray, he and his friends resolved to open their school on the Family System. It is quite unnecessary to explain here what the Family System is, as this Record is meant solely for those who are acquainted with all the facts, figures, and phases of the Reformatory System at home and abroad. Suffice it to say that the Calder Farm School is a humble English Mettray. The Report informs us that

In November, 1854, at a special adjourned Sessions held at Wakefield, a Committeee was appointed to take measures for the establishment of a Reformatory School for the West Riding.

After several meetings and much enquiry and discussion, and after advertising repeatedly for a site, the Committee were unable to obtain one, no satisfactory answer having been received to the advertisement.

Several members of the Committee, unwilling that the matter should fall through altogether, then associated themselves, with a view to try what could yet be done.

Others joined them, forming together the Committee whose names are given above. They undertook to be responsible for the annual current expenditure of the proposed Institution; Mr. E. B. Wheatley, one of the number, offering to provide land at ordinary farming rent, and buildings at a rent, equal to four per cent. upon the outlay. The place fixed upon is within a mile and a-half from the Railway Station at Mirfield, and easily accessible from all parts of the county. The School is placed on high ground, but sheltered by trees. It was apprehended that some inconvenience might result from the neighbourhood of a populous manufacturing district. After a year's experience, however, no material inconvenience has been found, the situation being itself sufficiently secluded, and separated from the populous part by the broad river Calder. It is hoped, on the other hand, that the proximity of the manufacturing and mining districts, in which there is a great demand for labour, and especially for the labour of the young, will afford facilities for placing out the boys in situations, without which reformatory action is very incomplete.

The buildings consist partly of some which were already in existence, and have been adapted to the purpose, and partly of new.


The School was opened November 22nd, 1855, with six boys from the Hardwicke School, in Gloucestershire. These boys were of the criminal class, but not under legal detention.

On the 15th December following, having been previously viewed by one of her Majesty's Inspectors of Prisons, the School was certified by the Secretary of State as a place of legal detention for boys sent under 17 and 18 Vict., c. 86.

The present staff consists of the Headmaster, a Schoolmaster, and a Labourmaster whose wife acts as Matron.

Mr. Robins has been Headmaster from the first. Óf his zeal, ability, and fitness for the work, the Managers entertain the highest opinion. Nor can they omit to mention the gratuitous services of Mrs. Robins, who, though a sufferer from weak health, has brought to bear, with good effect, that softening and humanising influence which her sex can best exercise, on the rough untutored nature of many of the boys.

The present Schoolmaster and Labourmaster have only recently been appointed; but the Managers hope that both will prove efficient for a task which requires at once much of firmness and kindness, of patient endurance, and quick tact, of energy and self control.

35 boys have been received into the School. Of these-9 were not under legal detention. Besides the original 6 received before the School was certified, 3 other free boys have been received under special circumstances. Of these, 4 are in situations, and are doing well; 3 have been removed to other Schools; 1 left at his own request shortly after his admission; 1, brother to the last, remains in the School.

26 have been received under legal detention. Of these, 1 absconded a few days after his admission, and has not since been heard of, having probably gone to sea, where he had been before; 2 were removed by order of the Secretary of State, to the Roman Catholic School at Market Weighton; 23 remain in the School, making, with one free boy, the number 24, present December 31st, 1856.

Of the 35 received- 1 has been convicted 7 times; 2, 6 times; 1, 5 times; 3, 4 times; 5, 3 times; 3, twice; 16, once; 4 never were convicted, but had formed vicious and degraded habits which would inevitably have led them to crime; 15 are above, 20 below 14 years of


A little consideratien of these last figures will shew that the caution, before mentioned, against too rapid increase of numbers, is not without reason.

In some Reformatory Schools, it has been determined, and in some respects wisely, to admit no boy above 14 years old. Such a rule no doubt renders the task of Reformatory Education easier; and would have been adopted gladly by the Managers of this School. But they were unwilling to shut out any from that opportunity of reformation which the law allows up to the age of 16. They also bore in mind that consideration which has been so very well pointed out by Mr.

Baker, in Gloucestershire, viz., the importance, in checking youthful crime, of weeding out the ringleaders-the boys who are not only criminals themselves, but trainers of others to crime. Several boys of that class have been received. Indeed the Managers have not declined to receive any boy sent under legal detention, except when they have deemed it necessary, for the reasons before mentioned, to abstain, for a time, from any increase of numbers. They trust that they will be held justified in the exercise of that discretion, by the consideration that they have to deal with a large proportion of the oldest and worst class of young offenders.

The same consideration, with that of the comparatively short time which any of the boys have been in the School, will obviously justify them in withholding any sanguine expression of opinion as to their reformation. With such boys, reformation must be a work of much labour and time. But the Managers see much reason for hope, none for despair even in the worst cases.

They see much to hope in the fact that such boys, accustomed often to a life of lawless liberty, are found generally willing to remain and submit to a discipline, which, though based on kindness, is strict to severity in the correction of every fault committed in the School. The regular habits, and out-door work in which they are engaged, are, at first, irksome to boys, for the most part accustomed to a town life. The out-door work necessarily affords abundant opportunities for escape; the grounds being quite open, and only the precautions of an ordinary School taken against the boys going out at night, with vigilant care that they shall not be absent without its being known. Yet but three serious attempts to escape have

occurred. The first, mentioned above, was successful. In the second case, the other boys gave information, and the fugitive was caught immediately. In the third, two boys who had gone in a foolish expectation of finding some concealed money, returned of their own accord as soon as they found themselves disappointed.

Care is taken that no unnecessary temptation to theft be placed in the boys' way; but, as they are employed in the kitchen and about the house, and frequently sent on errands, opportunities for it must constantly be open to them. Yet but one serious act of that kind has been known since the School began.

These facts, with the marked improvement apparent in those who have been longest in the School, the exchange of the sullen, suspicious look into a frank and cheerful demeanour, and the general readiness for active and not merely passive obedience, give the Managers and Officers much encouragement in an anxious and laborious task.

The prevailing faults arise from tempers which have been left utterly uncontrolled through neglect, stimulated by mischievous excitements, or embittered by brutal violence. These, rather than want of instruction, seem to have been the chief causes of crime among the boys received here. In degree of instruction and intelligence, they are probably equal to, if not above, the average of their age and station in life. Many of them have an energy and strength of character which-though misdirected hitherto-may yet, it is hoped, by the blessing of God on the means used, make them useful members of society, instead of being, as they would inevitably have become,

if left to run the course they had entered upon, a terror to it and a


Industrial Schools, to which Mr. Thomson, of Banchory, and Mr. Alfred Hill, have drawn so considerable and well-deserved a portion of public attention, have at length been brought before the House of Commons in an English version of Dunlop's Scotch Act.

The bill of Sir Stafford Northcote, Mr. Adderley, and Mr. Headlam, to make better provision for the care and education of vagrant, destitute, and disorderly children, and for the extension of Industrial Schools, in which Ireland is somewhat interested, comprises thirty clauses. The fifth clause defines the objects of the bill to be-"Any child who may be found begging, or who may be found wandering in the streets, or sleeping therein at night, and not having any home or settled place of abode, or proper guardianship, or any lawful or visible means of subsistence." Such children may be taken into custody by the police, and taken before a Magistrate, who shall cause enquiries to be made, and notice to be given to the parents or guardians, if any can be found. While such enquiry is pending, the child is to be lodged in the Workhouse, and if the parents or guardians of the child come forward and offer to give security to the amount required by the Magistrate, which shall not exceed £5, for the child's good behaviour during the ensuing twelve months, it shall be restored to them. But if security be not forthcoming the child may be sent to a certified Industrial School, and if the parents object to the School proposed by the Magistrate, and propose some other, the managers of which may be willing to receive the child, the order shall be for the school selected by the parents, on condition of their paying any difference there may be in the cost of sending the child. Children charged with offences against the Police Acts may be sent to Industrial Schools, and such as are known to be associates of thieves, or other bad characters, or to be of notoriously vicious or depraved habits, are be sent to Reformatory Schools. The term "child" is defined to mean any boy or girl between the ages of five and fourteen years. Children may be discharged from school on employment being found for them, or security given, or on their attaining the age of fifteen. The cost of maintaining children in Industrial Schools is to be defrayed by the unions in which they were respectively taken into custody, but the parents, if they can be found, may be ordered to reimburse the union. Child

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