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MARRIAGE AND DEBTS.

Haydon began the "Raising of Lazarus" in December, 1820; with one break in May, 1821, when he was unsettled by the difficulty of reconciling the mildness of character of our Lord with depth of thought, the form that gives the one destroying the other, he worked at this picture steadily and hard, and by the 7th December, 1822, had completed it.1 In October, 1821, he had married a very lovely young widow, to whom he had long been passionately attached. This, perhaps, may have helped him to the rapid completion of his picture, but I fear that pecuniary pressure upon him was the real explanation of the rapidity of his work. For, if his home was now extremely happy, and his health excellent, his external relations with the world, particularly with the usurious part of it, were the reverse of pleasant. In those two years Haydon was made to feel many of the worst and most harassing humiliations of debt.

1 He had also one fit of real idleness in May, 1821, at the sale of Sir Joshua Reynolds's pictures at Christie's. It was at this sale Haydon advised Sir George Phillips to buy the "Piping Shepherd" for 400 guineas, an enormous price in those days. Haydon says in his Journal that the moment it was found out he had advised it, there was a general run down of the picture, to poor Sir George's great dismay, who thought that he had made a foolish purchase. His entry in his Journal for the day after is worth quoting. "20th May, 1821.-Went again to Reynolds's sale. I found the 400 guineas of yesterday had made a great noise in town, and Phillips was assailed by everybody as he came in. In the midst of the sale, up squeezed Chantrey. I was exceedingly amused; I turned round and found on the ether side, Northcote. I began to think something was in the wind. Phillips asked him how he liked the Shepherd.' At first Northcote said he didn't recollect it. Then he said, Ah! indeed.' 'Ah! yes; it is a very poor thing. I remember it.' Poor Phillips whispered to me, 'You see people have different tastes.' It served him heartily right, and I was very glad of it. He does not deserve his prize. The moment these people heard I was the adviser they began to undervalue it. I knew that Northcote's coming up was ominous. The attempts of this little fellow to mortify others are amusing; he exists on it. The sparkling delight with which he watches a face, when he knows something is coming that will change its expression, is beyond everything. As soon as he had said what he thought would make Phillips unhappy for two hours, he slunk away."

Haydon rates this picture very highly. "It is the completest bit of a certain expression in the world. Eyes and hands, motions and look, all seem quivering with the remembrance of some melodious tone of his flageolet. The color and preservation are perfect. It is a work I could dwell on for ages."--ED.

His creditors refused to believe that he had not realized a much larger sum by the exhibition of the "Jerusalem" than was the fact; and that he had not married a fortune, which was not the fact; and, thus, his very successes became a source of serious embarrassment to him. In this dilemma Haydon conducted his affairs with his usual activity and foresight. But the cry of an enraged creditor, inflamed with suspicion and cupidity, was not pleasant to meet in those days without means. Law costs, judgments, writs, and arrests quickly followed, and a poor man was given no sufficient time from the claim to the attachment of his person to clear himself, except upon the most exorbitant terms. And how to conceal the matter from his wife! This was the first question with Haydon. It was under these circumstances he committed that offence against morality which has been magnified so much to his discredit. In a moment of terrible pressure which threatened exposure and ruin, he asked two of his elder and former pupils, both young men whom he had started in life, to put their names to bills of some 250l. and 350/. respectively, for an extension of time. Considering that he had almost fed and clothed these men during their pupilage, had, I find, paid the rent for one, instructed them both for nothing, and set them both on their professional road, I must confess I am not so much struck at the enormity of the offence. I had very much rather Haydon had not done what he did, but, having done it, I do not think he could have done it under circumstances so favorable to palliation. It was a reprehensible act, and Haydon regretted it all his life, because, by the time he was imprisoned, he had an unpaid balance still on each bill, which these lads had to pay, and they could ill afford it. But most men, at some time or other of their lives, imagine themselves to form an exception to the ordinary rules of prudence and morality. It is this that leads men to do wrong with such excellent intentions. Such, however, was the struggle in which he now found himself engaged. The ruin he had long foreseen was closing in more rapidly upon him than he expected, and unless some extraordinary piece of good fortune favored him he would be crushed.

But, crushed or not, he must finish the Lazarus." He worked with superhuman energy; he exerted himself beyond the limits of ordinary human endurance-rising early to work at his picture till office hours came, then rushing hither and thither to pacify this creditor, quiet the fears of that, remove the jealousy and ill-will of a third, borrowing money of a fourth and fifth to keep his engagements with the attorney of a sixth; then hastening home to paint in a "wild tremor;" to be arrested while painting; to hasten off into the city for release; to fly back again to his picture, and so on from day to day. For here there were

"The thousand ills that rise when money fails,

Debts, threats, and duns, bills, bailiffs, writs, and jails."

BEWICK'S ACCOUNT OF HIS PAINTING.

As I read Haydon's private Journal at this period of his career, I am astonished he did not go raving mad. How a man, with his acute sensibilities, could have borne such violent shocks of mental emotion, and yet concentrate his mind upon the picture before him, is one of the most astonishing facts in mental phenomena. Read the account Bewick, his old pupil, gives of the painting of the head of Lazarus, "that most appalling conception ever realized on canvas," as Sir Walter described it; and think, if any painter of your acquaintance, living or dead, could have done what Haydon did that morning.

"I remember well," writes Bewick (8th November, 1853), "that I was seated upon a box placed upon a chair, upon a table, mounted up as high as the head in the picture, and a very tottering insecure seat it was, and painful, to be pinned to a confined spot for so many hours, for the head, two hands, and drapery were all painted at once, in one day, and never touched afterwards, but left as struck off, and any one looking close to the painting will perceive that the head has never been even 'softened,' so successful and impressive it appeared to both painter and model, and so much was it the emanation of

a wonderful conception executed with a rapidity and precision of touch truly astonishing. And when it is considered that the mind of the painter was harassed and deeply anxious by the circumstances of his arrest at the beginning of his work, when concentrating his thoughts on the character and expression to be represented, any one at all acquainted with the difficulties of the art of painting, will readily concede this portion of so difficult a subject to be a feat of marvellous dexterity and power in the art.

"I think I see the painter before me, his palette and brushes in his left hand, returning from the sheriff's officer in the adjoining room, pale, calm, and serious-no agitation— mounting his high steps and continuing his arduous task, and as he looks round to his pallid model, half-breathingly whispering, Egad! Bewick, I have just been arrested; that is the third time; if they come again, I shall not be able to go on.'"

6

Can anything more mournful be written of a painter? Surely a more terrible daily life his worst enemy could not have wished him. Yet Haydon never quailed, never denied himself, but faced every man, and found even sheriff's officers impressionable and even generous. The first sheriff's officer who arrested him was so overcome at being left alone with this awful head of Lazarus staring out from the grave-clothes, that on Haydon coming in he refused to take him prisoner, accepted Haydon's word to meet him at the attorney's, and rushed from the painting-room.1

At length the picture approached completion. The head of our Saviour he left to the last, and spoiled it. Yet it is a grand

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1 This has been likened by a Quarterly Reviewer" to the case of Parmegiano, when the soldiers of the Constable sacked Rome. Breaking into Parmegiano's room, the men were so struck by the beauty of his pictures they protected him. But I think the bailiff has the advantage here. The soldiers irresponsible and flushed with success, came to rob and revel, and could well afford to be generous. The bailiff came deliberately to make legal prisoner of the painter, and was bound not to lose sight of him; yet, he is so struck by the appalling look of Lazarus, he refuses to take the painter from his work, and risks the responsibility of leaving him in his house. This seems to me the finer instance of the two.-ED.

He

But, crushed or not, he must finish the "Lazarus." worked with superhuman energy; he exerted himself beyond the limits of ordinary human endurance-rising early to work at his picture till office hours came, then rushing hither and thither to pacify this creditor, quiet the fears of that, remove the jealousy and ill-will of a third, borrowing money of a fourth and fifth to keep his engagements with the attorney of a sixth ; then hastening home to paint in a "wild tremor ; to be arrested while painting; to hasten off into the city for release; to fly back again to his picture, and so on from day to day. For here there were

"The thousand ills that rise when money fails,

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Debts, threats, and duns, bills, bailiffs, writs, and jails."

BEWICK'S ACCOUNT OF HIS PAINTING.

As I read Haydon's private Journal at this period of his career, I am astonished he did not go raving mad. How a man, with his acute sensibilities, could have borne such violent shocks of mental emotion, and yet concentrate his mind upon the picture before him, is on mental phenomena. Read t gives of the painting of th appalling conception ever re... described it; and think, if ar living or dead, could have morning.

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