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time president of the New York Teachers' Association, J. W. Bulkley, and James Cruikshank, were representatives of the New York Teachers' Association.

Two of these formilers, viz, D. B. Hagar, who prepared the original call and drew up the constitutio', William E. Shelilon, who, with the speaker, are the only members present today, were representatives of the American Institute of Instruction, and of the Massunsetts State Traibors' Association. Three of them were representatives of education work in Pennsylvania, viz., J. P. Wickersham, William Roberts, in Erlward Lrooks. One, C. S. Pemell, was from Missouri; one, J. D. Gecklings, was from South Carolina; anıl one, tho writer, Z. Richards, froin the District of Coluunbia, who was also a representative of tho American Institute of Ju-truction and of the American Association for the Advancement of Education. five of this number, viz, T. W. Valentine, J. W. Bulkley, William Roberts, J. D. Gerlilings, anel J.P. Wickersham have closed their educational work on earth to enter upon a higher and nobler employment.

“As abuio intimatel, T. W: Viilentino, then president of tho New York Teachers' Association, the oldest Stilte tearliers' association in our country, was the first to suggest the formation of the National Teachers' Association. After consulting with D. B. lagar, of Massachusetts, and with others, he requested Mr. Hagar to preparo a call for it convention of the presidents of the various state teachers' ilssociations, with a few other prominent eilncitors at that time.

Mir. llag:ir prepared to call, and Mr. Valentine sent copies to the officers and workers in the teachers' associations of the whole country, asking for their cooperation; but only ten presidenis respondel, or consenteil to attach their names to the call. Some viewol'the call with suspicion, some as visionary, and some with indifference. The call was as follows: To the Teache: 8 of the United States:

The eminent access which has attendeil the establislıment and operations of the sereral teachers' associations in the States of this country is the source of mutual congratulations among all frien - of popular vacation. To the dir et ag by and the diffusel intuence of these 28ciali ina, more, per. has, than to any other callise, are cline the manifest improvement of schools in all their relations, the rapie telectual and social elevation of terhers as a class, and the vast development of public int-text in all that concerns the education of the young.

That the State al-sociations have already accomplished great good, and that they are destined to exert a still broader and more beneticisit iniluence, no wice observer will deny.

Believing that what has been accomplished for the States by Stato associations may be done for the wlou country by a national association, we, th. untersiuncil, invite our fwilow-teachers throughout the Uniti Status to assemble in Philaslelphia on the 20th day of August next for the purpose of organizing a National Teachers' Association.

IVe cordially esteve this invitation to all practical teachers in the North, the South, the East, and the West, whare willing to wite in a general ettort to promote the oneral v Itare of our country by concentrating the wisdom and power of uimerous minils am by distributing among all the accu. muluteal experiences of all; who are ready to devote their energies and their means to advance the dignity, respectability, and risetulness of their calling; ond who, in fine, believe that the timu hias come when the trachers of the varion shonlei gather into one great curation: brotherhood.

As the permanent success of any a-sociation depends very much pon the auspices attending its
estabili-iment, anul the character of the organic laws it adopit, it is hipeil that all parts of the Union
will be largely represcuted at the inauguration of iho proposed euterprise.
Signed by

T. W. VALENTINE, President of the New York Teachers' Association.
D. B. HAGAR, l'resident of te Massachusrtts Teachers' A88ociation.
W.T. LUCKY, President of the Missouri Teachers' Association.
J. TENSY, l'resi ent of the lew Hamp hire Teachers' Association.
J.G. MAY. Prisident of the Indiana Teachere A8nciatim.
W'. Roberts, President of the Pennsylrania Teachers' Association.
C. L'EASE, President of the l'erinont Trachers >8ociation.
D. FRANKLIN WELLS, Praid nt of the boun Teachers' Association.
A. C. SPICER, President of the ti con in Teachers' Ass ciation.
S. WRIGHr, Presideni of ihe Illinois Teachers' Association.

In accordance with the above call many teachers of the United States assembled at the Atheneum Building, in Philadephia, at 10 o'clock a. m., August 26, 18.57.

The meeting wis called to order by T. W. Valentine, of New York, who read the call and made the following statement, in substance:

We assemble hi re to-day under circumstances of more than ordinary interest. It is true that our meeting is not large in mumbers, avoir coming together has not be publicly announcel in taming advertisments. We have not expectel that the quiet gathering of a boily of teachers in this great city woull creato sci a scusation as a political or commercial convention representing merely mate. rial interests mightilo, yet iniis results upon the great cause of educa ion directly, and upon the well-being of the counéry ultimately, this ineeting may prove as inuportant as many of those of a more porcentions character.

We can not always seo the end from the beginning. That noble land of patriots who, more than eighty years ago, sent forth to the work, frou this city, the immortal Declaration of independence, could scarcely lare realized the mighty intluence which their artion was calculaierl to exert upon our country and the world. Allexperience, as well as tho word of inspiratiou, admonishes us not to "dispone the day of small things.'

Twelve years ago, in the coupire State, the first Stato association of teachers in this country was fornued. Some of us now liere, who were instrumental in its formation, can well remeinber the fear anii tremblin' with wliich that enterprise was commenced. Previous to this organization teachers everywhere were almost entirely unacquainted with each other. But what a mighty change a few

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Fears have wrought! Besiles many minor organizations, there are now not less than twenty-threo Stato teachers' associations, each doing good work in its own phere of labor, anıl twday I trust wo shall proceed to raise the capstone which shall bind all together in one solid substantial structure.

In our proposed organization we shall haro no antagonists with any of the State associations, for they have their perniar local work, or with the venerable American Institute of Instruction, for its file has always been New England, nor with the American Association for the Allvancement of Education, which was not designed to be specitically an association of teachers.

What we want is an association that shall embrace all the teachers of our whole country, which Bliall bobil itu meeting at such central points as shail accommodate all sections and combine all interest. And we need th:18 not merely to promote the interosts of our own profession, but to gather up and arrange the educational statistics of our country, so that tho bong done for public education, and what yot remains to devido borbido may know what is really

I trust the our Government will invo its eilucational department just as it now has ono for Agriculture, for the Interior, for the Navy, et.

We needl nucli an organization as shall bring tho teachers of this country more together, and disseminato as well as collect etlucational intelligence.

Such an effort is imperatively demanded of us, and I trust we shall now go forward and deviso measures to accomplislitheso great objects.

After the close of Mr. Valentine's address, Mr. James L. Enos, of Iowa, was mado chairmau pro tempore, and Mr. William E. Sheldon, of Massachusetts, secretary pro tempore.

After prayer by Rev. Dr. Challen, of Indiana, Mr. Ilagar, of Massachusetts, offered the following resolutions:

Resolved. That in the opinion of the teachers now present as representatives of various parts of the United States it is experient to organize a national teachers' association,

Reso'ved. That a committee of three be appointed by the chair to prepare a constitution adapted to Buch an association.

After a full and free (liscussion of the resolutions they were adopted unanimously, and the chair appointed Messrs. Hagar, of Massachusetts; Cann, of Georgia, and Challen, of Indiana, to prepare and report a constitution.

The convention then engaged in a general discussion upon the condition of edn. cational systems and methods in different parts of our country. In the afternoon the committee on a constitution reported.

On motion of T. W. Valentine, il committee of one from each State and district represented in the convention was appointed by the chair to nominate a list of otti · cers at the evening session.

The following persons were appointed, viz:

William Roberts, of Pennsylvania; J. F. Cann, of Georgia; James Cruikshank, of New York; D. B. Hagar, of Massachusetts; James L. Enos, of Iowa; N. R. Lynch, of Delaware; J. R. Challen, of Indiana; Thomas Granger, of Illinois; E. W. Whelan, of Missouri; J. W. Barnett, of Illinois; 2. Richards, of the District of Columbia, and J. D. Geddings, of South Carolina.

At the opening of the evening session, Chairman Enos presiding, Mr. T. W. Valentino was called upon to read the specially prepared and valuable adılress.of Prof. William Russell, of Massachusetts, who: o ill-health prevented his attendance.

This address set forth the importance of this contention to organize an association of professional teachers that shall bo pational in its character:

First. As regards wider and juster views of education, and corresponding methods of instruction.

Second. As giving an opportunity for tho establishing of a national society of teachers, from which we may expect great national benetits. (See Professor Russell's adıress, in full, in Barnaril's Journal of Education, Vol. IV, new series, 1861.)

After the reailing of the address, the committee on nomination of the first officers made thu following report:

NOMINATIONS.
For president, Z. Richards, of Washington, D. C.
For vice-presidents, T. W. Valentme, New York; D. B. Hagar, Massachusetts;
William Roberts, Pennsylvania; J. F. Cann, Georgia; J. L. Enos, Iowa; T. C. Tay-
lor, Delaware; J. R. Challen, Iliciana; E. W. Whelan, Missouri; P. F. Smith, South
Carolina; D. Wilkins, Illinois; T. Granger, Indiana, and L. Andrews, Ohio.

For secretary, J. W. Bilkley, New York.
For treasurer, T. M. Canu, Delaware.

For counselors, William E. Shelion, Massachusetts; James Cruikshank, New York; P. A. Cregar, Pennsylvania; N. R. Lynch, Delaware; William Morrison, Maryland; 0. C. Wight, District of Columbia; William S. Bogart. Georgia; William T. Luckey, Missouri; A. J. Stevens, Iowa; William H. Wills, Ilinois.

This inaugural meeting was harmonions, enthusiastic, and characteristic of the founders, the future workers, and the future ineetings of the association.

At a meeting of the directors after adjournment, they resolved to hold the first annual meeting in Cincinnati, Ohio, on the second Weinesilay in August, 1858, at 10 o'clock a. m. After making full arraurements for the next meeting, and expressling their harmonious purposes, the directors adjourued.

TILE FIRST AYXCAL MEETING.

of the thirty-eight signers of the constitution at the time of its adoption only five were present at the first annual meeting. Appropriate arrangements, however, had been made by Mr. A. J. Rickoff, superintendent of the Cincinnati public schools, as chairman of the local committee, for tho reception of a large delegation.

When the time camo for calling tlie meeting to order it was found that only five of the constituent members were present, viz., the president, the first vice-president, tho secretary, and two counselors.

These few members, however, were heartily welcomed by a very largo andience, who were then, and have always been, in blissful ignorance of the small representation of actual members.

After the usual welcome by the dignitaries of Cincinnati, the president called his four coadjutors into servico by keeping the secretary by his side on tho platform, and by assigning special duties to the three other members, who were located in different parts of the large audience.

Upon the motion of one of these members the secretary was called upon to read the constitution of the association for the information of those present who might be disposed to become members.

After the reading of the constitution and some explanatory remarks by the president, another of these members inored that an opportunity be given for any person to become a member. The opportunity was grantel, of course. The secretary and, in the absence of the treasurer, one of the three others acting as treasurer, were kept busy for some time in receiving fees and in recording Dames of applicants, until the number of new members had reached about seventy-five.

This movement, fortunately, furnished a good working, boily, and prepared the way for other additions. Tho president, thus being relieved from apprehended embarrassment in consequence of tho small number of members, at first proceeded to deliver his inangaral address, in which he pointed out the causes and the demands for forming a national teachers' association, and urged the following important ends to be aimed at in its future work:

First. The union of all teachers, North, Sonth, East, and West, in friendly associated action, for strengthening the cause of education.

Second. To create and permanently establish a teachers' profession by methods usually adopted by other professions.

Third. To secure the examination of all teachers, by making the examining boards to consist of competent, practical teachers.

Fourth. To increase the number of normal schools, and establish departments of pedagogies in connection with all schools which send out persons to teach.

During the sessions of this first anniversary there was a full attendance, a deep interest and close attention to all the exercises of the programme.

Among the large number of representative teachers and educators present, besides the officers, were the following persons: Hon. Horace Mann, Supt. J. D. Philbriek, John Hancock, A. J. Rickoft, I. W. Andrews, William Russell, W. E. Crosby, John Ogden, C. E. Hovey, Rov. J. N. MacJilton, Prof. Daniel Road, Anson Smyth, 0. C. Wight, aud others.

LECTURES AND PAPERS.

First. The inaugural address of the president.

Second. “The educational tendencies and progress of the past thirty years," by Prof. Daniel Read.

Third. “The laws of nature,” by Prof. John Young.
Fourth. “ On.moral education," by Supt. John D. Philbrick.
Fifth. “ The teacher's motives," by Hon. Horace Mann, of Massachusetts.

9

ELECTION OF OFFICERS.

For presiilent, Andrew J. Rickoff, Cincinnati, Ohio.

For vice-presidents, T. W. Valentine, New York; D. B. Hagar, Massachusetts; B. M. Kerr, Pennsylvania; J. F. Cann, Georgia; J. S. Adams, Vermont; B. T. Hoyt, Iowa; C. E. Hovey. Illinois; I. W. Andrews, Ohio; A. Drury, Kentucky; Daniel Read, Wisconsin; J. N. MaeJilton, Marylaud; Thomas Bragg, Alabama.

For secretary, J. W. Bulkley, New York.
For treasurer, C. S. Pennell, Missouri.

For counselors, James Cruikshank, New York; William E. Sheldon, Massachnseits; S. R. Gummero, New Jersey; J. D. Yeates, Maryland, s. I. C. Swezy, Alabama; J. B. Dodd, Kentucky; N. D. Tirrel, Missouri; c. 6. Nestlerode, Iowa; 1. C. Draper, Wisconsin; Isaac Stone, Illinois; E. P. Cole, Indiana; R. W. McMillan, Ohio; 0.c. Wight, District of Columbia; HI, C. Hickok, Pennsylvania; C. Pease, Vermont.

One of the most prominent questions discussed at this first annual meeting was that of “ Parochial schools." The leading thought of the discussion was that “moral training, without sectarianism, is necessary.”

The inspiring influence of woman in our educational meetings was welcomed and emphasized by the association.

After tho adjournment of the association, the board of directors mot and agreed to hold the next annual meeting in the city of Washington, D. C., and appointed Mr. Z. Richards, of Washington, as chairman of the local committee, to make all local arrangements.

As proof of the genuine national spirit of the originators of this association, vo niay refer to one of the first resolutions, passed at the time of its organization, as follows:

Resolved, That there shall be six lecturers appointed for the nest meeting-two from the Southern, two îrom the Western, one from the Middle, and one from the Eastern States.

As this resolution was offered by a true-blue New Englander, it shows the characteristic modesty of the Eastern States in not assuming honors which belong equally to the other States. This liberal spirit has at all times characterized the operations of this association. It started out with high patriotic purposes, and to its honor it may be recorded that there has never been a single manifestation in any of its official operations of a spirit of sectionalism or of partisanship. Its ofticers and its managers have generally been selecteil, first, from its most faithful and best qualified workers, which should always be the case; and, second, as representatives of all sections of our country.

Its friends havo worked assiduously for the general cause of public and universal education, and not for pccuniary advantago, nor for offico, nor for personal honor.

NAVI AND PLAN OF ORGANIZATION CHANGED.

At the Cleveland meetivg, in 1870, tho constitution was so amended as to admit cooperation and combination with two other educational associations: First, the American Normal Association, which was organized in 1861; second, the National Superintendents' Association, organized in 1865. At the same time the constitution was so amended that other departments could be organized, and immediately two other departments were organized, viz, the department of higher instruction and the department of primary or elementary instruction. A full set of subordinato officers, viz, a president and secretary for each dopartment, was chosen, who were to provide their own programme of exercises for their annual meetings.

Until 1870 all the educational topics were discussed before the whole association as a body. While this method of performing educational work has many superior advantages, it would be hazardous either to abandon the plan of departments or to proportionately extend the length or number of sessions so that the whole membership could have an opportunity to listen to all papers and discussions.

In 1875 the industrial department was organized and admitted under the constitutional provision.

In 1880 the National Council of Education was organized as a department, but under a constitution of its own which required its sixty or more members to be chosen from the general association and from the several departments.

Very few persons are aware of the important work performed by the National Council of Education, unless they attend its sessions or read its papers and discussions from year to year.

But its meetings and deliberations were to be held so as not to interfere with the general association and the department meetings.

During the first twenty years of its operations its officers were ofton obliged to put their hands down deep into their own pockets to meet the annual current expenses. This had to be done in addition to the regular membership fee and the often very heavy traveling expenses.

But in 1881 a new era dawned upon the association. It is true that the enlargement of the association's field of labor in 1870, at the Cleveland meeting, by engraiting upon itself the more specific work of tho departments of superintendents of normal schools, of higher instruction, and of elementary training, besides providing constitutionally for creating other departments, has done much to broaden the sphere of its work and inspire confidence in its plan of operations.

But no organization in this age of the world can work or exist long without money. Many of the real friends of this association found that the constant draining of their pockets to keep the ponderous wheels in motion was also draining their patience and weakening their faith in its perpetuity.

* See the constitution of the National Council of Education for 1891, pp. 1508-1510

Some of the hopeful members had heard of an Eastern man who had come to the rescue of the American Institute of Instruction when it was almost ready to perish. This man was made president of the institute, and he made a grand rally, which gathered to retler surli a multitude of educators at the White Mountains of Now Hampshire that the increased income has been sufficient to keep that institute in a prosperons conditiori ever since.

This gratifyin ? succe-s inspired some of the almost despiring members of the National Exlucational Association to call to its leadership the Hon. Thomas W. Bicknell, of Massachusetts. The grand success of the Madison meeting, in Wisconbin, in 1881, inangnrated a new tinancial era by largely increasing the number of members. Since then, by making the annual meetings attractive, and by lessening the expense of attending them, the membership has so increasel that the finds of our treasury, now safily invested in interest-bearing bonds, are sufficient, with prudent managemeut, to forever insure the association against financial embarrassment.

This financial security serves to increase the usefulness of the association, and to gnirantee its permanency: At the close of the Madison meeting llon. E. E. White offered the following resolution, which shows how highly the association appreciated the services of President Bicknell. The resolution was passed unanimously:

Resolved, That the unparalleled success of this meeting is chiefly due to the energy, derotion, and organizmy ability of Ilon. T. W. Bicknell, the president of this association, whose wise and comprehensive plans, onthusiastic and sell sacrificing efforts, and directing hand have juspired and guided the great undertaking from its inception to its present triumphant close, and no formal words can properly express our thankful appreciation.

Historically, let it be ad ledl, that not one dollar of these funds has ever been added to the emolunent of an officer, nor furnished hiin any • boodle” for speculation.

In 1881 three new departments were organized and entered upon their peculiar work. These were the Froebel or kindergarten, the art, and the music departments. In 1885 the department of secondary education was added to the list, making the whole number ten,

INCORPORATION OF THE ASSOCIATION.

At a meeting of the board of directors of the National Educational Association, helal at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., July 14, 1885, the following resolution was passed :

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointer to securo articles of incorporation for the National Educational Association, under United States or Stato laws, as speedily as way bo.

N. A. Calkins, of New York, Thomas W. Bicknell, of Massachusetts, and Eli T. Tappan, of Chio, weru appointer sneh committee.

Under the authority of the resolution quoted above, and with the approval of the committee, and by competent legal advice, the chairman obtained the following:

CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION.

We, the undersignea, Norman A. Calkins, John Eaton, and Zalmon Richards, citizens of the United States, and two of them citizens of the District of Columbir, do hereby associate ourselves together, pursuant to the provisions of the act of general incorporation, class third, of ibu reviseal statutes of ibe District of Columbia, under the name of the National Educational Association, for the full period of twenty years, the purpose and objects of which are to olevate the character and advance the interests of the profession of teahing and to promote the cause of popular educat:ww in the United States.

To secure the full benotit of said act, wo do here executo this our certificate of ide:orporatior: as eaiil act provides.

In witness whereof wo soverally set our hands and seals this 24th day of February, 1830, at Wagh. ington, D. C.

NORMAN A. CALKINS. (L. 8.)
Joux EATON.

L. S.

ZALMON RICHARDS. L. 8.) Duly acknowledged before Michael P. Callan, notary public in and for the District of Columbia, and recorded in Liber No. 4, acts of incorporation for the District of Columbia.

The action of the committee on incorporation was submitted to the board of directors at Topekit, Kans., July 13, 1886, and the act of incorporation was duly approved by the board of directors.

À committee was appointed to prepare the changes in the constitution necessary to meet the requirements of the charter. At the meeting of the National Educational Association hell at Topeka, July 15, 1886, the chairman-E. E. White, of Ohio--presented the report of the committee on amendments to the constitution, and the report was animously adopted.'.

These departments are all legitimate chuldren, thongli tiro of them have been adoptel ani aro older than their parent. But thoy are a harmonions, hard working, and a thriving family. If anyone neeils to be convinced of the truth of this statenient, let him undertake to read and thoroughly digest even one of the late volumes

I The constitution of the National Educational Association may be found on pp. 1500-1508.

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