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encouraged. Perhaps there are only four persons in the entire nation interested in some special topic. The National Association, with its facilities for cheap transportation and cheap board, furnishes the best opportunity each year for the meeting of these four persons, or any other similarly interested four persons. Perhaps the attraction of the particular interest wonld not bo sufficient to draw together tho four specialists. But the National Association adds a host of other attractions, and in the aggregate these are strong enough to prevail.

We wish to produce as many growing teachers as possible-as many as possible who each year have found fresh leads and have distanced their former selves.

It seems to me, therefore, quite doubtful whether the division of the National Association into sectional associations, with which it alternates biennially, would not be rather a step backward. It would perhaps break the continuity which is essential as a kind of background on which the specialization which we have discussed can best take place. It will certainly make the familiar faces that meet us from year to year, coming from a great distance-as in the present meeting, from Colorado and Texas-it will make these faces less familiar to us, and different sections of the Union will be in less direct sympathy than formerly.

If I lavo studied aright this problem, it is not tho general association that is in neeil of reform, but only tho departments. Theso departments, instead of breaking away from the type of the general association, as they shonld do, are imitating its organization when they ought to devote themselves to developing and fostering voluntary subcommittees or round tables devoted to special work.

Tho general association, with its wide scope, its great masses, its distinguished personalities, its cheap fares, its entertaining tours, and its spectaclo of great combination, and, lastly, with tho great interest and substantial tributes of respect which it elicits from the business men of all parts of the country, and from the world in general outside the scholastic field-the general association, with these reasons for being, shoull continuo as it is.

CONSTITUTION OF THE NATIONAL EDICATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 1886-1891.

PREAMBLE.

To elevate the character and advance the interests of the profession of teaching, and to promote the canse of popular education in the United States, we, whose names are subjoineil, agree to adopt the following

CONSTITUTION.

ARTICLE I.--Vame.

This association shall be styleil the National Educational Association.

ARTICLE II.-Departments. SECTION 1. It shall consist of nine departments: The first, of school superintendence; the second, of normal schools; the third, of cleinentary schools; the fourth, of bigher instruction; tho tifth, of industrial education; tho sixth, of art education; the seventh, of kindergarten instruction; tho eightli, of music erlucation; the ninth, of secondary evincation; and a national council of education. SEC. 2. Other departments may bo organizod in the manner prescribed in this constitution.

ARTICLE III.- Jembership. SECTION. 1. Any person in any way connected with the work of education, or any educational association, shall be eligible to membership. Such person or association may become a member of this association by paying two dollars and signing this constitution, and may continue a member by the payment of an annual feo of two dollars. On neglect to pay such fee, the membership will cease.

SEC. 2. Each department may prescribe its own conditions of membership, provided that no person be admitted to such membership who is not a member of the general association.

SH', 3. Any person eligible to membership may become a life inember by paying at once twenty dollars.

ARTICLE IV.-Oficers. SECTION 1. The officers of this association shall be a president, twelve rice-presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, one director for each State, district, or Territory represented in the association, and the presiding officers of the several departments and a board of Trustees to ho constituted as hereinafter provided. Any friend of edncation may become a life director by the donation of one hundred dollars to the association at one time, either by himself or on his behalf; and any educational association may secure a perpetual directorship by a like donation of one hundredi dollars, the director to be appointed annually or for life. Whenever a life member desires to become a life director, he shall be credited with the amount he has paid for his life membership.

Sec. 2. The president, vice-presidents, secretary, treasurer, directors, life directors, president of the council, and presiding officers of their respective departments shall constitute the board of directors, and, as such, shall have power to appoint such committees from their own number as they shall deem expedient.

SEC. 3. The elective oflicers of the association shall be chosen by ballot, unless otherwise ordered, on the second day of each annual session, a majority of tho votes east being necessary for a choice. They shall continue in office until the close of the annual session subsequent to their eloction, and until their successors are chosen, except as liereinafter provided.

S&C. 4. Each department shall be administered by a president, vice-president, secretary, and such other officers as it shall deemn necessary to conduct its affairs; but no person shall be elected to any office of any department, or of the association, who is not, at the time of the election, a member of ilio association

SEC. 5. The president shall preside at all meetings of the association and of the board of directors, and shall perform the duties usually devolving upon a presiding officer. In his absenco, the first vicepresident in order who is present shall preside; and in the absence of all vice-presidents, a pro tempore chairman shall be appointed on nomination, the secretary putting the question.

Sec. 6. The secretary shall keep a full and accurate roport of the proceedings of the general meetings of the association and all meetings of the board of directors, and shall conduct sueli correspondence as the directors may assign, and shall have his records present at all meetings of the association and of the board of directors. The secretary of each department shall, in addition to performing tho duties usually pertaining to his office, keep a list of tho members of his department.

SEC. 7. Tho treasurer shall receive and under the direction of the board of trustees holil in safekeeping all moneys paid to the association; shall expend the same only upon the order of said board; shall keep an exact account of his receipts and expenditures, witli vouchers for the latter, which accounts, ending the first day of July cach year, lo shall render to the board of trustees, and, when approved by said board, he shall report the same to the board of directors. Tho treasurer shall give such bond for the faithful discharge of his duties as may be required by the board of trustees; ani ho shall continue in office until the tirst meeting of the board of directors held prior to the annual meeting of the association next succeeding that for which he is elected.

SEC. 8. The beard of directors shall have power to fill all vacancies in their own body; shall have in charge the general interests of the association excepting those herein intrusted to the board of trustees; sball make all necessary arrangements for its meetings, and shalldo all in its power to mako it a useful and honorable institution. Upon the written application of twenty members of the association for permission to establish a new department, they may grant such permission. Such now department shall in all respects be entitled to the same rights and privileges as the others. The formation of such department shall in effect be a sufficient amendment to this constitution for the insertion of its name in Article II, and the secretary shall make the necessary alterations.

Sec. 9. The board of trustees shall consist of four members, elected by the board of directors for a term of four years, and the president of the association, who shall be a member ex officio during his term of office. At the election of the trustees in 1886, one trustce shall be elected for one year, ono for two years, one for three years, and one for four years, and annually thereafter, at the first meeting of the board of directors held prior to the annual meeting of the association, one trustee shall be elected for the term of four years. All vacancies occurring in said board of trustees, whether by resignation or otherwise, shall be filled by the board of directors for the unexpired term; and the absence of a trustee from two consecutive annual meetings of the board shall forfeit his membership therein. The board of trustees thus elected and constituted shall bo the executive financial officers of this association, as a body corporate, as conferred by the certificate of incorporation under the provisions of the act of general incorporation, class third, of the Revised Statutes of the District of Columbia, dated the twenty-fourth day of February, 1886, at Washington, D. C., and recorded in Liber No. 4, "Acts of incorporation for the District of Columbia."

Sec. 10. It shall bo the duty of the board of trustees to provide for safe keeping and investment of all funds which the association may receive from life-directorships, or from donations; and the income of such invested funds shall be used exclusively in paying the cost of publishing the annual volume of proceedings of the association, excepting when donors shall specify otherwiso. It shall also be the duty of the board to issue orders on the treasurer for the payment of all bills approved by the board of directors, or by the president and secretary of the association acting under the authority of the board of directors; and, when practicable, the trustees shall invest all surplus funds exceeding ono hundreil dollars, that may remain in tho hands of the treasurer after paying the expenses of the association for the previous year.

ARTICLE V:-Jeetings. SECTION 1. The annual meeting of the association sball be held at such time and place as shall be determined by the board of directors.

SEC. 2. Special meetings may be called by the president at the roqnest of five directors.

SEC. 3. Any department of the association may hold a special meeting at such time and place as by its own regulations it shall appoint.

SEC. 4. The board of directors shall hold their regular meetings at the place, and not less than two hours before the assembling of the association.

Sec. 5. Special meetings may be held at such other times and places as the board or the president shall deteruine.

SEC. 6. Each new board shall organize at the session of its election. At its first meeting a commit. tee on publication shall be appointed, which shall consist of the president and the secretary of the association for the previous yoar, and one member from each department.

ARTICLE VI.-By-lar"8.

By-laws, not inconsistent with this constitution, may bu adopted by a two-thirds vote of the asso. ciation.

ARTICLE VII.-Innendmenis.

This constitution may be altered or amended at a regular meeting by tho unanimous vote of the inembers present, or by a two-thirds vote of the members present, provided that the alteration or amendment has been substantially proposed in writing at a previous meeting.

BY-LAWS.

1. At cach regular meeting of the association there shall be appointed a committee on nominations, one on honorary members, and one on resolutions.

2. The president and secretary shall certify to the board of trustees all bills approved by the board of directorg.

3. Each paying member of the association shall be entitled to a copy of its proceedings. 4. No paper, lecture, or address shall be read before the association or any of its departments in the absence of its author, nor sball any such paper, lecture, or address be published in tho volume of proceedings without the consent of the association, upon approval of tho executive committee.

5. It shall be the duty of the president, secretary, and treasurer of the association, to appoint annually somo competent person to examine the securities of the permanent fund held by the board of trustees, and his certificate showing the condition of the said lund shall be attached to the report of the board of trustees.

The following amendment to Article III of the constitution has been considered by a committee, and recommended for adoption by the association:

Amend Article III by adding as follows: Section 4. Any association may securo a perpetual membership by the payment of thirty dollars, and shall be entitled to one representativo each year for every thirty dollars so paid.

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION,

CONSTITUTION.

PREAMBLE.

Tho National Council of Education shall have for its object tho consideration and discussion of eda. cational questions of general interest and public importance, and the presentation through printed reports of the substance of the discussions and the conclusions formulated. It shall be its object to reach and disseminate correct thinking on educational questions, and for this purpose it shall be the aim of the council in conducting its discussions to define and state with accuracy the different views and theories on the subject under consideration, and, secondly, to discover and represent fairly the grounds and reasons for each theory or view, so far as to show as completely as possible the genesis of opinion on the subject. It shall be thoduty of the council in pursuance of this object to encouragu froni all its members the most careful statement of differences in opinion, together with the com. plotest statement of grounds for the same. It shall further require from the chairmen of its committees the careful preservation and presentation of tho individual differences of opinion whenever grounds have been furnished for the same by members of their committees. It shall'invite the freest discussion of the reports of its committees, and whenever said reports are not so amended as to embody the new suggestions developed by such discussion, any member making such suggestion or objection may put in writing his view and the grounds theretör, and furnish the same to the secre. tary for the records of the council. It shall preparo through its president, with the aid of the chair. men of the several committees, an annual report to the National Association, setting forth the questions considered by the council during the previous year and placing before the association in succinct form the work accomplished. It shall en body in this report a survey of those educational topics which scein to call for any action on the part of the association. The council shall appoint out of its own number committees representing the several departments of education, and thereby facilitate the exchange of opinion among its members on such special topics as demand the attention of the profession or of the public.

ARTICLE I.- Membership.

1. The National Council of Education shall consist of sixty members, selected out of the member. ship of the National Educational Association. Any member of the association identified with odu. cational work is eligible to membership in the council, and after tho tirst election such membership shall continue for six years, except as hereinafter provided.

2. In the year 1885 the board of directors shall elect eight members--four members for six years, two for four years, and two for two years; and the council shall clect eight members-five members for six years, two for four years, and one for two years; and annually thereafter the board of directors sliall elect tive members and the council fivo members, each member, with the exception herein. after provided for (section 5), to serve six years, or until liis successor is elected.

3. The annual election of inembers of the council shall be held in connection with the annual meetings of the association. If the boarıl of directors shall fail, for any reason, to till its quota of members annually, the vacancy or vacancies shall be filled by the council.

4. The term of gervice of the several members of the council, chosen at the first election, shall be arranged by the executive committee of the council.

5. The absence of a member from two consecutive annual meetings on the council shall be considered equivalent to resignation of membership, and the council shall till vacancies caused by absence from the council as herein detined, as well as vacancies caused by death or resignation, for ihe unexpired term. All persons who havo belonged to the council chall, on the expiration of their membership, become honorary members, with the privilege of attending its regular sessions, and partici. pating in its discussions. No Stato shall bo represented in the council by more than eight members.

ARTICLE II.-- Fees.

Thero shall be no fee for membership in the council of education, but each member of it shall secure a membership in the National Educational Association by becoming a life member of the same, or by paying to the treasurer of the association the annual membership fee of two dollars.

ARTICLE III.- Jeetings.

There shall be a regular annual meeting of tho council held at the same place as the meeting of the National Association, and at least two days previous to this meeting. There may bo special meetings of the council, subject to the call of iho excentive committee, but the attendance at these mectings shall be entirely roluntary. The regular meeting of the committees shall take place on the days provided for the annual meeting of the council. Meetings of committees may be called at any time by the chairmen of the respective committees, but attendanco at such special meetings shall be entirely voluntary. A majority of the council shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting, wheiherregular or called; but any less number, exceeding eight members, may consti. tute a quorum for the transaction of business at the regular annual meeting, as defined in this article.

ARTICLE IV.-Committees, The general management of the affairs of the council shall be vested in an executive committeo composed of the president, vice-president, and secretary of the council, and four other members, all of whom are to be elected by the council at its annual meeting. There shall be twelve standing committees, each consisting of five members. They shall be appointed by the executive committee, and be named as follows:

1. Committee on State school systems.
2. Committee on city school systeins.
3. Committee on higher education.
4. Committee on secondary education.
5. Committee on elementary education.
6. Committee on normal education.
7. Committee on technological education.
8. Committee on pedagogics.
9. Committee on moral education.
10. Committee on school sanitation, hygiene, and physical training.
11. Committee on psychological inquiry.
12. Committee on educational reports and statistics.

ARTICLE V.-Duties of standing committees.

The committees of the council shall consider the topics assigned to them, and report on the samo; they may select for their deliberations such other questions belonging to their departments as they deem proper to discuss.

Whenever called upon, the committees shall continue the deliberative work of the association on topics assigned to them, or preparo questions to be submitted to that body.

It shall be the duty of the standing committees to observe the new educational experiments and original investigations within the scope of their assigned topics, and roport the same from time to time to the president of the council.

ARTICLE VI.-Duties of members of the committees.

The members of the council shall render active service and assistance in the work of the committee to which they have been assigned, and further the general work of the council as much as is in their power. They shall give their attention to the questions submitted to them, and communicate their conclusions in writing to the chairman of the committee.

Meeting of committees for special work.-A half day at each annnal session shall be set apart for "Round-table" discussions, and each standing committee may conduct its own meeting separately, inviting, at its pleasure, esperts, original investigators, or other persons to present their experience or theoretical views before it, for discussion.

ARTICLE VII.-- Duties of the chairmen of committees.

The chairman of each committee shall communicate the qnestions which are to be discussed to each of the members of his committee, and send them such other communications as may assist them in their work. He sball arrange a suitable plan for an exchange of opinion, and embody the conclusions arrived at in a brief report. He shall, from time to time, inform the secretary of the council of the progress made by his committee. He shall, with the consent of the other members of his committee, arrange special meetings at a convenient time and place. He shall see that the communications, sent in turn to each member of his committee, are promptly forwarded. He shall state distinctly in the form of questions, when feasible) the topics on which he desires to have a brief expression of opinion from the members of his committee, and embody the substance of their answers in his report.

ARTICLE VIII.-The work of the committees.

The work of the committees of the conncil shall be carried on in the regular meetings provided for abore, and in such special meetings as can be arranged from time to time, according to the pleasnro of the committee, and principally in writing, by an exchange of brietly expressed opinions. It shall be the duty of each chairman to devise a plan for the latter. Each member may be required to report on a part of the subject; or the whole topic may be submitted to each member, together with the opinion of the other members that have considered the topic before.

ARTICLE IX.-Duting of the council.

It shall be the duty of the council to further the objects of the National Association, and to use its best efforta to promote the cause of education in general. The council shall assigd work to each committee, and receive a report on the same; it shall canso to be published such reports of committees, or part of the same, as in its judgment should be brought to general notice; it shall present, through the president of the council, an annual report of its work to the National Educational Association.

Arrangement of annual programme.-The president, in making up the annual programme of exercises, may select any of the twelve standing committees which will, in his opinion, prepare work for the council of the most timely and vital character, and ho shall not be limited in his choice by considerations of routine.

The conmittee thus reporting may introduce before the council such specialists, experts, original investigators or inventors of new methods as they may deem essential to present effectively their subject matter before the council for discussion.

ARTICLE X.-Amendments. This constitution may be altered or amended, at a regular meeting of the council, by a two-thirds vote of the members present, and any provision may be waived at any regular meeting, by unanimous consent.

By-laws, not in violation of this constitution, may be adopted by a two-thirds vote of the council.

BY LAWS.

1. Each active member of the council shall pay annually two dwblars, to defray the expenses of the council.

2. The secretary shall act as treasurer of the council.

The Yational Teachers' and the National Educational 1ssociation.

ORGANIZATION, MEETINGS, AND OFFICERS. [The National Teachers' Association was organized at Philadelphia, Pa., 1837. James L. Enos, of

Iowa, was chosen chairman, and William E. Sheldon, of Massachusetts, secretary.]

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1 Cincinnati, Ohio... 1853 Z. Richards, D. C.. J. W. Bulkley, N. Y... A. J. Rickoff, Ohio. 2 Washington, D.C. 1859 A. J. Rickoff, Ohio.

.do

C. S. Pennell, Mo. 3

Buffalo, NY 1860 J. W. Bulkley, N.Y.. Z. Richards, D. C..... 0. C. Wight, D. C. No sessions in 1861

and 1862. 4 Chicago, Ill.

1863 J. D, Philbrick, Mass. J. Cruikshank, N. Y Do. 5 Ogdensburg, N. Y. 1864 W. H. Wells, Ill. D. N. Camp, Conn.... Z. Richards, D. C. 6 Harrisbur, Pa... 1865 S. S. Greene, R.I. V. E. Sheldon, Mass. Do. 7 Indianapolis, Ind. 1866 J.P. Wickersham, Pa. S. H. White, nl.. S. P. Bates, Pa.

Nosession in 1867. 8 Naslıville, Tenn.. 1868 J. M. Gregory, Mich.. L. Van Bokelen, Md.. J. Cruiksbank, N. Y. Trenton, N.J

1869 L. Van Bokelen, Ma..W.E. Crosby, Ohio.. A. L. Barber, D.C. 10 Cleveland, Ohio.. 1870

D. B. Hagar, Mass... A. P. Marble, Mass.. W. E. Crosby, Ohio. 11 St. Louis, MO

1871 J. L. Pickard, Ill... W.E. Crosby, Ohio.. John Hancock, Ohio. 12 Boston, Masa 1872 E. E. White, Ohio.. S. H. White, Ill..

Do. 13 Elmira, N. Y 1873 B. G, Northrop, Conn. do

Do. Detroit, Mich 187+ S. H. White, ili A. P. Marble, Mass.. Do. 15

Minneapolis, Minn 1875 W. T. Harris, Mo. W. R. Abbot, Va. A. P. Marble, Mass. 10 Baltimore, Md..... 1876 W. F. Phelps, Minn.. W. D. Henkle, Ohio. Do. 17 Louisville, Ky..... 1877 M. A. Newell, Md... .do

J.O. Wilson, D.C. Nosession in 1878. 18 Philadelphia, Pa. 1879 John Hancock, Ohio.. .do

Do. 19 Chautauqua, N. Y. 1880 J. 0. Wilson, D. C..

E. T. Tappan, Ohio. 20 Atlanta, Gat.. 1881 Jas. II. Smart, Ind.

.do

Do. 21 Saratoga Springs.. 1882 Gustavus Orr, Ga. W. E. Sheldon, Mass. H. S. Tarbell, Ind. 2:2 Saratoga Spa..

1883
Eli T. Tappan, Ohio.. .do

N. A. Calkins, N. Y 23 Madison, Wis. 1884 T. W. Bicknell. Mass. H.S. Tarbell, R.I.

Do. Saratoga Spa.... 1885 F. L. Soldan, Mo. W. E. Sheldon, Mass. Do. 25 Topeka, Kans. 1886 N A. Calking, N, Y. do

E.C. Hewett, Ill. 26 Chicayo, Ill.. 1887 W.E. Sheldon, Mass..! Jas. H.Candeld, Kans Do. San Francisco, Cal. 1888 Aaron Gove, Colo...

do

Do. 28 Nashville, Tenn... 1889 A. P. Marble, Mass. .do

Do. 29 St. Paul, Minn. 1890 Jas. H. Canfield, Kans W.R. Garrett, Tenn Do. 30 Toronto, Canada.. 1891 W. k. Garrett, Tenn. E. H. Cook, N.J. J. M. Greenwood, Mo. 31 Saratoga Springs.. 1892 E. H. Cook, N.J

R. W. Stevenson, Kans 32 Chicago

1893 33 Asbury Park. 1891 A.G. Lane, ill. Irwin Shepard, Minn.

Do.

....do

Do.

a International Congress of Education at Chicago in 1893, W. T. Harris, L'nited States Commig. sioner of Education, chairman of committee of National Educational Association, in general charge; Dr. James B. Angell, presiding chairman.

Membership

The following table gives by States the number of members registered at each annual meeting from 1884 to 1894, inclusive:

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