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course also begins with the ninth grade, but the eloventh grade, or year, is called the middle year of the normal course, and the twelfth grade is called the senior year. Instead of grades preparatory, normal and subnormal courses are sometimes established. Still another form of the normal course is shown by the curriculum of this Southern university, where the “normal department contains the high school, the freshman year of the college course, and an addition of a course of pedigogics, with an emphasis on practico teaching." Very frequently the normal course is or may be used as a preparatory department, while at the branch normal college of the Arkansas Industrial University the normal course is stated to be fully equivalent to the first two years of a regular college course; and further, that it is the course which most of the students content themselves with taking.
It may be a matter of surprise that institutions necessarily conducted so economically as those for the education of the colored race should not be more economical in the variety of the courses they offer; in short, that they have not consolidated their teaching. It is quite evident that the normal course at its best is merely a secondary or preparatory course of study which aims at general intellectual culture rather than professional expertness, for it has very frequently elementary Latin and Greek, which are distinctively preparatory studies. For the purposes of comparison the second and third years of a normal course may be so arranged as to bring out the points of similarity it has with the preparatory course of the same institution. Normal Course (Middle and Senior Years). Normal Course, etc.—Continued. Complete Arithmetic, White.
Methods of Teaching. Algebra, Wentworth.
School Laws of State.
Complete Arithmetic, White.
Algebra, Wentworth. Civil Government and Economics.
General History, Barnes. Bookkeeping
Latin Grammar, Allen and Greenough.
Inductive Latin Method, Harper and Drawing. Music.
[In other institutions having a preparGeometry.
atory and a normal course the former School Management.
requires more than one year to complete.] History of Education.
The studies of the normal course are determined by the character of the examinations for State certificates to teach. But as Latin and probably other studies of the normal course given above are not pursued far enough to give the pupil any serviceable teaching knowledge of them, it would seem that they have been introduced for the special purpose of culture, and certainly there is no better way to teach “technical” grammar than through the grammar of a synthetic language, such as that of ancient Rome.
Motives of culture, however, are not the ruling ones that induce so many to attend the normal schools or departments of the class of institutions under review. Completion of a course of study in such a school entitles the holder to a certificate and the course itself is especially arranged to meet the requirements of the State examiners. Though these institutions inculcate the elements of an education, they may therefore be looked upon as professional schools. Indeed, to illustrate this conclusion, it will suffice to quote from tho catalogne of the school whose programme has just been given, where it is said that the normal course has special reference to
preparing the student to become a successful teacher, and that it is on that account that most of the students naturally turn to it. A university candidly states that a majority of its students attend its courses with the expectation of becoming teachers for a longer or shorter period.
It is clear that the opportunity opened by State aid and northern philanthropists to mature colored persons to gain entry into a field of usefulness of quasi-gentility at a small cost in money and a considerable expenditure of time is one that is particularly charming and has great effect in filling the normal schools and departments.
“Parents, patrons, and studeuts,” says the Hartshorn Memorial College, “must remember that the completion of the normal course is but the beginning of education. Well-educated women, prepared for the best service of life, are tho product of more extended and broader training. It is the desire of this college to develop the higher courses as speedily as possible. But instruction in advanced courses can be given so far only and so fast as students are prepared to receive it.
“For the successful prosecution of advanced studies, four conditions are-each and all-absolutely essential:
“(1) There must bo natural ability and the love of learning on tho part of the student. Not a few do well and achieve a good standing in the common-school studies, who, for lack of ability or aspiration, utterly fail in the higher.
“(2) There inust be careful instruction in the elements and a mastery of them sufficient to lay a good foundation for after progress. Many pupils pass over the lower courses with so much carelessness that they fail, and for lack of preparation must needs fail as soon as they touch the higher.
“(3) Time is requisite. For the primary and grammar school studies, the normal, the college preparatory, and the collegiate many years are required. To complete long courses of study pupils must begin early and remain in school continuously. Those who begin at 16 or 18 years of age have not time to complete advanced
“(1) Means also for the payment of moderate expenses are required. If the parents or patrons of a student count their duty done when she becomes able to teach a country school of low grade, advancement beyond the elements becomes for her impossible.
“The pressing needs of the people wait for women of broader education and completer discipline. To moet this need Ilartshorn Memorial College was founded. The time when ability, aspiration for learning, early training, and the requisito means shall meet together and render higher education possible ought not to linger. The colored peoplo themselves should see that the time does not delay.”
The foregoing remarks show the lack of higher education among the African race in America. This is particularly unfortunate for this portion of the community sinco it, more than any other, requires a body of cultured persons within itself to oppose those adventurous persons who, by reason of their pleasing theories or ingenious arguments, aro not apt to be the best of advisers, and in a stable government are always bridled by tho calm wisdom of a small but all-powerful class of thoughtful people. As before remarked, the colored race is located in the distinctively agricultural States of the Union. It therefore las neither press nor libraries, and the rank and file of the race must depend upon their leaders for their opinions. Thus is explained the pertinacious efforts of thoughtful people to provide a higher education for the negro—their efforts to remove the obstacles which his intellectual and pecuniary disabilities put in their way, and their appeals for aid. The education of the colored race, as far as it is acquired within the walls of an educational
Lest this be misconstrued into a jibe at the colored student it is well to remark that at the German universities it is stated that fully one-fourth of all the students are in needy circumstances and take advantage of the fact to demand aid and enjoy free dimers. (See p. 3c6 of this Report for 1891–92. Comparo alio what is said ly l'rofessor Paulsen on p. 258 of the same volume.) Monsieur Dreyfus. Brisac, in his Université do Bom et l'Enseignement Supérieur en Allemagne, says that the remis. sion of fees is frequently unwarranted, and, at the University of Bonn, is modified by a system of deferred payments (stündung) --over 13 per cent of which are lost.
edifice, is practically elementary; but that fact is by no means conclusive evidence that its higher education is an hallucination.
The systems of public schools supported by States insisting on tho soparation of the races, their work, necessities, and the results accomplished by them, are matters of which the public is well informed. Since the report of 1885-86 a portion of this annual volume has been devoted to compiling what was known of the subject, while the debates in Congress and the discussions in the public prints hare illuminated every side of it. The usual figures of attendance, etc., follow.
It will bo remarked by the patient reader who examines the table that the white pupils show an increase of about 83,000; the colored, a decrease of about 12,000. The number of colored teachers has increaseil 800, while the number of white teachers has increased but 700. Wero it possible to ascertain what scholastic and personal qualifications these 800 new colored teachers bring to their duties the advantages of this large increment to the teaching force of colored persons might be discussed.
In the academies, schools, colleges, etc., for colored youth there are, as far as known, 10,191 male and 11,920 female students. In the elementary grades 57 por cent of the attendance are girls; in the secondary grades, 53 per cent; while in the collegiate department only 25 per cent are women. In all schools reporting for 1892-93 there are 25,859 students. In the elementary departments of 75 institutions are 13,176 pupils; in the secondary are 7,365; in the collegiate, 963, and in the professional are 924.
There are several questions connected with the institutional life of the colored pupil that deal more particularly with ethics than pedagogics. Under the caption of “ Separate elucation ” tho anthorities of Hartslorn Memorial College observe:
The establishment of this institution for tho education of young women affirms nothing, and expresses no opinion touching the abstract question of coeducation or he separate education of the sexes. Either system, doubtless, has its own special advantages and disadvantages. But this enter. prise embodies the conviction that for the students whom this institution will gather, under pres. ent conditions and with their present social environment, the balance of advantage is on the side of separation.
It is something, and no small matter, that the necessity of unceasing surveillance, by day and by night, irritating to pupil and burdensomo to teacher, is removed.
It is something that courses of study and of instruction may be more closely adjusted to the special and practical needs of young women.
To those who have seen the conscience broken down, the moral tono deteriorated, habits of duplicity engendered, and the best intellects become rapid through tho unhealthy lifo engendered in a mixed institution, it will seem an important matter that ono chief stimulus of this unbealthy life be removed.
To fathers and mothers, who remember the sad experiences of some mixed schools, present safety for their inexperienced daughters, sent beyond parental watchcare, will, perhaps, outweigh all other considerations.
The Utopian notion that young people can be brought promiscuously together and counted brothers and sisters, human naturo langhs to scorn.
In the presence of such institutions as Mount Holyoke Seminary, Vassar and Wellesloy colleges, and others of like worth, few would venture to aflirm that the highest womanly worth and strength is dependent upon walking and talking and reciting for a few years with young men.
The strong women of this generation, whose hand is upon the school work, and the mission work, and the reformatory work, and the social lifo of the time, received their training largely in separate schools.
With the heading “Coeducation," the anthorities of Bennett College speak with equal positiveness to the contrary, as follows:
After years' observation and experience we are very decidedly in favor of the education of our young people of both sexes in tho samo school, provided their association is under proper discipline and suitable care, which we claim is had here.
This is unquestionably, in our judgment, the normal, healthy, home-like method. The improvement under these circumstances in manners, self-reliance, and social culture, the development of manhood and womanhood, are often very marked. We know that some parents are reluctant to send their daugh. ters to schools for both sexes; but this apprehension, we believe, arises chietly from an insufficient famil. iarity with the facts. Ono authority says: "Corrupt influences are more liable to abound in schools exclusively for either sex, but particularly in separato schools for girls.” “To insure modesty,' says Richter, “I would advise the education of the sexes together; but I will guarantee nothing in a school where girls are alone together, and still less where boys are." THE EDUCATION OF THE COLORED RACE IS BECOMING MORE AND MORE INDUSTRIAL.
In the early efforts for the education of the negro in America the object in view was his enlightenment. That point onco gained it was thought that his welfare would be secure. But owing to his necessitous condition and tho comparatively small amount of funds at the disposal of the privato or corporate schools, an effort was made in a few cases to do what years before had been tried in different parts of the Union and found to be a failure in the case of institutions for the Caucasian raco. This scheme was to have the white student work out his expenso whilo pursuing the studies of the schoolroom, in order that “many of our most worthy young men, who were deprived of the alvantages of an eclucation through poverty,” might overcome that obstacle to their ambitions. In the case of the negro the effort has persisted longer and has been either more successful than the experiment of 1830-40 in the North and West, or adventitious circumstances have aided it almost to the extent of floating it to an unwonted degree of prosperity.
From various reasons a wavo of industrial training overran the country in the later seventies and early eighties that, as a form of eclucation, was adopted by many city school systems, but reached its most distinguished development in the manual training schools of St. Louis and Chicago. The scheme of mechanical instruction of these schools was not native to America. It had been elaborated in a Russian technological university, in which there was a feature of practical work in the engineering course, thus bringing it into very sharp contrast with the German type of technological university (Technische Hochschulo or polytechnicum). But to give these advanced engineering students of scientific technology a practical insight into the processes by which the mechanics whom they were in the future to direct must work out in wood or metal their ideas as engineers, a course of instruction was established which in America was, in the early days of its adoption, called the Rusbian system of manual training. The anarchy of shop work for profit on the principles of the mechanico-theological or classical schools for poor students of tho thirties was now superseded by a well-digested and systematic plan of mechanical instruction withont profit. Now, the work of the negro has been much more closely connected with the old mechanico-theological idea than with the Russian system, though the introduction of drawing and machinery gave it dignity as a plan of instruction. This, however, it acquired by the action of the Slater fund trustees.
The systematic instruction of the colored race in the village industries is inseparably connected with the administration of the John F. Slater fund. It was not particularly Mr. Slater who caused the fund to be used to foster trade teaching, but his trustees; for the “general object" of his deed of gift, “to be exclusively parsued," was the uplifting of the lately emancipated population of the Southern States and their posterity by conferring upon them the blessings of a Christian educationeducation in which the instruction of the mind in the common branches of secular learning shall be associated with training in just notions of duty toward God and man in the light of the Holy Scripture. Though the methods of accomplishing this was left to the discretion of the trustees, Mr. Slater strongly indicated that in his opinion the training of teachers was the method to be adopted. In a private conversation with Dr. Haygood, however, he put industrial training as the sixth (and last) object to be taken into consideration in the use of the interest of the fund known by his name. It should be remarked, however, that the trustees may have been influenced in the concentration of the fund upon industrial training by the fact that the Peaboily fund had for some years been steadily concentrating its resources on the training of teachers, and the States were making provision to supply their colored schools with properly qualified persons. Be this as it may, the trustees of the fund early determined to confine its aid to such schools as were best fitted to prepare young colored men and women to become useful to their race, and that insti. tutions which gave instruction in trades and other manual occupations that would enable colored youths to make a living and to become useful citizens be carefully sought out and preferred. This policy was continued ten years.
At the date of 1883 the highest example of industrial or trade teaching of the negro was Hampton Normal and Industrial School. Only a few of the higher grade schools for colored youth had attempted to teach trades. Many of the most experiencell persons in the field were not convinced that it was wise to attempt it; others advocated it. The rudimentary character of this instruction may be inferred from the first reports to the agent of the fund, Dr. Haygood. Clark University reports, “Without the aid of the Slater fund ($2,000) we could have done little in the industrial department, as it required $1,100 to equip it, and our printing department would have failed entirely.” Tuskegee Normal School reports, “T'or tho impetus given to the industrial department the school is chiefly indebted to the John F. Slater fund.” Clailin University remarks, “As soon as we received notice of the appropriation of $2,000 from the Slater fund arrangements were made to erect a suitable carpenter shop." And so on, to a large extent, with a score of institutions aided by the fund. Yet these institutions had been carefully sought out as tlie best for being aided in this matter of trade instruction. It is beyond a doubt that the efficient cause of the impetus for industrial education of the negro was given by the management of the Slater fund and the enthusiasm of their late agent, now Bishop Haygood.
On the retirement of Dr. Haygood the plan of the distribution of the Slater fund was somewhat changed. The trustees created a board of education, of which Dr. Curry, the agent of the Peabody fund, was made chairman. The new plan of operation advocated neither the teaching of trades nor the support of institutions not on a “permanent basis.” Instead of the teaching of this or that trade the teaching of the “underlying principles of all trades" and the employment of persons expert in imparting such instruction was to be kept in view; and the schools are already beginning to follow the hint thus given. The act of Congress of August 30, 1890, for the benefit of schools established for the advancement of education in agricul. ture and the mechanic arts, very likely has had, or will have, the effect to foster this idea of preventing the petrifaction of the negro into a villago mechanic or farın laborer while directing his thoughts and impulses toward mdustrial rather than political spheres of activity. As the State and the Peabody fund may be looked to to promote the training of teachers, the Slater fund and the $10,000 or $12,000