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Scholarships and exhibitions for proficiency in classics, mathematics, and natural science are given away by examination in December to candidates who intend commencing residenco in October. These may not exceed £80 in value, and candidates must be under 19 years of age.
Christ's College. There are 15 fellowships and 30 or more scholarships open to all the Queen's subjects without restriction. The fellowships are divided into senior and junior fellowships. The number of senior fellows must not exceed two-thirds nor be less than one-third of tho whole number. All fellows must be graduate members of the collego or the University of Cambridge, or of Oxford. A junior fellow may be of any standing at the time of election, and can hold his fellowship for six years or until ho has been elected to a senior fellowship. In order to be elected to a senior fellowship it is necessary either (a) to lioll one of certain specified offices in the college or uni. versity; or (b) to be engaged in other specified work under university sanction, either at Cambridge or elsewhere; or (c) to bo a person of known ability and learning engaged in research in any art or science. A senior fellow who for twenty years has held one or other of the qualifying offices or employments may retain his fellowship for life without further obligation to service.
The scholarships are maintained either from the scholars' fund or from separate trust funds. The scholars' fund receives annually one-lifth of the divisible income of the college. Out of it are supported not less than 12 Laily Margaret's scholars, whoso stipendis vary from £30 to £100 a year;3 King Edward VI scholars, receiving £50 a year each; and i Finch scholar and 1 Baines scholar, receiving £30 a year eacli. The trust funds provido generally for 3 scholarships of £50 and 9 of £30 per annum. There are also 2 Carr exhibitions, value £50 a year each, with preference to Giggles. wiek school; 2 Wilson exhibitions, valuo £30, with preference to Kirkby Lonsdalo school; 1 Petyt exhibition, value £30, with preference to Skiptou school; and 1 Otway exhibition, value £30, with preference (1) to Kirkly Lousdalo school, (2) to Sedbergh school. Besides the above there are 8 exhibitions, aggregating between £50 and £70 a year, perfectly open and aro annually distributed amongst the most deserving students of the college. Students are elected to scholarships and exhibitions for proficiency in mathematics, classics, natural science, moral science, law, history, divinity, oriental languages, modern and meli:eval languages. They aro tenable until the student is of standing to take the B. A. degree, and in case of merit the period may bo extended util bo is of standing to take the M. A. degree, but no longer. There are also 4 divinity studentships, annual income from each not less than £50nor moro than £100, open to students from 16 to 22 years of age. These may be helil for three years after the (legree of B. A., but no longer.
St. John's College. - There are 56 fellowships, 60 foundation scholarships and 9 sizarships. The fellows are gradnates of the college or of Cambridge or Oxford, and must proceed to the degree of master of arts, master of law, master of surgery, or doctor of metlicino as soon as possible. Fellowships are tenable for six years, provided no fellow may be of inore than ten years' standing from his first degree. The tenure of fellowships may be extended for periods of five years. Five forlowships are devoted to professors of the university.
The foundation scholars are electeil from students of the college or from such other persons and of suel standing as the council may think fit. Scholars, if not graduates, must proceed to some degree at the regular time. Scholarships are worth not less than £10 nor nore than £100 per annum. Their tenure is contingent upon resiilence, good conduct, and application to study. The 9 proper sizars have their commons free, and nsually holil exhibitions. They are chosen from the other sizars after a residence of at least three terms. The sun of £360 is assigned annually in Woodl exhibitions to the most deserving students,' account being taken of their pecuniary circumstances. The sum of £520 is given annually to the most deserving students", to be called Hare exhibitioners. The Hughes exhibition of £35 is given annually for proficiency in biblical and ccclesiastical history. There are also 3 Naren divinity studentships, value of each £80, open to B. A.'s not of standing for M. A., and are tenable for three years; the Fry Hebrew scholarship, worth £32, tevable for three years, is open to B. A.'s of the college or university. Four law scholarships, worth each £150 yearly, and tenable for four years, are open to B. A. 's or LL. B.'s of the college who shall prepare themselves for practice in the profession of law. Two studentships, worth £60 each, for the study of physical or natural science or of Semitic or Indian languages, are tenable with scholarships, and are open to students of the college engaged in any of the above studies who are of not less than nine nor more than eighteen terms' standing,
Six foundation scholarships and 4 minor scholarships are awarded annnally by competition among persons who have not commenced residence. They range in value from £ 80 to £50 per annum, and aro tenable for two years at least. Candidates must be under 19 years of age, and may offer themselves for examination in classicsmathematies, natural science, Hebrew or Sanskrit. There are 4 choral student,
ships, valuo £40. Tho students take part in the musical services in the chapel. Exhibitions attached by preference to certain schools are 4 of £40 cach, tenable for threo years, to Pocklington school; 6 of £33 6s. 8d., tenable for three years, to Sedbergh school; 1 of £17 10s., tenable for four years, to Shrewsbury school; 1 of £20, tenable till B A. standing, to Stamford school; 1 of £10, tenable till B. A. standing, to Westminster or Hoddesden school; 1 of £18, tenable for three years, to Bury St. Edmunds school; 4 of £32, tenable for four years, to Oaklam or Uppingham school; 2 of £30, tenable for four years, to Peterborough or Ou«lo school; 3 of £ 10, tenable for four years, to Hereforii school; 2 of £50, tenable for three years, to Hereford school; 2 of £50, tenable for three years, to Manchester school; 2 of £50, tenable for 3 years, to Marlborough school; 3 of £30, tenable for four years, to Durham school; 1 of £20, tevable for four years, to Sutton Valence school; 1 of £40, tenablo for three years, to Grantham school; 2 of £25, tenable for four years, to Exeter school.
Magdalene College. — There are 7 fellowships and 9 open foundation scholarships. The latter are as follows: Three of at least £60 per annum, 3 of 110, and 3 of £20. There are also 4 Milner scholarships of £80 a year cach, with preference to scholars from Leeds, Halifax, and Heversbam schools; 4 Holmes exhibitions of £70 a year each for scholars from Wisbech school; a college exhibition of £36 a year open to candidates who have not commenced residence. A benefaction of £65 is given annually to poor and deserving students.
Trinity College. There are 60 fellows (at the least), 74 major scholars (at the least), the minor scholars, and 16 sizars. The fellows are elected from all members of the college or other members of the university who have attained tho B. A. degree, or some equal degree, and whose standing after such degree does not exceed three years. The tenure is six years, except in case of men who have filled certain offices. The scholarships are open to all undergraduates of the college and to persons who are , not yet resident members of the university, provided that thieso last aro under 19 years of age. Ordinary major scholarships are generally tenable for five years and six months. The annual value is for a resident undergraduate £100, and for a resident B. A. £80. Major scholarships awarded before commencing residenco are of the value of £80 a year during residence and are tenable for two years only. Besides the major scholars there are closen every year not less than 6 minor scholars and exhibitioners. It has been usual to award 3 minor scholarships worth £75, 3 of £50, besides exhibitions of £40. Theso are open to all persons under 19 years of age who havo not commenced residence. They are tenable for two years.
Of the value and number of appropriated exhibitions the following is a statement: Two or 3 annually from Westminster school, £ 10 per annum cach; 2 of £40 to St. Paul's school, London; 1 of £3 8s. 8d. to Lynn school; 1 of £10 to the name and kindreol of R. B. Podmore or to a native of Salop County, educated for four years at least at the grammar school of Shrewsbary. There is also an astronomical exhibition of £50 per annum, tenable for three years and open to the public competition of all undergraduates of the university. The Coutts Trotter studentship for original research in natural science, especially physiology and experimental physics, is awarded at least every two years and is open to graduates of the college of not more than seven years' standing. There is no examination, but regard is bad to the promise of power to carry on original work. The student receives £250 a year. There are 16 sizars. The value, including all allowances, is £100 a year. The value of a subsizarship is £40. Candidates for sizarships may be either subsizars of the college or persons under 19 years of age not yet members of the university.
Enmanuel College. There are 13 fellows and 24 foundation scholars. The junior fellowships are tenable for six years and are open to all graduates of Cambridge or Oxford. "The senior fellowships are tenablo generally so long as the person elected holds sone one of certain wiversity offices. The scholarships pail out of the general revenues are as follows: Two of £80 per anmun, 2 of £10,8 of £60, 6 of £50, and 6 of £40. There are also 5 Thorpo scholarships awarded to students of not less than three terms' standing, 2 of which at least are awarded for proficiency in theology. There are also 4 scholarships and exhibitions of £29 per annum, withi preference Oakham and t'ppingham schools; 2 of £50 to Derby and Ashby de la Zouch schools; 1 of L 16 to Durham and Newcastle schools; and 3 of £30 to Market Bosworth school. Scholarships are usually awarded to resident members of the college and are tenable till B. A., or, with special permission, till M. A. Scholarships, tenable in the first instance for not more than two years, are also offered for competition to candidates who have not commenced residence. There are 2 sulsizarships of the value of £30 open to candidates who have not commenced residence and tenable for one year, and 4 sizarships of £15 tenabıle for two years.
Sidney Sussex College. There are 10 fellows and 24 scholarships. The value of the latter is as follows: Four of $60 a year; 8 of £50; 6 of £10; and 6 of £30. There are also 3 exhibitions of L60 a year for Tiverton School; 4 of £25 for Oakham or Uppingham schools; 2 of £45 for sons of clergymen etlucated at Grantham or Oaklam schools; and 2 of £12 for sous of clergymen. There are also 6 sizarships of the value of £27 a
year each. Scholarships and exbibitions are awarded for proficiency in mathematics, classics, divinity, or natural sciences, according to the results of an examination.
Downing College. There are 6 fellows and 6 scholars. Candidates for fellowships must have taken a degree in arts, law, or physic in Cambridge or Oxford, and must not be above 30 years of age. Fellowships are tenable for seven years from election.
The foundation scholarships are worth not less than £50 per annum, with the addition, in some cases, of rooms rent free and an allowance for commons. They are tenable at least until the holder be of standing to take the B. A. degree, and in some cases the tenure is extended to M. A. They are awarded for distinction in natural science, moral philosophy, history, or law.
Two mmor scholarships are offered annually for competition among persons who are not members of the university, or undergraduates who have not resided one whole term. They are wortlı from £40 to £70 per annum, and are tenable until the holders are of standing to compete for a foundation scholarship. The examination is in law and natural science. Candidates in natural science must be under 19 years of age. There is no such limitation in the case of candidates in law.
Cavendish College.--Open scholarships of the value of £50 and £30 per annum aro offered in classics, mathematics, natural science, and modern languages, and scholarships of the value of £30 are awarded to undergraduates of the college in the various subjects studied in the university. A scholarship is also given by the results of the senior local examination, and there is an organist scholarship. The total number of scholars in 1890 was 11.
Seluyn College.—Entrance scholarships are given annually in classics and mathematics, and an organ scholarship of £30 is awarded from time to time. Number of scholars in 1890 was 9, not including one exhibitioner.
Ayerst Hall.—There are 4 scholarships of £20 a year each, tenable for two years during residence. Two are offered each year, to be awarded only to candidates who are considered likely to take a degree in honors, and who have already kept at least, three terms at the Hall. There are also exhibitions of £20 a year for converts from the mission field.
Noncollegiate students. There are 3 exhibitions of £52 10s. a year each, one to be awarded annually, for the study of physical science, and tenable for three years by noncollegiate students; 3 exhibitions of £30 a year each, one to be awarded each year to a noncollegiate student of the University of Cambridge of at least a year's standing.
3. FRANCE. The particulars concerning bourses (scholarships) in Franco have been taken from the Annuaire de la Jeunesse for 1893, which contains the following:
The bourses (scholarships) maintained by the State in the faculties of sciences and of letters are of three kinds: Les bourses de licence (scholarships for candidates for the degree of licentiate), les bourses d'agrégation (scholarships for candidates for the degree of fellow), les bourses d'études (ordinary scholarships).
The scholarships of these three kinds are bestowed for one year from the 1st of November; they are payable monthly in advance, and may be prolonged for a second year. They can not be held with another remunerative office.
Scholarships for candidates for the degree of licentiate. These scholarships had formerly the uniform value of 1,200 francs ($231.60), but at the present time some of them are worth 1,500 francs ($289.50). The candidates must be Frenchmen, between the ages of 18 and 25, and must have the bachelor's degree. They must register between the 20th of May and the 20th of June with the secretary of the académie in which they reside, indicating the faculties to which they wish to be attached. They furnish, besides their certiticate of birth and their diploma, (1) a statement signed by themselves, giving the profession of their father, the residence of their family, the institution or institutions where they were educated or to which they had been attached as teachers, the place or places where they have lived since leaving the said institutions; (2) a certiticate from the head or heads of said institutions, containing, with a statement as to the character and aptitude of the candidate, a statement indicating the amount of success which he hail obtained in the studies of his classes; (3) a statement as to his pecuniary condition.
The examinations are lield at the beginning of July, at the seat of each faculty, on the same day. The subjects for the written composition are sent by the minister.
The examinations are as follows:
1. In the faculty of letters: A French and a Latin composition; thorough explications of a Greek author, of a Latin author, and of a French author from the classes of rhetoric and philosophy of the lyce(s. The candidates for the licentiate of letters with mention of philosophy are examined also in philosophy; the candidates for the licentiate of letters with mention of history, in history. The candidates for the licentiate of letters with mention of living languages, construe a German or Euglish author of the class of rhetoric; to this is added an oral German or English exercise.
For the candidates for the licentiate of letters, pure and simple, the Latin explication is double and bears upon a prose writer and upon a poet.
2. In the faculties of sciences: A composition and some questions on the subjects of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and natural history, according to the licentiate for which the candidate prepares himself.
The consultative committee of public instruction arranges the list of candidates in the order of merit, taking into account the needs of secondary instruction. Nevertheless the holders of licentiate scholarships should not consider themselves as officers to whom the State owed a place at the expiration of their scholarships. While they furnish serious and numerous recruits to secondary instruction, the administration of public instruction does not intend, however, to make a contract of engagement with them.
The scholars who have received one of the prizes of honor at the general examination of the lycees of Paris or of the departments can obtain a licentiate scholarship without taking the examinations just spoken of.
The scholar admitted to one of the licentiates of sciences can obtain, without a new examination, a scholarship for one of the other two licentiates. This new scholarship is for one year and can not be renewed, except on a special report of the dean, of the rector, and upon the vote of the consultative committee.
The number of licentiate scholarships granted to new incumbents in October, 1892, was as follows: In mathematics, 17 entire scholarships, 1 three quarters scholarship, 1 half scholarship; in physical sciences, 12 entire scholarships, 2 half scholarships; in natural sciences, 4 entire scholarships, 1 half scholarship; in letters, 23 entire scholarships, 1 three-quarters scholarship, 5 half scholarships; in letters (history), 9 entire scholarships, 1 half scholarship; letters (philosophy), 4 entire scholarships; letters (German), 6 entire scholarships; letters (English), 3 entire scholarships, i half scholarship.
Of the entire scholarships, 32 were for 1,500 francs ($289.50); the others of 1,200 francs ($231.60).
The number of licentiate scholarships for one year from November 1, 1893, given to young men who had been called under the flag, and who enjoyed their scholarships during the year 1893–94, was as follows: In mathematics, 7 entire scholarships, 1 threequarters scholarship; physical sciences, 2 entire scholarships; letters, 3 entire scholarships, 1 three-quarters scholarship; letters (English), 1 half scholarship. Three of these scholarships were worth 1,500 francs ($289.50); the others, 1,200 francs ($231.60).
The scholarships for licentiates of letters with mention of living languages are bestowed at first for two years. During the first year the young men who hold them reside in foreign countries, either in Germany or in England. They receive, besides the scholarship, an allowance for traveling and living expenses. The second year they return to France and attend the lectures of a faculty.
Scholarships for candidates for the degree of fellow.—These are of 1,500 francs ($289.50) or of 1,800 francs ($347.40). The candidates must be at least 30 years of age. They address their request, between the 1st and 20th of July, to the dean of the faculty where they have taken the degree of licentiate.
They add to this request the certificates of the heads of the institutions where they have taught. If they have been licentiate scholars they annex a special report from the profossors whose courses they have followed. All these documents, accompanied by explanatory remarks, by the conclusions arrived at by the dean, and by a report showing how the faculty intends to prepare for the degree of fellow, are sent through the rector to the minister, who takes the advice of the consultative committee of superior instruction. Some of the scholarships for candidates for the degree of fellow can be bestowed upon the report of the boards of examination of the various bodies of secondary instruction.
The number of this class of scholarships bestowed in 1892 on new incumbents is shown in the following table:
Ordinary scholarships. These are of the annual value of 1,500 francs ($289.50); they are intended to encourage free and disinterested research in the faculties of sciences and of letters. These scholarships are each year of a variable number, according as the needs of secondary instruction make the number of scholarships for licentiates and fellows vary. Thiey are bestowed upon nomination by the faculties and contirmation by the consultative committee of superior instruction. The conditions for obtaining them are very broad; strictly, 10 degree is required; it is sufticient to have given proof of aptitude in a certain branch of science. Nowadays, since the professors no longer live isolated from the students, they know their talents; they designato those who onght to be encouraged. Thus it is expected to attach by degrees to the faculties of sciences and of letters a distinct clientage of candidates for the degrees, and who are more especially engaged in researches of a scientific order.
A certain number of these scholarships are reserved for students in law, in medicine, and in pharmacy, to pursne literary and scientific studies.
The candidates must register before August 1 with the secretaries of the academies.
Annual grants by departments, cities, and associations in faror of scholars of the faculties and schools of superior instruction. These grants are applied to the creation of prizes and the support of scholars; they may vary from year to year. The grants for scholarships, of which the faculties of Paris are the beneficiaries, and which are renewed from year to year, are as follows: Faculty of Protestant theology, 1,600 franes ($308.80) from the general synod of the Church of the Augsburg Confession, 800 francs ($151.40) from the consistory of Nimes, 1,000 francs ($193) from the association for the encouragement of the studies at the faculty; faculty of law, 6,000 francs ($1,158) from tho city of Paris; faculty of medicine, 6,000 francs ($1,158) from the city of Paris; higher school of pharmacy, 3,000 francs ($579) from the city of Paris. These grants from the city of Paris aro distributed in scholarships of 1,200 francs ($231.60) and in half scholarships of 600 francs ($115.80).
The city of Bordeaus awards scholarships (number not given) at the faculties of sciences and of letters.
The cities of Lille, Amiens, Abbeville, and tlie department of Ardennes support or have supported some young men pursuing their studies at the faculties of sciences and of letters at Lillo.
Besides these scholarships supported by the State, cities, and associations, there are cight scholarships of the value of 1,000 francs ($193) each at the faculties of Paris, founded by gifts from individuals.
In the German universities there is no system of fellowships and scholarships. Students are aided by having their tuition fees postponed or remitted, and by free dinners and caslı benefices. The following account of the aid given to students in German universities is taken from an article on German universities, printed in the Annual Report for 1891-92:
Since time ont of late pecuniary aid has been offered to students in order to facilitate their attendance in the wiversity; this has been done in three ways: l'irst, by postponing the payment of lecture fees; second, by granting free dinners; and third, by benetices in cash. It is to be regrettel that complete statements concerning these benetices are not available; it is only in recent years that the Prussian university statistics offer any information under this heading.
How the lecture fees are to be paid, as well as their unounts, for what period the paying of the lees may be postponed, are questions settled by the professors themselves. In Prussian universities indigent students are relieved temporarily from the payment of these fees, if they petition for postponement and furnish the questor with documentary evidence of poverty, signed by home authorities. Usually the payment is postponed for six years, after which the questor attempts to collect the fees, unless the debtor has no fixed employment or regular source of income. Frequently the final settlement is set aside if the debtor's financial condition remains unsatisfactory In late years the petitions for postponement of payment of fees have considerably decreased in numbers; they are found almost exclusively in the theologic and philosophie faculties. The postponement of payment is not granted with the same liberality in all the universities. Tho principle has been adopted lately of not postponing the payment of any tees during the first semester; in other universities the postponement holds good only for the time of study in that particular institution. Where postponement is customary release from payment is excluded, while in some universities is commission examines each case and releases the student from payment; but in such institutious postponement is not customary.