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During the year 1887–88 tho payment of fees was postponed in 3,010 cases, or 22 per cent of all students; 2,891 of these students were native Prussians, 94 liad come from other parts of Germany, 25 were foreigners. During that year 25.63 per cent of the Prussian students enjoyed this kind of beneficence (in 8 semesters an average of 26.1 per cent). The proportions varied in different universities; while in Berlin, Bonn, Halle, Kiel, and Königsberg the percentage was 20.4 and 20.9 per cent, it was only 7.6 per cent in Marburg, 9.3 per cent in Göttingen, 10 per cent iu Braunsberg, 17.6 per cent in Münster, but 54.5 per cent in Greifswald. Some of those who enjoyed these benefices were sons of professors, who according to the charter of the institution are exempt from lecture fees, but their number is very small. There are also cases of professors who do not charge for private instruction to foreigners, but such cases do not come under observation. Some students pay part of their fees and postpone the payment of the other.
All in all, it may be said that fully one-fourth of all the students are in needy circumstances, and furnish proof of this fact, whereupon the benefice mentioned is accorded them. This percentage is considerably increased if we add those who receive benefices in cash in addition to the postponement of lecture fees or depend upon aid in cash only. In Prussia 2,430, or 17.9 per cent, of all the students receive cash benefices; 76 of theso were foreigners, 236 were Germans, but not native Prussians. Free dinners were given to 1,052 persons, 7.7 per cent of the students. But since these dinners were frequently given to the same persons, it will not do to add the total numbers of the three classes in order to arrive at the number of those who enjoy benefices. If each ono is counted but once, we get a total of 4,510, or more than one-third of all the students. Among these were 88 foreigners, 411 Prussians, and 308 other Germans. The Prussians represent a percentage of 36.18 per cent of the students; 18.74 per cent received benefices in cash and 8.77 per cent free dinners. There can be no doubt that the number of beneficiaries is actually greater than stated in tho foregoing, because many are not counted who receive aid from private sources in their native towns. This phase of tho question is of greater importance in regard to the amount of benefices than in regard to the number of beneficiaries.
Altogether 2,868 German students received cash aid and free dinners amounting to a value of 441,619 marks ($105,989), which is equal to 151 marks ($37) per semester. Since the number of benefices given was 3,316, it is plain that a number of students received several kinds of benetices. However, this statement falls much behind the actual truth; the causes of this are found in the foregoing. Seventy per cent of 3,316 cases of aid consisted of cash gists and 30 per cent free dinners. The 70 per cent in number had a value of 87 per cent.
A word concerning the sources of these benefices may be welcome. We state that 1,311=40 per cent, valued at 124,745 marks ($32,339) = 30.5 per cent, were derived from funds of the universities; 1,470=42.9 per cent, valued at 212,708 marks ($31,050) = 18 per cent, were derived from funds appropriated by municipal governments, corporations, etc., and 535-=17.1 per cent, valued at 91,166 marks ($22,600)=21.5 per cent, were derived from family endowments. Concerning the last-mentioned item we may say that, owing to want of information, it may be very much too small. The Prussian minister of education paiid in 1891-92 the sum of 68,766 marks ($16,701) to needly students, and besides that had at his disposal a fund of 100,000 marks ($24,000) for such students of German parentago who consented to accept government positions in the Polish provinces. The foregoing numbers are distributed among the faculties as follows:
Benefices in cash and free dinners were given in 1887-88 per semester to students of the
From the foregoing table we seo that the students of theology are the most numerous of those receiving aid, partly because they are mostly in needy circumstances;
partly, also, because for such students the largest benefit funds are in existence. The percentage of the philosophic faculty, which used to be much larger, has decreased in late years in consequence of the addition of students who did not formerly liave the right of citizeuship in the university, such as agriculturists, pharmacists, etc., and for whom very few endowments for scholarships and benefices exist.
The amounts paid to individuals are generally very small. Almost one-half the number of cash benefices amounted to 100 marks ($24) or less per semester. Only 30 amounted to 500 to 800 marks ($120 to $192). Only 9 amounted to 800 marks and
The statistics of public instruction in the Kingdom of Bavaria, embracing the. years 1869-1892, contain the statement that of every 100 students, 20 were completely exempt from the payment of lecture fees; 25 partially so; together, 45 per cent. Of the students of theology, 59 per cent belong to that class; of the law students, 40 per cent; of the medical students, 39 per cent; of the students of philosophy, 50 percent. Fifteen per cent of the students (330) received aid in cash (51,298 marks, or $13,132)= 161.5 marks ($39.38) per capita.
At the close of the year 1892-93 detailed statistical reports concerning university extension courses of lectures were received from 26 institutions. These institutions reported that they had delivered during the year 418 courses, or a total of 3,022 lectures, with an aggregate average attendance of 56,601. The average attendance at 35 courses of lectures was not reported by the institutions concerned. Ten of the courses of lectures were delivered in California, 3 in Colorarlo, 3 in Connecticut, 2 in Delaware, 119 in Illinois, 15 in Indiana, 3 in Kansas, 3 in Kentucky, 6 in Louisiana, 8 in Maine, 1 in Maryland, 4 in Massachusetts, 6 in Michigan, 6 in Missouri, 21 in New Jersey, 34 in New York, 15 in Ohio, 1 in Oregon, 115 in Pennsylvania, 1 in Virginia, 2 in West Virginia, and 2 in Wyoming. The location of 38 of the centers was not reported.
Two of the courses were on philosophy, 3 on mathematics, 1 on university extension, 6 on education or pedagogy, 23 on art, 48 on political or social science, 50 on natural or physical science, 119 on history, 128 on literature, and the subjects of 38 courses were not reported.
The sunımarized statistics, by institutions, are as follows:
Leland Stanford Junior University, Palo Alto, Cal..
Teaching, Philadelphia, Pa..
1 1 2 2 9 34 9
33 481 1 1, 059
In addition to the courses reported by the above-mentioned institutions, the University of California gave 2 courses of lectures on English, 1 on mathematics, 1 on pedagogy, and 2 on scientific subjects; Napa College, Napa, Cal., gaye 1 course of 6 lectures on psychology; Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa, gave 1 course on history; the University of Minnesota gavo 3 courses on history and 1 on English literature; Missouri Valley College, Marshall, Mo., gavo 1 course of 24 lectures on English literaturo; Trinity College, Durham, N. C., gavo 1 course of 6 lectures; Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa., 1 course of 10 lectures on English literature; and the University of Wisconsin gave 18 courses of 6 lectures cach.
Other institutions which are known to offer university extension courses of lectures are as follows: University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.; Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colo.; Connecticut Society for the Extension of University Teaching; l'niversity of Illinois, Champaign, Ill.; Knox College, Galesburg, Ill.; Lake Forest University, Lako Forest, Ill.; State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Mo.; Buchtel College, Akron, Ohio; Ohio University, Athens, Ohio; Baldwin University, Berea, Ohio; Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio; Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio; Denison University, Granville, Ohio; Hiram Collego, Hiram, Olio; Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio; Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio; Miami University, Oxford, Ohio; Wittenburg College, Springfield, Obio; Heidelberg University, Tistin, Ohio; Otterbein University, Westerville, Ohio; Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio; University of Texas, Austin, Tex., and University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.
The number of institutions maintaining summer schools is rapidly increasing. This form of instruction may be considered as another phase of university extension; for, by such means, university instruction and the extensivo libraries, laboratories, and museums are rendered available, during the summer months, to teachers and other persons who are not able to attend the regular sessions of universities and colleges. The summer schools usually continue for periods varying from six to twelve weeks.
The universities and colleges offering instruction by means of summer schools are as follows: University of California, Berkeley, Cal.; Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University, Cal.; Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colo.; University of Georgia, Athens, Ga.; University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.; Cook County Summer Normal School, Englewood, Ill.; Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.; Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind.; Wabashi College, Crawfordsville, Ind. ; De Pauw University, Greencastle, Ind.; Ridgeville College, Ridgeville, Ind.; Drako University, Des Moines, Iowa; State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa; Campbell University, Holton, Kans.; Central University, Richmond, Ky.; Amherst College, Amlierst, Mass.; Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; Clark University, Worcester, Mass.; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.; Hope College, Holland, Mich.; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.; Cotner University, Bethany, Nebr.; University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebr.; Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.; Keuka College, Keuka College, N. Y.; Columbia Collego (School of Mines), New York, N. Y.; University of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y.; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C.; Mount Union College, Alliance, Ohio; Ohio University, Athens, Ohio; Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio; Findlay College, Findlay, Ohio; Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio; Muskingum College, New Concord, Olio; Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio; Scio College, Scio, Ohio; Wittenberg College, Springfield, Obio; Heidelberg University, Tillin, Ohio; University of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio, Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pa.; Grove City College, Grove City, Pa.; Volant College, Volant, Pa.; Black Hills College, Hot Springs, S. Dak.; University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.; Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va., and University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
Summer schools not hell at universities and colleges, but generally at the seashore or among the mountains, are as follows: Ottawa Chautauqua Assembly, Ottawa, Kans.; Louisiana Chautauqua, Ruston, La.; Marthas Vineyard Summer Institute, Cottage City, Mass.; Normal Institute of Vocal Harmony, Lexington, Mass.; Northfield Schools for Bible Study, Northfield, Mass.; Seashore Normal Institute, West Chop, Mass.; Bay View Summer University, Bay View, Mich.; Seaside Assembly, Avon-by-the-Sea, N. J.; Long Island Chautauqua and Summer Schools, Babylon, N. Y.; Chautauqua Assembly, Chautauqua, N. Y.; Summer School, Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y.; National Summer School, Glens Falls, N. Y.; Glenmore School for the Culture Sciences, Keeno, N. Y.; Catholic Summer School of America, Plattsburg, N. Y., summer meetings, Prohibition Park, Staten Island, N. Y.; Central Summer School, Tully Lake, N. Y.; Lakeside Encampment, Ohio; American Institute of Instruction, Narragansett Pier, R. I.; Lake Madison Summer School, Lake Madison, S. Dak:; Mont Eagle Assembly, Mont Eagle, Tenn.; Virginia Summer School of Methods, Va.; Mouona Lake Assembly, Wis.