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96. The way being thus cleared, we shall now, in the , S H ! . Second place, shew you what sin is. Sin which is here charged upon all, properly and formally

imports,

1. A want of conformity to the law, of which we have been discoursing. The law requires and enjoins duty. It obliges us not only to actions so and so qualified, but to have a right principle of action ; it not only enjoins holy thoughts, holy words, and holy actions, but moreover it requires that the very frame and temper of our hearts be holy; and when we fall short of this, then we fin. ·

That the law obliges us as to the frame of our heart is plain, since it requires that the tree be good as well as the fruit, that the worship and service we perform to God, be with the whole strength, foul and heart..

2. Sin imports a transgression of the law, for fin is a transgression of the law, 1 John iii. 4.'Indeed when transgression is taken in a large sense, it comprehends all fin; but it may be, and is frequently restricted to actual fins, and fins of com. mislion, as the former branch of the description is to original fin, and sins of omission. Sin is an opposition to the law of God. God bids do, arise, work: man transgresses, breaks the command, and fits still idle. God forbids fuch and such sinful aCtions, man does thein in opposition to the command of God, which flows from a contempt of God's authority ; so that we may say, i

3. That'every sin implies in its formal nature • contempt of God, as that which is its fource. Sin

flows from a secret enmity of heart against the Al"mighty, and therefore carries in it a high con- tempt of him. It may be men are so blind that

they

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they cannot difcern any such thing in it, but God
makes breaking the law, and despising or con-
temning of the law, to be all one, Amos ij. 4.
Thus faith the Lord, For three tranfgreffions of fu-
dah, and for four I will not turn away the pinila-
ment thereof, because they have despised the law of
the Lord, and have not kept his commandments,
and their lies caused them to err, after the which
their fathers have walked. Sin in most mens eyes
is a harmless thing; but how far otherwise would
it be if its nature were seen in a just light by the
eye of faith; if we saw it trampling upon God's
authority, goodness, and holiness, and even endea-
vouring as it were to ungod him. But that ye may
further understand what sin is, we shall, in the

Third place, mention a twofold inseparable pro. perty or adjunct of fin, with which it is ever at: tended. And,

1. Sin is the defilement of the soul; sin is a filthy thing. The beauty, the glory of man, confifts in his conformity to the holy and pure law of God, and in as far as he deviates from that, in so far is he defiled and polluted. Every sin has a stain in it, and robs the soul of its beauty, occafions a sort of lothsomness, whereby in the eyes of God, and even of itfelf, it becomes ugly and abominable; it is the abominable thing which God hatęs. Oh do not that abominable thing that I hate, faith the Lord, Jer, xliv. 4. The natural state of man is upon the account of this filthiness, compar

ed to a wretched infant that is cast out in all its · natural pollutions, Ezek. xvi, and to every thing

else that is filthy, to puddle, mire, and dirt, and to
a menstrous cloth; but yet all of them are not ..
fufficient to give a just idea of its filthiness,
2. Sin, as it is attended with filth, so it is at-
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tended with guilt, it makes the finner guilty, it obliges him to undergo the penalty which God hath annexed to his law; it carries ever along with it a title to the curse of God. When the

w of God is considered as that which reprefents his holiness and spotless purity, whereby it becomes the measure and standard of all beauty, glory and purity to us; then sin, as it stands opposed to it in this respect, is lookt upon as a Itain, a blot, a defilement: but as the law of God carries on it the impression of his royal authority, the breach of it binds over to just punishment for the reparation of the honour of that con. temned authority..

Thus we see what it is that all men are charged with. God here lays home to thein a breach of the "law, represents them as condemned and guilty, deformed and defiled creatures. All men have linned, every one has broken the holy; just, good, and spiritual law of the great Sovereign of the world; all are guilty of a contempt of his authority, all are defiled with that abominable thing which his soul hates. Lest any one should take occasion to clear himself and lay, O I am not the person ipoken of, I never contemned God, I never defiled myself, and fo I am not guilty of that which is charged upon mankind. Lest any should fay, I am clean, God has put a bar upon this door, by extending the charge to all without exception.' And so I come, in the same

Fourth place, to enquire into the import of this universal particle 111 in my text; and it im. ports

1. That persons of all ages are involved in the faine common misery. Young and old have finned. The fuckling upon the breast, as well as the

old

old man that is stooping into the grave. None needs envy another. The old man needs not envy the innocency of the infant of days, for the youngest carries as much sin into the world, as renders it ugly, deformed and guilty. Indeed there are who have not sinned at the rate that others have done. Children have not sinned after the fimilitude of Adam's transgression, Rom. v. 14. their age woold not allow them; but sin enough they have derived to them from Adam to damn, to defile them.

2. Persons of all professions, Jew and Gentile, whatever their religious profession be. This evil is not confined to those of one religion, but is extended to all: the apostle sums up all mankind, as to religion, under two heads, Jew and Gentile; and, at large, in the foregoing part of this epistle, proves them both to be sinners. :

3. All ranks. of persons, high and low, rich and poor. This is not an evil of which the prince can free himself more than the peasant. These who may be thining in glistering apparel are upon this account vile and filthy as the toad they cannot endure to look upon : these who may condemn or absolve others, may themselves be under a fentence of condemnation; nay, it really is so with all who are not saved from their sins. Even these very men who have sometimes forgot thernfelves so far as to advance themselves above the laws, are yet not only subject to God's law, but lying under an obligation to punidhment on account of their breaches of this holy, jaft and good law.

4. Persons in all generations are guilty. It was not only fonie poor wretches in the old world which God swept off the face of the earth by a

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food,

flood, that have sinned, but perfons of all ages, ranks and qualities in all generations. There is not one exception among all the natural descendants of Adam, man nor woman, great nor sinall, rich nor poor, king nor beggar ; all have finned from the greatest to the least. None can justly upbraid another with what he has done in this matter, since all are in the provocation : All have finned and come sort of the glory of God.

And this leads us to that which we did in the next place propose to discourse of to you, viz.

Fifthly, The import of this coming sort of the glory of God; and this takes in or implies,

1. That man has fallen short of that glory which he had by the conformity of his nature to God. Man is said, I Cor. xi. 7., to be the image and glory of God; and indeed so was he in his first and best estate. O what of God was there in innocent Adam! A mind full of light; how wonderfully did it represent that God who is light, and in whom there is no darkness at all! A pure foul, the exact transcript of the divine purity! The rest of the creatures had in them fome darker representations of the glory of God's wisdom and power, but only man of all the creatures in the lower world was capable to represent the holiness, righteousness and purity, and other rational perfections of the ever blessed deity; and upon this account man was, the glory of God. God as it were gloried in him as the master-piece of the vifible creation, in whom alone more of God was to be seen than in all the rest beside. This man has now loit; he has fallen short of the beauty and glory which made him the glory of God. .

2. Man has lost the glory he had as he was the deputy of the great God in this lower world. He

... was

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