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ST. ANDREW's Hill (formerly Puddledock Hill), in Castle Baynard Ward, so called from its contiguity to the office of the King's Great Wardrobe, and to distinguish it from the other churches in London dedicated to the same saint. It was previously called St. Andrew's juxta-Baynard's Castle, from its vicinity to the mansion so named, and received its present appellation after the removal of the King's Wardrobe to the house built by Sir John Beauchamp (d. 1359), and thenceforth known as Wardrobe Court. [See Wardrobe.] The old church was destroyed in the Great Fire, and the present edifice, one of Sir C. Wren's design, was erected. 1691-1692 at a cost of £7060, and served for the newly united parishes of St. Andrew's-in-the Wardrobe and St. Anne's, Blackfriars. The interior, 75 feet long, 59 wide, and 38 high, is light and elegant. A monument by the elder Bacon to the Rev. William Romaine (d. 1795) is not devoid of beauty. The bust is very good. The living is a rectory valued at £250; the right of presentation belongs alternately to the Mercers' Company (for St. Andrew's), and to the parishioners of St. Anne's for the parish of Anne's.
Among the State Papers is a letter from Lord Keeper Coventry to Bishop Laud, in which he states that he has considered the title made by the Earl of Leicester to the patronage of this church : "It comes through John, Duke of Northumberland, who was attainted in Queen Mary's time, whereupon the title fell to the Crown.” 1
Angel Alley, now called ANGEL PASSAGE, a court on the east side of Upper Thames Street, opposite Duckfoot Lane. In the Guildhall collection is a rare Tavern Token, with an angel in the field, and the inscription “Obadiah Surridge in Angell Ally, in Thames Street, 1668. His halfe peny."-Burn, p. 17. The name was of old very much in favour with Londoners for these narrow passages. Dodsley records twenty-three Angel Alleys and thirty Angel Courts in 1761. There are still about thirty Angel Alleys, Courts, Rows, Streets, Terraces, etc.
Angel Inn (The), ISLINGTON (so called), though really situated in the parish of Clerkenwell, has a history of at least two centuries and a half. Among those who compounded for buildings erected in London contrary to proclamation (1638?) was William Ryplingham, "for a new building in the Angel's Inn in Islington.” 2 1699 the inn was owned by one Bagnall.
The Angel Inn formerly was noted as being a halting-place for travellers approaching London from the north ; who, if they arrived after nightfall, generally waited here till the morrow for fear of the thieves who infested the road beyond leading to the Metropolis, and who robbed with impunity, and sometimes murdered those who had the temerity to proceed on their journey. Persons having to cross the fields to Clerkenwell usually went in a body for mutual protection; and it was customary at the Angel to ring a bell to summon the party together before starting.-Pink's History of Clerkenwell, 1881, p. 549.
In the year
1 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 16281629, P. 503.
2 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1638. 1639, p. 262.
The interior or courtyard of the old inn is shown in Hogarth's engraving of the Stage Coach.
A lease of the premises for 70 years was sold by auction on January 26, 1819, and shortly afterwards the inn was rebuilt. It has been much modernised lately.
Angel Inn, St. CLEMENT'S DANES, STRAND, on the north side of the church, was one of the most interesting of the old galleried inns of London. A letter, dated February 6, 1503, was directed to "Sir Richard Plumpton, Knight, being lodged at the Angell behind St. Clement Kirk, without the Temple Barr, at London.” 1 The inn was then standing in the fields. When Hooper, the martyr-Bishop of Gloucester, was condemned in January 1555 he was taken to the Angel Inn before being sent to Gloucester, where he was burnt.
Before the period of railways as many as seven or eight mailcoaches started every night from this inn. In 1853 it was closed, and the freehold sold for £6800. On the inn and its large courtyard were built St. Clement's Chambers, now styled Dane's Inn.
There is an engraving of the inn in Diprose's St. Clement Danes, 1868, p. 195.
Ann (St.) and St. Agnes within Aldersgate, formerly St. ANN IN THE Willows, a church on the north side of St. Ann's Lane, St. Martin's-le-Grand, now Gresham Street, and in the ward of Aldersgate. Destroyed by the Great Fire, it was rebuilt by Sir C. Wren in 1681, when the neighbouring parish of St. John Zachary was united
St. Anne in the Willows, so called, I know not upon what occasion, but some
of willows growing thereabouts ; but now there is no such void place for willows to grow, more than the churchyard, wherein do grow some high ash trees. —Stow, p. 115.
This church was burnt down (1666), and rebuilt of rubbed brick : and stands in the churchyard, planted before the church with lime trees that flourish there. So that, as it was formerly called St. Anne in the Willows, it may now be named St. Anne in the Limes. —Strype, B. iii. p. 101.
The interior is 53 feet square and 35 feet high. Four Corinthian columns form an inner square and support an ornamented ceiling higher than the outer sides, which have sunk panels of fretwork within circles, giving a pleasing effect. The living is a rectory, the right of presentation belongs to the Bishop of London, alternately with the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's.
Anne's (St.), BLACKFRIARS, a parish church which stood south of Ireland Yard, St. Andrew's Hill, in the precinct of the Blackfriars and ward of Farringdon Within ; destroyed in the Great Fire, and not rebuilt. The church of St. Andrew by the Wardrobe serves for St. Anne's.
There is a parish of St. Anne, within the precinct of the Blackfriars, which
1 Plumpton Correspondence.
was pulled down with the Friars Church by Sir Thomas Cawarden, Master of the Revels; but in the reign of Queen Mary, he being forced to find a church to the inhabitants, allowed them a lodging chamber above a stair, which since that time, to wit in the year 1597, fell down, and was again by collection therefore made, newbuilt and enlarged in the same year, and was dedicated on December 11.-Stow,
The parish register records the burial of Isaac Oliver, the miniature painter (1617), who lived in this parish. His son erected a monument to his memory, with his bust in marble. It perished in the Great Fire. Peter Oliver was buried with his father. Other burials recorded are Nat Field, the poet and player (1632-1633); Dick Robinson, the player (1647); William Faithorne, the engraver (1691). The following interesting entries relate to Vandyck, who lived and died in this parish, leaving a sum of money in his will to its poor :
Jasper Lanfranch, a Dutchman, from Sir Anthony Vandike's, buried February 14, 1638.
Martin Ashent, Sir Anthony Vandike's man, buried March 12, 1638.
Justinian, daughter to Sir Anthony Vandike and his lady, baptized December 9, 1641.
The child was therefore baptized the day her illustrious father died (1641). John Bill, king's printer (1630), by will directed his body to be buried here, and left the large sum of £300 for the expense of his funeral. He also left money for the poor of the parish. A portion of the old burying-ground is still to be seen in Church Entry, Ireland Yard.
In this parish lived Sir Samuel Luke, the original of Hudibras ; the register records his marriage in 1624, and the baptism of several of his children.
Anne's (St.), LIMEHOUSE, one of Queen Anne's fifty churches, designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor, a pupil of Sir Christopher Wren. It was erected 1712-1724 at a cost of £38,000, and was consecrated September 12, 1729. The interior was seriously injured by fire on the morning of Good Friday, March 29, 1850: but was very carefully restored.
Anne's (St.), Soho, a parish in Westminster, taken out of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 30th of Charles II. (1678). The church (in Wardour Street and Dean Street) was erected on a piece of ground called Kemp's Field,” and was consecrated by Bishop Compton, March 21, 1686. It has more than once since been repaired. The interior was remodelled and improved in 1866 (Mr. A. W. Blomfield, A.R.A., architect). The architect is not known. The present turret was erected in 1806 by S. P. Cockerell. The church was dedicated to St. Anne, the mother of the Virgin Mary, in honour of the Princess Anne, daughter of the reigning sovereign.
Vpon the twentie-first of the same March, 1685-1686, was the new parish church
i Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1629-1631, p. 242.
2 Vestry Minute, St. Martin's-in-the-Fields.
St. Anne's, Soho, consecrated by the Lord Bishop of London, Henry Compton, a most pious prelate and an admirable governor. This parish is taken (as was St. James's) out of St. Martin’s-in-the-Fields, by Act of Parliament, and the patronage thereof settled in the Bishop of London and his successors. The consecration (as was the buildinge) of it was the more hastened, for that, by the Act of Parliament, it was to be a parish from the Lady Day next after the consecration ; and had it not been consecrat that day, it must have lost the benefitt of a year, for there was noe other Sunday before our Lady Day. - Autobiography of Sir John Bramston, p. 223.
I imagine your Countess of Dorchester (Sedley's daughter) will speedily move hitherward, for the house is furnishing very fine in St. James's Square, and a seat taking for her in the new consecrated St. Anne's Church. - Letter of April 6, 1686 (Ellis's Letters, ad S., vol. iv. p. 91).
In the churchyard is a tablet to the memory of Theodore, King of Corsica, who died at a tailor's in Chapel Street, in this parish (December 11, 1756), soon after his liberation by the Act of Insolvency from the King's Bench Prison.
As soon as Theodore was at liberty he took a chair and went to the Portuguese minister, but did not find him at home : not having sixpence to pay, he prevailed on the chairmen to carry him to a tailor he knew in Soho, whom he prevailed upon to harbour him, but he fell sick the next day, and died in three more. Walpole to Mann, January 17, 1757.
He was buried at the expense of an oilman in Compton Street, of the name of Wright, but Horace Walpole paid for the tablet (which has a crown “exactly copied ” from one of Theodore's coins) and wrote the inscription S
The grave, great teacher, to a level brings
Bestow'd a kingdom, and denied him bread. You will laugh to hear that when I sent my inscription to the vestry for the approbation of the minister and churchwardens, they demurred and took some days to consider whether they should suffer him to be called King of Corsica. Happily they have acknowledged his title. —Walpole to Mann, February 29, 1757.
In the church are buried Lord Camelford, killed (1804) in a duel with Captain Best; David Williams (d. 1816), founder of the Literary Fund. In the churchyard are buried Brook Taylor, LL.D. (d. December 29, 1731), discoverer of Taylor's Theorem and author of the Principles of Linear Perspective ; Sir Hildebrand Jacob (1790); William Hazlitt (d. 1830), a headstone over whose grave has a pompous inscription very unlike the style of the writer the inscription celebrates. In the church are monuments to Sir John Macpherson, “the gentle giant,” who for some months acted as Governor-General of India ; and William Hamilton, R.A., a feeble though not ungraceful painter. The register records the baptism (1736) of John Horne, known now as John Horne Tooke. “Many parts of this parish,” says Maitland, (1739), "so greatly abound with French, that it is an easy matter for a stranger to imagine himself in France.” This is true of the parish a century and a half after : it is still a kind of Petty France. The emigrants from all the Revolutions have congregated hereabouts. (See Greek Street.]
Anne's (St.), Lane, GREAT PETER STREET, WESTMINSTER. Henry Purcell
, the musician, lived in this lane, and here Herrick, the poet, when ejected from his living of Dean Prior, resided as “Robert Herrick, Esquire."
Antholin's (St.), or, ST. ANTLING's, in BUDGE Row (a corruption of St. ANTHONY's), a church which stood at the south-west corner of Sise Lane, Watling Street (Cordwainer Street Ward). It was destroyed in the Great Fire, and rebuilt by Cartwright from the designs of Sir C. Wren in 1682-1683, at an expense of about £5700. The interior was ingeniously fitted to an irregular site and covered with an oval-shaped dome, supported on eight Roman Corinthian columns. The church was taken down in September 1874 to make way for the new Queen Victoria Street, and the site is marked by a memorial with a painting of the church. Strong efforts were made, but unsuccessfully, to have the much-admired tower with its solid octagonal stone spire preserved as a memorial. For the solace of Wren's admirers it may be well to note that the spire removed in 1874 was not the original. That was injured by lightning many years before; taken down, and replaced by a new and somewhat lower spire. The injured spire was taken away to ornament the garden of one of the parish authorities at Forest Hill. The parish has been joined to the united rectory of St. Mary Aldermary with St. Thomas Apostle and St. John the Baptist upon Walbrook. The proceeds of the sale of the church were £44,990, a portion of which sum went for the erection of the church of St. Antholin, Nunhead.
A morning prayer and lecture, the bells for which began to ring at five in the morning, was established at St. Antholin's, in Budge Row, “after Geneva fashion,” in September, 1559. Lilly, the astrologer, attended these lectures when a young man, and Sir Walter Scott makes Mike Lambourne, in Kenilworth, refer to them. Nor have they been overlooked by our early dramatists : Randolph, Davenant, and Mayne make frequent allusions in their plays to the Puritanical fervour of the parish. The tongue of Middleton's Roaring Girl was “heard further in a still morning than St. Antling's bell.” Among the State Papers are orders for disposing of certain money given towards the maintenance of six morning lectures in the church, dated March 17, 1629, and endorsed by Laud, then Bishop of London. It appears that the parish allowed £70 per annum towards the lecture, the chamber of London £40 per annum, and by this instrument monies were vested in trustees to pay each of the lecturers an additional £30 per annum.2
In the heart of the city, near London Stone, in a house which used to be inhabited by the Lord Mayor or one of the Sheriffs, and was situate so near to the church of St. Antholin's that there was a way out of it into a gallery of the church, the Commissioners from the Church of Scotland to King Charles were lodged in 1640. Here
1 Machyn's Diary, p. 212.