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preached the Chaplains of the Commission, with Alexander Henderson at their head; and curiosity, faction, and humour brought so great a conflux and resort, that from the first appearance of day in the morning on every Sunday, to the shutting in of the light, the church was never empty.1
Under colour of preaching the Gospel, in sundry parts of the realm, they set up a Morning Lecture at St. Antholine's Church in London ; where (as probationers for that purpose) they first made tryal of their abilities, which place was the grand nursery, whence most of the Seditious Preachers were after sent abroad throughout all England to poyson the people with their anti-monarchical principles. - Dugdale's Troubles in England, fol. 1681, p. 37.
Going to St. Antlin's and Morning Lectures is out of fashion.—An Exclamation from Tunbridge and Epsom against the New-found Wells at Islington, single halfsheet, 1684.
Bansswright. 'Tis all the fault she has : she will outpray
And these two disciples of St. Tantlin
Davenant's News from Plymouth, Act i. Sc. 1.
Cartwright's Ordinary, 1651. I'll be a new man from the top to the toe, or I'll want of my will. Instead of tennis-court my morning exercise shall be at St. Antlin's.--Heywood's If you know not Me, p. 72.
Dean Colet, founder of St. Paul's School, was born in this parish in 1466. His father, Sir Henry Colet, had been Lord Mayor of London.
Anthony (St.), (Hospital or Free School of), stood opposite Finch Lane, in Threadneedle Street, where the French Church afterwards stood. It was some time a cell, says Stow, to St. Anthony's of Venice, afterwards a hospital “fora a master, two priests, one schoolmaster, and twelve poor men.” Dr. Nicholas Heath, some time Bishop of Rochester, afterwards of Worcester, and lastly Archbishop of York and Lord Chancellor of England, Sir Thomas More and Archbishop Whitgift, and, as is believed, Dean Colet, were educated at this school, which, in Stow's remembrance, presented the best scholars for prizes of all the schools of London. Whitgift when here (circ. 1546), boarded with his aunt in St. Paul's Churchyard, her husband being a verger of the Cathedral. The Hospital was suppressed in the reign of Edward VI., “the School in some sort remaining,” says Stow, “but sore decayed.”
The Hospital possessed a curious privilege. The city laws were, in the Middle Ages, exceedingly strict in respect of food and sanitary matters. Unwholesome meat was destroyed; swine "found in the streets or in the fosses or in the suburbs” were to be killed. But pigs were often seized which were unfit for the shambles, and those it came to be custom to hand over to the proctor of St. Anthony's Hospital, who fastened a bell to the neck of each and sent them into the streets to get their own living, an order being issued that swine bearing the bell of St. Anthony should be free to roam where they pleased. When they were fat enough they were killed and sold for the benefit of the Hospital. Appended to the City “Ordnance respecting Swine" in the Liber Albus is the entry :
i Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, ed. 1826, vol. i. p. 331.
The renter of St. Antony's sworn : that he will not avow any swine going about within the City, nor will hang bells about their necks, but only about those which shall have been given to them in pure alms. 1
These swine found favour with the benevolent, and soon learnt to know their benefactors, whom they would “follow about with a continual whining.” Whence came the old saying, “You follow and whine like a Tantony Pig,” or, more shortly, and in a different sense, with reference to their privileges, “Like a Tantony Pig."
Antiquaries (Society of), in the west wing of BURLINGTON HOUSE. This Society traces back its origin to the College of Antiquaries founded by Archbishop Parker in 1572, which “met one day in the week at Darby House, where the Herald's office was kept,” and which numbered Camden, Cotton, and Stow among its members.? The Society proposed to apply to Queen Elizabeth for a Charter of Incorporation as an “ Academy for the Study of Antiquity and History," but the intention was probably not carried out; at any rate no such Charter was granted. However, the Society continued to prosper till the accession of James I., shortly after which, hearing that the King “mistrusted” the Society, or had taken some “mislike” to its historical speculations, they passed a resolution that they “ declined all matters of state,” which, rather sharpening than averting the royal jealousy, they were forbidden to meet, “and so,” says Strype, “this brave Society sunk.” But though the College was dissolved, the members continued to meet as usual, probably at each others' houses, and Ashmole has an entry in his Diary of July 2, 1659, as “the Antiquaries Feast.” In 1707 a vigorous effort was made to restore the Society to a more efficient working condition by Wanley, Bagford, and a Mr. Talman. ment was made to meet every Friday evening at six, “upon pain of forfeiture of sixpence." Their first meeting was at the Bear Tavern, in the Strand (December 5, 1707); their second, on the 12th of the same month, when it was “Agreed that the business of the Society shall be limited to the object of Antiquities, and more particularly to such things as illustrate or relate to the History of Great Britain prior to the reign of James I.” From the Bear, in the Strand, they moved (January 9, 1707-1708) to the Young Devil Tavern, when Peter Le Neve and others were elected members. Of these meetings Wanley has left some rough minutes among the Harleian MSS. (7055). In 1709 their meeting place was the Fountain Tavern, outside Temple Bar. Eight years later (1739) the Society met "every Thursday evening about seven o'clock," at the Mitre in Fleet Street, where they remained till 1753, when they met at a house of their own in Chancery Lane. The members were then limited to one hundred ; and the terms were, one guinea entrance, and twelve shillings annually. George II. granted them a Charter of Incorporation, November 2, 1751, as the “Society of Antiquaries of London," and in it declared himself their “Founder and Patron.” In 1777 George III. gave them apartments for their use in the newly built Somerset House, of which they obtained formal possession in February 1781, and which they continued to occupy till 1875, when they removed to the rooms built for their use in the west wing of Burlington House.
i Liber Albus, p. 509; Stow; Maitland. of Mr. Winter Jones, 1875, Proc. of the Soc. of
* Relig. Spelmannianæ, p. 69; Archæologia, Ant., vol. vi. p. 356, where will be found an vol. i., Int. ; Strype, B. i. p. 161; Pres. Address excellent resumé of the Society's history.
The Society consists of a president (the present holder of that office being John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S.), four vice-presidents, a treasurer, a director, and a secretary, who, with thirteen other members, form the Council, and about 600 Fellows. The Fellows are elected by ballot on the recommendation of at least three Fellows. The letters F.S.A. are generally appended to their names : letters which no other Society is entitled to use. Their Transactions, called the Archæologia, commence in 1770, and contain a vast amount of valuable historical and archæological information. The days of meeting are every Thursday at halfpast eight, from November to June, Anniversary Meeting, April 23. The Society possesses an excellent Library of over 20,000 volumes, and a small but valuable Museum. Among the many objects of interest should be observed :
Household Book of Jocky of Norfolk. A large and interesting collection of Early Proclamations, interspersed with Early Ballads, many unique. T. Porter's Map of London (temp. Charles I.), once thought to be unique. A folding Picture on Panel of the Preaching at Old St. Paul's in 1616. Early Portraits of Edward IV. and Richard III., engraved for the Third Series of Ellis's Letters. Margaret Plantagenet, Duchess of Burgundy. Three-quarter Portrait of Mary I., with the monogram of Lucas de Heere, and the date 1544. Portrait of William Powlett, first Marquis of Winchester, d. 1571 (curious). Portrait of Sir Antonio More by John Schorel, a Dutch painter (More was the scholar of Schorel). Portrait of General Fleetwood, cupbearer to James I. and Charles I. Portraits of Antiquaries : Burton, the Leicestershire antiquary ; Peter le Neve ; Humphrey Wanley ; Baker, of St. John's College ; William Stukeley; George Vertue (by Thomas Gibson); Ralph Thoresby ; Earl Stanhope (by Mr. Partridge), for nearly thirty years president of the Society; Edward, Earl of Oxford, presented by Vertue. A Bohemian Astronomical Clock of gilt brass, made by Jacob Zech in 1525, for Sigismund, King of Poland, and bought at the sale of the effects of James Ferguson, the astronomer.
Spur of Brass gilt, found on Towton Field, the scene of the conflict between Edward IV. and the Lancastrian Forces. Upon the shanks the following posy is engraved : amour tout mon coer." A very extensive collection of casts of seals, dating from the last century, and largely augmented by the late Mr. Albert Way. A most extensive series of rubbings of English Monumental Brasses, with large augmentations made by the late Director, Mr. A. W. Franks, and presented by him to the Society. In consequence of these additions, it is perhaps the most complete collection extant.
Apollo (The). [See Devil Tavern.]
Apollo Court, FLEET STREET (over against Child's Banking House, and leading into Bell Yard). So called from the Apollo Club,
1 Maitland, ed. 1739, p. 647.
held at the Devil Tavern, in Fleet Street, immediately opposite this court; but the name is now merged in that of Bell Yard.
Apollo Gardens, Lambeth, were situated near the Asylum in Westminster Road. They were fitted up in imitation of Vauxhall, and opened about 1788 by Mr. Claggett, proprietor of the Pantheon in Oxford Street. The gardens being unsuccessful, lasted for a few seasons only, and when they were closed the old orchestra was removed to Sydney Gardens, Bath.
Apothecaries' Hall, WATER LANE, BLACKFRIARS, a brick and stone building, erected in 1670 as the Dispensary and Hall of the Incorporated Company of Apothecaries.
Nigh where Fleet Ditch descends in sable streams,
GARTH, The Dispensary. The grocers and the apothecaries were originally one Company; but this union did not exist above eleven years, King James I., at the suit of Gideon Delaune (d. 1659), his own apothecary, granting (December 6, 1617) a separate Charter of Incorporation to the Master, Wardens, and Society of the Art and Mistery of Apothecaries. In the Charter is expressed the desire of the apothecaries to be dissociated from the grocers, and to form an independent body, on the ground “that the ignorance and rashness of presumptuous empirics, and ignorant and unexpert men may be restrained, whereupon many discommodities, inconveniences, and perils do daily arise to the rude and incredulous people.” The city authorities seem not to have approved this arrangement, for among the papers calendered by Mrs. Everett Green, under date 1617, is a letter from King James to the Mayor, stating that he understands they refuse to enrol this Charter, and ordering their immediate conformity. The arms of the Company—“ Azure, Apollo in his glory, holding in his left hand a bow, in his right an arrow, all or, bestriding Python the serpent, argent," —were probably of the King's suggestion.
In the hall is a small good portrait of James I., and a contemporary statue of Delaune. In 1687 commenced a controversy between the College of Physicians and the Company of Apothecaries; the latter
Taught the art By Doctors' bills to play the Doctors' parthad by this time ventured out of their assigned walk of life, and to compounding added the art of prescribing. This was thought by the physicians to be an unfair invasion of their province; and, incensed at the intrusion of the druggists, the College of Physicians advertised (July, 1687) that their fellows, candidates, and licentiates would give advice gratis to the poor, and that the College had established a
i Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, James 1., 1611-1618, p. 507.
Dispensary of its own for the sale of medicines at their intrinsic values.
The Apothecary tribe is wholly blind.
The shopman sells, and by destruction lives. -Dryden. The heats and bickerings of this controversy were the occasion of Garth's poem of The Dispensary. This made matters worse ; and the physicians, backed by their Charter, brought a penal action against one Rose, an apothecary, for attending a butcher. The fact of attendance was proved in court, but yet the jury hesitated about finding a verdict for the plaintiff; "whereat the Court wondering, the Lord Chief Justice asked them 'Whether they did not believe the evidence ?' to which the foreman replied, "The defendant had done only what other apothecaries did.' Whereupon, My Lord set the jury right, and then they brought in a verdict for the plaintiff.” The House of Lords, in 1703, reversed this decision; and since then it has been the law of the land that apothecaries may advise as well as administer.
In 1722 Sir Hans Sloane gave to the Company his Botanic Garden at Chelsea. [See Botanic Garden.] By the Act 5 Geo. III., C. 194 (1815), all apothecaries and their assistants must be examined and certified by the Court of Assistants of the Company of Apothecaries before they can act as an apothecary or dispense medicines. In the Hall is a well-supported retail shop, for the sale of unadulterated medicines. This was carried on by members in the name of the Society, but for their own personal profit; the trade having, however, ended in loss, the private partnership was dissolved from December 31, 1880, and the Society (as an experiment) carried on the trade at its own risk. The Apothecaries' Act of 1815 made the Society one of the three great medical licensing bodies for England and Wales, and the number of the present licentiates is between Sooo and gooo.
Appletree Yard, St. JAMES'S SQUARE, on the east side of York Street, derives its name from the apple orchards for which St. James's Fields were famous as late as the reign of Charles I. [See Pall Mall.] By Hatton, 1708, and in Strype's Map, 1720, it is called Ainger Street. Dodsley, 1761, has both Ainger Street and Appletree Yard.
August 30, 1688.—To the Park (St. James's), and there walk an hour or two; and in the King's garden, and saw the Queen and ladies walk; and I did steal some apples off the trees. —Pepys.
Apsley House, HYDE PARK CORNER, PICCADILLY, the London residence of the Duke of Wellington. The original house was built by Henry Bathurst, Baron Apsley, Earl Bathurst, and Lord High Chancellor (d. 1794), the son of Pope's friend, to whom the site, previously occupied by the Park Lodge, was granted by George III.,
1 New View of London, p. 1.