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They (the Oxford clergy and scholars] went from St. Paul's in London, to Durham House in the Strand, no short Italian, but an English long mile, all on foot ; the Bishops of England, for the more state of the business, accompanying them, as partly accessary to their fault, for pleading in their behalf. When they came to the Bishop of Carlisle's (now Worcester) House, the scholars went the rest of their way barefoot, sine capis et mantulis, which some understand, “ without capes or cloaks.” And thus the great legate at last was really reconciled unto them.—Thomas Fuller, Church History, B. iii. cent. xiii. p. 20.
12 Henry IV. And Prynce Herry (Henry V.] lay at the bysshoppes inne of Dorham fro the seid day of his comming to towne unto the Moneday nest after the feste of Septem fratrum.—Nicolas, Chronicle of London, p. 94.
This howse called Durham, or Dunelme howse . . was buylded in the time of Henry 3, by one Antonye Becke, B. of Durham. It is a howsej of 300 years antiquitie; the hall whereof is stately and high, supported with lofty marble pillars. It standeth upon the Thamise veriye pleasantly. Her Matie hath committed the use thereof to Sr Walter Rawleigh.-Norden (1593), MS. Account of Middlesex (Norden's Essex, Pref., p. xvi.)
In the reign of Henry VIII. Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham, “conveyed the house to the king in fee;” 1 and Henry, in recompense thereof, granted to the see of Durham Coldharborough and other houses in London. Henry seems to have granted the use of the house to the Earl of Wiltshire, as we find him requesting the Earl to “let Doctor Cranmer have entertainment in your house at Durham Place for a time, to the intent he may bee there quiet to accomplisha my request, and let him lack neither bookes, ne anything requisite for his
In 1550 the French Ambassador, Mons. de Chastillon, and his colleagues were lodged in Durham House," which was furnished with hangings of the kings for the nonce." 3 Edward VI., in the second year of his reign, granted Durham House for life, or until she was otherwise advanced, to the Lady Elizabeth, his sister, afterwards Queen Elizabeth ; but in some way it passed from the Princess to Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, and was his principal London house when Edward VI. died. Mary, on coming to the crown, restored Durham House to Tunstall, the same bishop who had originally conveyed it away.
In the Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1547-1580, p. 105, is this entry, “August 16, 1558, Cuthbert Tunstal Bishop of Durham to Card. Pole. Thanks him for procuring the grant to him of the reversion of Durham House.” Tunstal's history is somewhat remarkable. He was translated by Henry VIII. from London to Durham in 1530 ; deprived by Edward VI., in 1552, and the bishopric dissolved; restored by Mary in 1552 ; and again deprived by Elizabeth in 1559, the same year in which he died.
The Queen (Elizabeth) did not spare Cuthbert Tunstal, Bishop of Durham, though some will not stick to say that he was her god-father ; which if he were not, it is most certain that he was then present and did officiate at her christening. But I think he was her god-father, because I am certain he gave her Durham House in the Strand to dwell in, which she kept during her life, and did not restore it to his successors, but suffered Sir Walter Raleigh to live there. I remember when the
i Reliq. Spel.
3 Tytler's Edward VI. and Mary, vol. i. p. 288; and Diary of Edward VI. in Burnet.
Bishop of Durham in the Queen's time came up to the Parliament, he was fain to hire my schoolmaster's (Camden's] house in Westminster to lodge in.--Bishop Goodman's Court of King James, vol. i. p. 420.
Elizabeth first granted Durham House to Sir Henry Sidney, who in March 1567-1568 writes from it to Archbishop Parker for a licence to eat meat in Lent, for "my boy Philip Sidney, who is somewhat subject to sickness.”1 About 1583 it was granted to Sir Walter Raleigh, who held it till his fall. The case of Glanville v. Courtney was heard at divers stages before the Lord Warden Raleigh at his house in Durham Place in 1591 and subsequent years, Egerton being on one occasion counsel in the cause.
October 9, 1595.-—I dyned with Sir Walter Rawlegh at Durham House.—Dr. Dee's Diary, p. 54.
Durham House was a noble palace. After he [Sir Walter Raleigh) came to his greatness he lived there, or in some apartment of it. I well remember his study, which was on a little turret that looked into and over the Thames, and had the prospect which is as pleasant perhaps as any in the world.--- Aubrey, vol. iii. p. 513.
On the death of Queen Elizabeth, Tobias Mathew, the then Bishop of Durham, set forth the claim of his see to their old town house in the Strand. Sir Walter Raleigh opposed his claims, but the King and council (May 25, 1603) recognised the right of the see (Raleigh was then without a friend), and Durham House was restored to the successors of Thomas Hatfielde. Raleigh, in a letter of remonstrance to the Lord Keeper Egerton on this harsh proceeding, states that he had been in possession of the house about twenty years, and that he had expended £2000 upon it in repairs out of his own purse. On February 16, 1612, we find William James, Bishop of Durham, writing to Cecil to thank him for his “honourable dealings in the purchase of Durham House." 3 In 1623, when everybody was expecting Prince Charles to return from Spain with the Infanta as his bride, Durham House was prepared to receive the grandees of her train, but Bishop Howson was here in 1630. The house had already lost something of its stateliness. The grounds were encroached on for Salisbury House, and the stabling was converted into the New Exchange. Lord Keeper Coventry died (1640) in the best portion of the house, and what remained of it was subsequently obtained by Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, for whom Webb, the pupil and kinsman of Inigo Jones, designed a large house on the site (never commenced), the elevation of which is still to be seen in the collection of Jones's drawings at Worcester College, Oxford. The front towards the river long remained a picturesque, and the stables or outhouses an unsightly, ruin. All however was swept away in the early part of the reign of George III., when the Messrs. Adam built on a ninety-nine years' lease, “the bold Adelphi " over the ground once occupied by old Durham House. Ivy Bridge was the boundary eastward. Durham Street still remains to mark the site. (See Adelphi ; Durham Yard.] 1 Parker Corresp., p. 316.
3 Calendar of State Papers, 1611 - 1678, p. ? Egerton Papers, by Collier, p. 376.
Durham Rents, STRAND. In this place, which was close to the present Durham Street, was printed “The Myrroure of owre Lady, Fynyshed and Imprynted in the Suburbes of the famous Citye of London, without Temple Barre, by me, Richard Fawkes, dwellynge in Durresme Rents, or else in Powles Churche Yard, at the Sygne of the A.B.C. 1530.” 1 On December 9, 1614, a lease was granted from Thomas Wilson of Hertford to James Bovy, Serjeant of the Cellar of “the Sill House in the Strand, near Durham House.” 2 The Sill stood probably by Durham Rents, and must be the dwelling-house referred to in the following indenture
October 1, 1618.-Indenture of sale from Sir Thomas Wilson, of Hertford, now residing in St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, London, of a dwelling-house, garden, etc., in St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, between Durham House, Britain's Burse, York House, and the River, to Wm. Roo of London, for £374.—Cal. State Papers, 1611-1618, p. 581.
Sir Thomas Wilson was at this time in charge of Sir Walter Raleigh in the Tower, and endeavouring to betray him into admissions of criminality. Sir Walter was executed on October 29, 1618.
Durham Street, in the STRAND. [See Durham House.]
Durham Yard, STRAND, on the river side and a part of the grounds of Durham House.
Durham Yard, anciently Duresme House, as being the residence of the Bishops of Durham. Of later times this Durham-yard came to Philip Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, in consideration (say some) to pay to the see of Durham £200 per annum, which grant was confirmed by Act of Parliament, dated the 16th of Charles I. And it was by his son built into tenements or houses, as now they are standing, being a handsome street descending down out of the Strand. —Strype, B. vi. pp. 75, 76.
From some satirical verses, printed by Anthony à Wood, respecting Le Tellier, Archbishop and Duke of Rheims, who came to England in April 1677 to “treat about a marriage with the Lady Mary, daughter of the Duke of York, with the Dauphin,” it would seem that even then Durham Yard was a place of questionable resort. For
The bishop who from France came slowly o'er
Did go to Betty Beaulie's; and this Betty, we are told in a note, was “an old bawd in Durham Yard.”3 In Dryden's Sir Martin Marr-all, the scene of which is laid in Covent Garden, Lady Dupe speaks of Durham Yard as if it were the usual landing place for that neighbourhood; and in The Tatler of June 7, 1709, mention is made of “a certain lady who left her coach at the New Exchange door in the Strand, and whipt down Durham Yard into a. boat with a young gentleman for Fox Hall.” Sir Godfrey Kneller's first London residence was in Durham Yard.4 David Garrick in his short-lived venture as a wine merchant had his “vaults” in this yard. His brother was his partner. "Foote used sarcastically to say that he remembered Garrick living in Durham Yard, with three quarts of 1 Harleian Cat., vol. iii. p. 152.
4 Walpole's Anecdotes, Works, 4to, 1798, vol. 2 Cal. State Papers, 1611-1618, p. 262.
iv. p. 364, note. 3 Wood's Autobiography, p. 196.
vinegar in the cellar, calling himself a Wine Merchant.” I During a part of the time that Garrick had his vault in Durham Yard his friend Johnson had his “garret in the Strand,” at “the Black Boy over against Durham Yard.” 2 There was an earlier wine merchant than Garrick in Durham Yard, one Brinsden, whom Voltaire addresses as dear John," wishes “good health and a quick sale of your Burgundy,” and shows, by the general tenor of his letter, that in the bright springtime of his genius the great French writer must have been a frequent visitor at “durham's yard by charing cross.”
Dutch Church. (See Austin Friars.]
Dyers' Hall, No. 10 DOWGATE Hill. The ancient hall of the Dyers' Company, which stood near the Thames, a short distance west of London Bridge, was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. The site is marked by DYERS' Hall WHARF AND PIER, immediately west of Old Swan Pier. The hall was not rebuilt, and for several years the Company met at Salters' Hall.3 In 1720 they had their hall next Coldharbour ;4 while Maitland in 1729 says that “the Company has converted one of their houses in Little Elbow Lane, Dowgate Hill, into a hall to transact their business in,” 5 which fell down in 1768. The next hall was erected about 1770. It was a tolerably spacious unassuming building, the exterior distinguished by a double flight of steps, but not by any architectural merit. The present hall was rebuilt 1839-1840 (Charles Dyer, architect). Some additions and new alterations were made 1856-1857, by D. A. Corbett, architect. The archives of the Company were destroyed in the Great Fire, but a very curious iron muniment chest is preserved in the hall, and is probably of Flemish manufacture. The Dyers were constituted a Guild in the 4th of Henry VI. (1426), and received their Charter of Incorporation 12 Edward IV. (1472). A distinctive privilege granted to the Company is that of having on the Thames a Game of Swans (Deductus Cygnorum), and a special Swan Mark (Cygninota). A similar privilege is possessed by the Vintners' Company. The total number of swans permitted by the Crown on the Thames, as settled in 1877, is about 510, of which 400 are Crown birds, 65 Dyers', and 45 Vintners', but a much less number is now maintained. The mark of the Dyers' Company is “4 bars i nick," that of the Vintners' “letter V and 2 nicks” (corrupted in the well-known tavern sign into the “Swan with 2 necks "), the nicks being cut on the bills of the birds. S
Dyot Street, St. GILES's, named after Richard Dyot, Esq., a parishioner of St. Giles-in-the-Fields. “Curll's Corinna,” Mrs. Eliza1 Davies's Garrick, vol. i. p. 16.
Company (Mr. E. C. Robins), 1877. 2 Croker's Boswell, p. 30.
8 For fuller particulars see “Some Account of 3 Hatton, 1708, p. 601.
the History and Antiqui ies of the Worshipful 4 Strype, B. ii, p. 207.
Company of Dyers, London," a paper read 5 Maitland, p. 605.
before the London and Middlesex Archäological 6 Strype, B. ii. c. xi. p. 201.
Association, by E. C. Robins, F.S.A., Prime 7 Report of Swan Warden of the Dyers Warden, on February 9, 1880.
beth Thomas, lived with her mother in this street.1 A friend of Dryden's tracked her to her house “somewhere about St. Giles's,” and she printed Dryden's letter in which this is stated with Pope's letters to Cromwell. Even then Dyot Street must have been somewhat disreputable, as she falsely prints the letter as addressed to herself at Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury.2 At the Black Horse and Turk's Head public-houses in this street, Haggerty and Holloway, in November 1802, planned the murder of Mr. Steele on Hounslow Heath, and here they returned after the murder. At the execution of the murderers, at the Old Bailey in 1807, twenty-eight people were crushed to death. The name was changed from Dyot Street to George Street in consequence of a filthy song which attained wide popularity, but the original name was restored in 1877.
In 1710 there was a certain “Mendicants' Convivial Club” held at the “Welch's Head” in this street. The origin of this club dated as far back as 1660, when its meetings were held at the Three Crowns in the Poultry.—Dr. Rimbault in Notes and Queries, ist S., vol. i. p. 229.
On the east side of the upper part of Dyot Street are the Model Lodging Houses for forty-eight families, designed, 1849-1850, by Henry Roberts, architect, the first of this sort of structure for the benefit of artisans and others. The entrance is in Streatham Street.
1 Malone's Dryden, vol. ii. p. 97.
Scott's Dryden, vol. xviii. p. 166.
END OF VOL. I
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