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Edward VI. the church was pulled down, and a stable and hayloft built in its place. The churchyard was reserved as a garden.

Austin Friars, OLD BROAD STREET, BROAD STREET WARD, the house of the Augustine Friars, founded by Humphrey Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, in the year 1253. Henry VIII., at the Dissolution, bestowed the house and grounds on William Paulet, first Marquis of Winchester, who transformed his new acquisition into a town residence for himself, called, while it continued in his family, by the name of Paulet House and Winchester House (hence Winchester Street adjoining). The church, reserved by the King, was granted by his son “to the Dutch nation in London, to be their preaching place,” the “Dutch nation” being the refugees who fled out of the Netherlands, France, “and other parts beyond seas, from Papist persecutors." Edward VI. records the circumstance in his Diary :

June 29, 1550.---It was appointed that the Germans should have the Austin Friars for their church, to have their service in, for avoiding of all sects of AnaBaptists, and such like.

The grant was confirmed by several successive sovereigns, and is enjoyed by the Dutch to this day. Originally the church was cruciform, had choir, chapels, and “a most fine spired steeple, small, high, and straight.” Stow, who tells us this, adds, “I have not seen the like.” But the church was then in a bad state, the steeple especially. The Mayor and Corporation “drew up a large letter,” August 4, 1600, to the Marquis of Winchester, "in the most pathetic words and moving arguments, exciting him to go in hand with the work” of repairing the steeple, the fall of which, they say, "must needs bring with it not only a great deformity to the whole City, it being for architecture one of the beautifullest and rarest spectacles thereof; but also a fearful eminent danger to all the inhabitants next adjoining.” But instead of repairing, the Marquis pulled down the spire and demolished the choir and transepts, leaving only to the Dutch congregation the nave of the old church. This, which Sir Gilbert Scott affirms is “a perfect model of what is most practically useful in the nave of a church,” continued to be so used till November 1862, when all but the outer walls and the columns dividing the nave and aisles was destroyed in an accidental fire. The church was carefully and thoroughly restored (1863-1865), at a cost of £12,000, under the direction of Messrs. Edward I'Anson and William Lightly, architects, and is now in a more satisfactory condition than it has been since its threatened demolition in 1600.

For nearly three centuries the Austin Friars was a favourite burial place for the greatest nobles and the wealthiest citizens. Strype (Survey, B. ii. p. 115) names many distinguished personages; but a longer enumeration is preserved in Harl. MS., 6003, and in No. 544 of the same collection. John Vere, Earl of Oxford, beheaded 1643, and others who suffered on Tower Hill, and “many of the barons slain at Barnet Field, 1471,” were buried there. A volume containing the marriage, baptismal, and burial registers from 1571 to 1874, edited

by W. J. C. Moens, was privately printed and issued to subscribers in 1885. The church contains some very good decorated windows, restorations, or rather careful copies, of the originals. The interior is 150 feet long, divided into nine bays. The extreme width is 79 feet 7 inches, the nave being 34 feet 11 inches between centres of the shafts, and each side 22 feet 4 inches. The inner walls are of hard chalk, the exterior of Kentish rag. The fittings are of course arranged in accordance with the practice of the Dutch Church.

On the west end over the skreen is a fair library, inscribed thus : “Ecclesiæ Londino-Belgicæ Bibliotheca, extructa sumptibus Mariæ Dubois, 1659.” In this library are divers valuable MSS., and Letters of Calvin, Peter Martyr, and others, foreign Reformers.--Strype, B. ii. p. 116.

Happily this collection of books was saved from the Fire, and shortly after was presented by the congregation to the City, and deposited in the Guildhall Library.

Lord Winchester died in 1571, and was succeeded by his son, who sold “the monuments of noblemen, buried there, for £100; made fair stabling for horses, in place thereof, and sold the lead from the roofs and laid it anew with tile.” 1 In 1602 the necessities of the fourth Marquis of Winchester were such, that he was compelled to part with his house and property in Austin Friars to John Swinnerton, a merchant, afterwards Lord Mayor. Sir Philip Sidney's friend, Fulke Greville, then an inhabitant of Austin Friars, communicates his alarm about the purchase to the Countess of Shrewsbury, another tenant of the Marquis of Winchester, in that quarter :

Since my return from Plymouth, I understand my Lord Marquis hath offered his house for sale, and there is one Swinnerton, a merchant, that hath engaged himself to deal for it. The price, as I hear, is £ 5000, his offer £4500 ; so as the one's need, and the other's desire, I doubt will easily reconcile this difference of price between them. In the mean season I thought it my duty to give your ladyship notice, because both your house and my lady of Warwick's are included in this bargain ; and we, your poor neighbours, would think our dwellings desolate without you, and conceive your ladyship would not willingly become a tenant to such a fellow.Letter, September 23, 1602 (Lodge's Illus., 8vo ed., vol. ii. p. 580.

In 1612 a petition was presented to the Lord Treasurer from the “Dutch Church in London, called the Austin Friars, or Jesus Temple,” begging “that the tenure of the land which they have bought of the Marquis of Winchester for a churchyard may be changed into free soccage, it being now held in capite.”2 Lady Anne Clifford (Ann Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery) was married to the Earl of Dorset in her mother's chambers in Austin Friars House, February 25, 1608-1609.3 Erasmus, during one of his visits to London (1513), lodged in Austin Friars, and took his meals in the Convent. Malt liquor did not agree with him, and he complains of the difficulty of procuring good wine.* Sir Thomas Wentworth (Lord Strafford) writes to Lord Darcy from Austin Friars, January 9, 1621: Dr. Mead gave up his house in 1 Stow, p. 67.

3 Birch's Prince Henry, p. 140. ? Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 16111618, P. 133.

4 Johnson's Life of Erasmus, vol. i. p. 42.

Crutched Friars in 1711, and removed to Austin Friars. Here (1735) Richard Gough, the antiquary, was born; and here, at No. 18, lived James Smith, one of the authors of the Rejected Addresses. A second James Smith coming to the place after he had been many years a resident, produced so much confusion to both, that the last comer waited on the author and suggested, to prevent future inconvenience, that one or other had better leave, hinting at the same time, that he should like to stay. No," said the wit, “I am James the First; you are James the Second ; you must abdicate.” One of the last of the remaining old houses in Austin Friars was demolished in the spring of 1888. [See Drapers' Hall and Gardens. ]

Austin's (St.) House, SOUTHWARK. This was the Abbot's Inn of St. Augustine of Canterbury, which stood between the Bridge House and the Church of St. Olave. It was at one time held from the Earls of Warren and Surrey, as appears by a deed of 1281.

The house afterwards came into the possession of the St. Leger family. It was sold in 1566 by Richard Grenville to George Fletcher, by the description" of a capital messuage or mansion house called St. Austin's, alias St. Leger's House, between the Bridge House, a wood wharf, the tenement called the Draper's rent, the river Thames on the north, and a lane leading to the same and the Bridge House." A wharf was built on the site and named Sellinger.-Rendle's Old Southwark, 1878, p. 267.

Ave Maria Lane, between LUDGATE Hill and PATERNOSTER Row.

Ave-Mary Lane, so called of text-writers and bead-makers, then dwelling there.Stow, p. 126. Ave-maria aly” is mentioned in the curious early poem of Cocke Lorelles Bote, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, circ. 1506. In Queen Anne's time “The Black Boy Coffee-house,” in this lane, was the chief place for the sale of books by auction.

Avenue (The).

September 11, 1651.-Whitehall, Council of State to Major-General Skippon.We hear that the guards upon the Avenue, under colour of examining and searching suspicious persons, very much molest and trouble all passengers, as well those who are going out of town as those who are coming in, and that they demand money to let people go, which is a most intolerable abuse. Give order that this practice be forborne, and that all things be in the condition they were in before the late invasion by the Scotch army.Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1651, p. 425.

Avenue Road, St. John's Wood. The Right Hon. Sir Robert Lush, Lord Justice (1807-1881), died at No. 6.

Axe Lane.

Some dozen years later [about 1769] Goldsmith startled a brilliant circle at Bennet Langton's with an anecdote of “When I lived among the beggars in Axe Lane,” just as Napoleon, 50 years later, appalled the party of crowned heads at Dresden with his story of “When I was a lieutenant in the regiment of La Fère."Forster's Life of Oliver Goldsmith.

The Axe Lane of the story was perhaps Axe Yard, on the left hand in Grub Street, and may have referred to the period when he

belonged to the fraternity named after the street so many of them inhabited.

Axe Yard, King STREET, WESTMINSTER, where Fludyer Street was afterwards built (about 1767), and so called from “a great messuage or brew-house” on the west side of King Street, “commonly called the Axe.” This place is referred to in a document of the 23d of Henry VIII., 1531. Sir William Davenant, the poet, according to Aubrey, had cause to remember “the black handsome wench that lay in Axe Yard, Westminster.” Pepys opens his Diary (January 1, 1660) by stating : "I lived in Axe Yard, having my wife and servant Jane, and no other in family than us three.” They appear to have let out the main part of the house, and lived themselves in the garret.

August 10, 1660.—By the way, I cannot forget that my Lord Claypoole did the other day make enquiry of Mrs. Hunt, concerning my house in Axe Yard, and did set her on work to get it of me for him, which methinks is a very great change. Pepys.

Samuel Hartlib dated a letter to J. Winthrop from here, September

3, 1661.

In 1663 Bishop Sprat writes to Wren : Now then, my dearest friend, you may recollect we went lately from Axe Yard to walk in St. James's Park, and, though we met not the accomplished person (Cowley) whose company we sought, yet he was enough present to our thoughts to bring us to discourse of that in which he so much deals, the wit of conversation.-Wren's Parentalia, p. 256.

July 20, 1665.—Lord! to see how the plague spreads! It being now all over King's Streete, at the Axe, and next door to it, and in other places.- Pepys.

Act, Anno, 6 and 7 Will. III. (1695) c. 20.—To enable William Wanley, an infant under 21 years, to new build several messuages or tenements in Axe Yard, King Street, Westminster, and to enable his Guardian to make one or more leases for effecting the same.

Aylesbury Street, CLERKENWELL, leads from St. John Street to Clerkenwell Green, and covers the site of the house and gardens of the Bruces, Earls of Aylesbury, to whom the old Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem descended from the Cecil family, and with whom it continued till 1706. Earl Robert, Deputy Earl Marshal, dates many of his letters in 1671 from Aylesbury House, Clerkenwell.

On the south side of Aylesbury Street, and “at the corner house of that passage (Jerusalem Passage] leading by the Old Jerusalem Tavern, under the gateway of the Priory in St. John's Square,” Thomas Britton, the musical small - coalman, held his celebrated music meetings for a period of six and thirty years (1678-1714); he played on the viol-da-gamba with the skill of an artist, and the leading musicians of the day assembled at his meetings. Handel and Pepusch played the organ there; Bannister the violin. Dubourg joined the party immediately on his arrival. Woolaston, the painter, played on the violin or Aute, and painted the portrait of the concert giver, which was engraved in mezzotint. John Hughes, the poet, Henry Symonds, Needler of the Excise, Abiell Wichello, Shuttleworth, and Sir Roger L'Estrange, are mentioned by Hawkins among the

performers, and the Duchess of Queensbury as a regular attendant. Britton was also a collector of prints, drawings, books, especially works on astrology and alchemy, music, and old musical instruments, and the sale of his collections after his decease attracted much notice.

On the ground floor was a repository for small coal, and over that was the concert room, which was very long and narrow, and had a ceiling so low that a tall man could but just stand upright in it. It has long since been pulled down and rebuilt. At this time [1776] it is an ale house known by the sign of the Bull's Head.-Hawkins's History of Music, vol. v. p. 74.

Various were the opinions concerning him : some thought his musical assembly only a cover for seditious meetings; others for magical purposes. He was taken for an atheist, a presbyterian, a jesuit. But Woolaston, the painter, and the father of a gentleman from whom I received this account, and who were both members of the music-club, assured him that Britton was a plain, simple, honest man, who only meaned to amuse himself. His subscription was but ten shillings a year : Britton found the instruments, and they had coffee at a penny a dish. Sir Hans Sloane bought many of his books and MSS. (now in the Museum) when they were sold by auction at Tom's Coffee-house, near Ludgate.—Walpole, Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wornun, vol. ii. p. 236.

Tho' doomed to small coal yet to arts allied,
Rich without wealth and famous without pride;
Music's best patron, judge of books and men,
Beloved and honoured by Apollo's train,
In Greece or Rome sure never did appear
So bright a genius in so dark a sphere !PRIOR.

Ayliffe Street. [See Goodman's Fields Theatre.]

Babmaes Mews, JERMYN STREET, named after Baptist May, Keeper of the Privy Purse to Charles II., but the origin of the name seems to have been forgotten, if we may judge from the spelling adopted. The name is spelt correctly in Elmes's Topographical Dictionary of London, 1831.

Bacon House stood in FOSTER LANE, CHEAPSIDE, and was so called after Lord Keeper Bacon, the father of the Chancellor. It seems to have been inhabited jointly by the Bacon family and by Recorder Fleetwood, the constant correspondent of the great Lord Burghley. It had previously been called Shelley House. Sir Thomas Shelley was owner of it, temp. Henry IV.

July 21, 1578.—My Lord Keeper, My Ladie, and all the howse are come to London this night. 1

There is a charity in Bassishaw Ward called Lady Bacon's Charity, the income of which, derived from houses in the ward, is distributed by trustees, who, in pursuance of the lady's will, have an annual feast, with a magnificent piece of bacon invariably as a standard dish.

Bag of Nails (properly THE BACCHANALS), a public-house at the corner of Arabella Row (changed to Lower Grosvenor Place in 1879) and Buckingham Palace Road. According to the Tavern Anec

1 "Fleetwood to Burghley,” Wright, vol. ii. p. 89.

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