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tricts farther west. But among them there are also many order to kill them and carry off their heads. These heads families of Hindustani and Persian origin, who are distinare used in certain ceremonies which are performed at the guished by their features and the stronger make of the funerals of their chiefs. In this particular, and also in their body.

features, which approach those of the Chinese and other The Kacharis form the bulk of the population in Kachar, nations of the Mongol race, they resemble the Garrows, who but they are also found in Asam and Tiperah. They con. also, like the Kukis, eat all kinds of animals, But both stitute a distinct people, differing in appearance, religion, and nations, as well as the Nagas, and the Mugs in Arracan, customs from the other inhabitants. The antient religion cannot be induced to take milk or anything made of it, of Kachar is different from Brahmanism. It acknowledges This similarity in customs, and also in their physical chaa Supreme Being, or first principle, from which the world racter, leads to the conclusion that all these nations belong and all that it contains is derived. The manifest powers of to the same race of wbich the Chinese constitute a branch, nature are worshipped, or rather, certain spirits who have It is however remarkable that the Garrows are separated authority over them and influence the changes of the from those nations by the Kasias and Kacharis, who differ seasons. Bụt in modern times Brahmanism has gained in the conformation of their bodies, and among whom all footing, and is spreading. The Kacharis have a distinct the customs just enumerated are unknown. It is nearly language, but as it is unwritten, it has been superseded certain that the Kukis are cannibals, for all purposes of business by the Bengali for many cen- Political Divisions and Towns.-Thạt portion of Silhel turies, so that at present the language is not known by which forms a part of the British possessions contains the many of the Kacharis themselves. The Kacharis are in- district of Silhet, and the two countries of Jyntea and dustrious agriculturists.

Kachar, which have lately been annexed to it, The Kasias, commonly called Cossyas, call themselves 1. Silhet comprehends the whole of the lower and a part Khyee, and inhabit the mountains, which have obtained of the upper plain as far east as the Banca Mountains or their name from this nation. They are an athletic race of the Delaseri river. It seems to contain many small towns, mountaineers, fond of martial appearance, and their repu- and some of considerable extent. The largest is probably tation as warriors is hardly extinct, for their extensive pre. Baniachung, situated in the low plain between the Soorma datory inroads are still remembered in Silhet and Asam. and Brak rivers. It is the residence of the raja of Banja, Their religion is limited to certain superstitious practices, chung, the greatest land proprietor in Silhet, and is a large and to reverencing and sacrificing to ihe presiding deities place, containing a great population. The town of Azmeof villagės, bills, and similar localities, without the know. rigunj, west of Baniachung, on the banks of the Sgorma, is ledge of a universal and all-pervading intelligence. Brah: 2. place of considerable inland traffic, with a boat-building manism has made some progress among the Kasias, espe-establishment for the construction of native craft. The town cially those of Jyntea, but it has not led to the entire aboli- of Silhet is built on the upper plain, on the banks of the tion of their national superstitions, connected with which Soorma, and is the seat of the local government. Laour, was the practice of human sacrifice. The Khyee language farther west, at the foot of the Garrows Mountains, carries is unwritten, and exhibits no affinity to any of the neighs on a considerable commerce with the Garrows, who bring bouring languages, some of which, numerous and diver- cotton, wax, and honey, which they exchange for salt and sified as they are, contain various indications of a common some cotton-cloth and brass ornaments. Lime is sent from origin. No great respect is paid by the Kasias to hereditary this place to Calcutta. Pondua, a small fortress, at the chiefs, though their rank is readily admitted, but their in- base of the Kasia Mountains north-north-west of Calcutta, fluence depends more on their personal character and their is the market for the Kasias, who inhabit the western part of power to direct the public assemblies without which nothing the mountain region. They exchange wax, honey, oranges, is determined either in the community collectively or in areca nuts, cassia, and other products of their country, for the several villages. It was reserved to the British govern- cotton stuffs, salt, rice, and other provisions, ment to subdue the martial disposition of this people, and 2. Jyntea lies north of the upper plain of Silhet, of which to com pel them to discontinue their predatory incursions a small portion also belongs to it, and it extends north ward into Silhet and Asam. Polyandry is said to exist among to the boundary of Asam, where also a part of the low the Kasias, but if it is still in use, it is far from being and flat country was subject to its raja, but ihe greater porgeneral.

tion of this country was in the Kasia Mountains, and the The Nagas are another race of mountaineers, consisting Kasias constituted ihe principal population of the raja's terof numerous small tribes, which extend from the southern ritory. Eastward it extended to the Kopili, or the bounborder of the vale of Asam, east of the Kopili river, to the dary of Kachar; and on the west it was separated from the eastern portion of the Tiperah Mountains. On the north mountains inhabited by the Garrows by two smaller couneast they appear to be neighbours of the Khamtis. They tries, called Koiram and Pulla, whose sovereigns however are generally associated with the Kukis, from whom how seem to have been dependent in some degree on the raja of ever they differ essentially in language, customs, and ap- | Jyntea, as they now are on the British. Jynteapoor, the pearance. Though in general tall, well made, and often capital, is built not far from the southern declivity of the powerful men, the limbs of the Nagas have not the massive Kasia Mountains in the plain, about 20 miles to the north of configuration of those of the Kukis and other hill-men. It the town of Silhet. The convalescent station. of Chirra appears from the features of their face that they belong to Punji is in the territories of the raja of Koiram, and that of the Mongolic race. The Nagas are not a migratory or wan- Nungklao is in those of the raja of Dulla. dering people, like the hill Kacharis and Kukis, who con- 3. Kachar, or Kirumbha, extends over the larger part of tinually change their locality, and seldom keep their yil- the upper plain, and the whole of the mountain region lages more than three years in one spot, whilst the Nagas which is east of the Kopili and west of the Dooyong. But remain fixed. Aļl their villages are built on the tops of within these boundaries are the territories of the Tooleram the mountains, and fortified with stockades and a ditch. raja, and the country inhabited by the Angamee Naga Like the nations that inhabit the peninsula beyond the tribe, which is quite independent, whilst the Tooleram raja Ganges, they eat all kinds of animals, tigers, elephants, is dependent on the British. The country is chiefly inhahogs, dogs, cats, monkeys, and even serpents. It is certain bited by Kacharis, among whom many Naga tribes are diş: that the different dialects which are spoken by them differ persed, and also a number of Kukis, Bengalis, and fugitives so much that several tribes living not far from one another from Muneepoor. Kachpoor, the capital, is on the plain can have no intercourse without an interpreter. Several of between the banks of the Barak river and the base of the their tribes are much addicted to plundering. In 1839 Bura Ail range: it is a poor place. East of it, and south of some troops were sent by the British against the Angamee the pass of Haflong, is the village of Oodarbund, which is Nagas, who inhabıt the mountainous country north of the much resorted to by the Naga tribes, who exchange cotton, Bura Ail range, and had become very troublesome to the ivory, wax, and cbillies, for salt, dried fish, conch shells, Kacharis who inhabit Upper Kachar.

beads, and brass ornaments. But the chief part of the The Kukis inhabit the Tiperah Mountains. A few families cotton collected in these parts is brought in boats to Raha of this race, which are found in Upper Kachar, have been Chocky in Asam. transplanted to that country in modern times. Though History: -Silhet Proper seems always to have been sub, short of stature, they seem to be the most powerful of all ject to the sovereign of Bengal, and it passed with that pro the mountaineers in that part of the world, and have long vince under the dominion of the British: but it does not been notorious for their attacks on the peaceful inhabitants appear that any portion of the mountain region, or even of the plain, not for the purpose of plundering them, but in Lower Kachar, has ever belonged to any sovereign of Hin

dustan. Some centuries agn however the greater part of suggested by the shadow thrown upon a wall. Beckmann, these countries was included in the empire of Kamroop, in his paper on · Plant Impressions' (Hist. of Inventions, which also extended over the greater part of Asam. This English edit

. of 1814, vol. iv., p. 621), observes, in reference er pire fell to pieces, and then the kingdoms of Muneepoor, to such productions and profile portraits, “If it be true that Kachar, and Jyntea were formed. Continual disputes in the extreme boundaries of all things approach or touch each the reigning families rendered them weak, but the dif- other, one might almost believe that the arts of drawing and ficulties of entering their country with an army secured engraving on copper must have attained nearly to the them against foreign invasion. The English, after taking highest degree of perfection. At present,' he continues, possession of Bengal, did not pay attention to these coun- ' while we have among us a Tischbein, a Haid, and other tries, considering this frontier sufficiently defended by the great artists, whose portraits of the persons whom they weakness of their neighbours. In 1774 they punished the honour with their pencil or graver are such striking likeKasias of Jyntea for their predatory incursions by taking nesses that they appear to live, we return again to the possession of that country, but restored it to the raja on commencement of the art of drawing, the paltry outline of payment of a fine. The Burmese, taking advantage of dis- a shadow, like the love-sick daughter of Dibutades, and putes in the royal family of Muneepoor, possessed them think we ornament our apartments and books with these selves of that country, and at last (1820) declared it to be a dark and dismal profiles, and that we can discover by them part of their empire, and they soon after sent an army from the talents and disposition of the persons they are supposed Birma, and another from Asam, to the conquest of Kachar. to represent.' The name silhouette has been said to be Upon this the sovereign of that country and the raja of derived from Etienne de Silhouette, French minister of Jyntea placed themselves under the protection of the finance in 1759. It appears that several parsimonious British. During the war with the Burmese, the possession fashions introduced during his administration, in order, by of these countries was obstinately disputed, but by the peace severe economy, to remedy the evils of a war that had just of Yandaboo (1825) they were given up to the British, who terminated, were called, after this minister, à la Silhouette; restored them to their legitimate sovereigns. In 1830 the raja and that the name has continued to be applied to one of of Kachar, Govind Chandra, died, without leaving any issue, them,—the use of profiles in shade. and the East India Company took possession of Kachar. A Silhouettes are executed in various ways. One of the few years afterwards the raja of Jyntea was deprived of his simplest is that of tracing the outlines of a shadow thrown country on account of his crimes and his crueliy, and since on a sheet of paper, and then reducing them to the required that time both countries have been united to Silhet.

size, either by the eye or by means of a pantograph. (Pan(Walter's Journey across the Pundoa Hills, in Asiatic TOGRAPH, vol. xvii., p. 192.] Another mode is tracing the Researches, vol. xvii.; Pemberton's Report on the Eastern outline upon a glass supported in a suitable position, and Frontier of British India; MacClelland, On the Dif- either coated with a solution of gum-arabic in water, in order ference of Level in Indian Coal-fields, in Journal of the to enable a lead pencil to mark upon it, or covered with a Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1838; Grange's Narrative of an sheet of very thin tracing-paper. The camera-obscura and Expedition into the Naga Territory of Assam, in Journul camera-lucida are also occasionally used for the purpose. of Asiat. Society of Bengal, 1839; Fisher's Memoir of A more certain mode of obtaining an accurate outline is by Sylhet, Kuchar, and the adjacent Districts, in Journal of the use of the machine invented for the purpose by Mr. the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, 1840; Wilson's History of the Schmalcalder, and patented by him in 1806. The prinBurmese Wur.)

ciple of this machine is very simple, and may be readily SILHOUETTE, a name frequently applied to the black understood by the aid of the annexed d agram. ab is an prolle portraits comn.only known simply as profiles or intlexible rod, usually about nine or ten feet Jong, supported shades. The latter name indicates the origin of this simple by a ball-and-socket joint at c, in such a manner as to leave class of pictorial representations, they having been probably 'the ends free to move in any direction. At the end a, a


tracer, which is tapered off to a fine point, is attached to swinging board d may be drawn back from the steel point the rod, so as to form a continuation of it; while at the when it is required to move the rod without making a mark opposite end, b, a steel point is similarly fixed. The person upon the paper. As it is desirable to have the tracer a of whose profile is required is seated, in the position indicated small diameter, it is usually formed of steel, and carefully in the cut, in a chair having a rest for the back of the head, tempered, to avoid the risk of breakage. Greater accuracy in order that he may sit perfectly still, while the operator may be attained by substituting for the tracer a thin wire, gently passes the side of the tracer, a, over his features. By tightly stretched in a bow, and adjusted so as to coincide ihe intervention of the universal joint at c, a perfectly similar perfectly with the axis of the rod. Some friction may be motion is communicated to the steel point at b, although, avoided by using a double-swivel joint, instead of the ballowing to the pivot being placed nearer to it than to the other and-socket, at c; but whaterer kind of pivot be adopted, end of the rod, it moves in a path smaller than that of the great care should be taken to have it perfectly accurate, as tracer a. The pivot c being stationary, the steel point at bany defect in it will produce a distorted drawing. When moves in the arc of a circle of which it (the pivot) is the the outline of a profile is obtained by any of the means just centre, as indicated by the dotted line in the diagram; and described, it requires to be carefully filled in with colour by therefore, in order to keep the paper always in contact with hand. In some cases, in the use of Schmalcalder's machine, it, it is fixed on a swinging board, pivoted at d, and con- a kind of knife is substituted for the steel point at b, and stantly pressed against the steel point by means of a weight the profile is thus cut out of a piece of thin black paper or spring, with a sufficient degree of force to make it act placed on the swinging board. This machine may also be efficiently. The steel point does not come into immediate used for making reduced copies of druwings or prints, by contact with the white paper, but with a piece of blacked attaching a suitable tracing-point at a, and ixing the origipaper placed over it, the pressure of the point transferring nal drawing on a second swinging board in contact with it; a sufficient quantity of the colour to form a distinct line. the operator guiding the tracing-point over all the outlines This part of the operation resembles that of a manifold that he wishes to copy. Some profilists display considerable writer; and, as in that instrument, several copies may be talent in cutting silhouettes by hand, with a pair of scissors, produced simultaneously, by using a number of pieces of out of pieces of black paper, without the assistance of an white and blacked paper, laid alternately upon the swinging outline. board. The size of the reduced outline drawn on the paper Although silhouettes have no claim to the character of may be regulated by varying the relative proportions of ac works of art, they frequently convey a very good idea of the and cb; this and several other adjustments being effected person represented ; and they may be made even elegant in by apparatus which it is unnecessary here to detail. Byl appearance. Some of the best profilists greatly improve means of a cord eee, held in the hand of the operator, the i the appearance of their silhouettes by adding the principal



markings of the hair and drapery, which, if judiciously which it makes with alkalis and earths, to form glass, are done, has a very good effect. Of the great extent to which considered as salts. Thus with potash it forms silicate of this kind of portrait has been patronised, some idea may be potash; with soda, silicate of soda; and with oxide of lead, formed from the fact that Mr. Schmalcalder has made and silicate of lead; and these are all constituents of glass. sold nearly a hundred of his machines.

China and porcelain, on the other hand, may be regarded SILICIUM, or SI'LICON, the base of the well-known as silicates of alumina and magnesia, and mortar is probably earth Silica or Flint. By some chemists it is regarded as a a silicate of lime. metal, and hence the termination of its name in um, while It must be evident from what has been stated, that silica others consider it as non-metallic, but more allied to boron, is a substance of the utmost importance in many respects; and these adopt the term Silicon.

it enters largely into the constitution of minerals, rocks, and Sir H. Davy, by acting upon. Silica with potassium, ar- fossils, and is employed in the manufacture of glass, porcerived at the conclusion that it was an oxide, containing a lain, pottery, bricks, tiles, and mortar. peculiar intlammable base, to which he gave the name of The compounds which silicon forms with other elements Silicium; the accuracy of this determination has since been are comparatively unimportant: we shall mention only a demonstrated by Berzelius.

few of them, and those but briefly. In Davy's experiments the silica yielded its oxygen Chlorine and Silicon may be made to combine by heating directly to the potassium. The process of Berzelius was the silicon in chlorine gas, or by passing the gas over silicon different: he prepared it more advantageously by passing heated to redness in a porcelain tube; or, according to Oersted, lluosilicic acid into a solution of potash, evaporating the by passing chlorine gas over a red-hot mixture of finely solution to dryness, and heating the residne nearly to red. powdered silica and charcoal. ness; this being thea heated with about an equal weight of Chloride of Silicon is composed of potassium in a green glass tube, the potassium combines

1 Equivalent of Chlorine

36 with the oxygen of the silica; the resulting mass is of a

1 Equivalent of Silicon brown colour, and is to be washed at first with cold water, and afterwards with hot; then heated to redness; and, lastly,


44 digested in dilute hydrofluoric acid, to separate any adhering It is a volatile liquid which emits acid fumes; when exsilica :: the silicon then remains nearly pure.

posed to moist air, or mixed with water, both are decomThe properties of silicon are, that it has a dark brown posed, and the results are hydrochloric acid and silica. colour, no lustre, and is a non-conductor of electricity: it is Fluorine and Silicon. [FLUOSILICIC Aciv.] this latter circumstance which has induced many chemists Metals with Silicon. Some of the metals may be comto question or deny the propriety of classing it with the bined with silicon : these compounds, which are not impormetals. It is insoluble in water, and incombustible in air tant, are termed Siliciurets. Some varieties of cast-iron or in oxygen gas; it neither fuses nor undergoes any other contain nearly 8 per cent of the siliciuret of that metal. change when heated in the flame of the blow-pipe. Neither SILI'CULA (in Botany), a kind of fruit. In its structure the nitric, hydrochloric, sulphuric, nor hydrofluoric acid it resembles the Siliqua (SILIQUA), and differs in nothing oxidizes or dissolves it; but a mixture of nitric and hydro- but its figure, which is rounded and much shorter, and in fluoric acid dissolves it readily, even cold. When ignited the number of its seeds. It is never more than four times with chlorate of potash, silicon is not acted upon; but if as long as broad, and often much shorter. Examples of it deflagrated with nitrate of potash, the silicon combines with may be seen in the whitlow-grass (Draba), in the shepthe oxygen of the decomposed acid, and is converted into herd's-purse (Capsella), and in the borse-radish. silica, or silicic acid; and this uniting with the potash of SI'LIQUA (in Botany), a kind of fruit. It is characterised the decomposed nitrate, silicate of potash is formed. by having one or two cells, with many seeds, dehiscing by

Oxygen and Silicon form only one compound, namely, two valves, which separate from a central portion called the silica, or silicic acid. It may be obtained artificially, but replum. It is linear in form and is always superior to the very inconveniently, in the mode just mentioned, of defla- calyx and corolla. The seeds are attached to two placentæ, grating silicon with nitrate of potash. Silica exists very which adhere to the replum, and are opposite to the lobes largely in nature; it is indeed probably the most abundant of the stigma. This position of the seeds, being abnormal, of all substances whatever. Many of the forms under can only be explained in two ways: either this fruit is in which it occurs are described elsewhere. (Quartz.] Rock reality composed of four carpels, iwo of which have, during crystal is silica, nearly or quite pure, and flints or white the growth of the pistil, become abortive; or the stigmas sand are but slightly intermixed with other bodies. It is must be looked upon as the fusion of two halves, one from artificially obtained in a pure form by fusing crystal, sand, each side. The dissepiment of the fruit in this case is or flints, with about four times their weight of carbonate most probably a spurious one formed by the projecting of soda or carbonate of potash; the resulting fused mass is placentæ. li is sometimes found incomplete, from the either silicate of soda or silicate of potash ; the latter is a edges of the placenta not meeling; it is then said to be fedeliquescent substance, and when it has become fluid by nestrate. This kind of seed-vessel is possessed by a large exposure to the air, has been long known by the name of number of plants belonging to the order Cruciferæ, and exliquor of flints; when either of these silicates is treated with amples may be seen in the stock or wall-flower (Cheiran. hydrochloric acid diluted with water, it combines with the thus), in the ladies' smock (Cardumine), and in the cabbage, alkali, and with any impurity which the sand or flint might turnip, and mustard. The Linnæan class Tetradynamia contain, such as lime, alumina, or oxide of iron, and pre- is divided into two orders, according to the form of its fruit: cipitates the silica as a hydrate in the state of a colourless those plants of the class having a silique are comprised gelatinous mass. It possesses the following properties :- under the order Siliquosa; those having a silicle (Sili

When recently precipitated, and while it refains the state cula), under the order' Siliculosa.
of moist hydrate, it is to a certain extent soluble in water, SI'LIQUA (Megerle), a genus belonging to the Legu-
and still more so in acids, and also in solution of potash or minaria, Schum., and consisting of those species of Solen,
soda. When it has been dried, it is an opaque white powder, Auct., which are furnished with an internal rib-Solen ra-
inodorous, insipid, and gritty, and then with more difficulty diatus for example. [PYLORIDIANS.]
soluble in the alkaline solutions, and scarcely at all so in any SILIQUA'RİA. (VERMETUS.]
other acid than the hydrofluoric. It is infusible by the heat SILI'STRIA, a sandjak (district) of Bulgaria, in Euro-
of ordinary furnaces, but by the oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe it pean Turkey, situated between 42° 12' and 45° 22' N. lat.,
is more readily fused than lime or magnesia. Its specific and 26° 11' and 29° 3' E. long., is one of the most fertile
gravity is about 2:7.

parts of Turkey. This sandjak is bounded on the north It consists of

by the Danube and Sireth, which separate it from Mol1 Equivalent of Oxygen


davia and Bessarabia ; on the east by the Black Sea; on 1 Equivalent of Silicon


the south by the sandjaks of Kirk-kilissia and Tchirmen ;

and it has on the west Rustchuk and Lower Wallachia. It Equivalent


is crossed in the south by the Balkan, which forms Cape Alihough this substance is tasteless, and does not change Emineh, at the termination of the mountain-range: and vegetable blue colours red, and is insoluble in water, except by a ramification of less height in a northern direction under the peculiar circumstances mentioned, it is neverthe-which terminates on the Black Sea in Cape Calaghriah. less by many chemists considered as and classed with acids, From these heights descend the numerous rivers which under the name of Silicic acid; and the various compounds ) fertilise the province; the Pravadi, the Buyuk-CamptP. C., No. 1360.

Vol. XXII.-C

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Chik, the Nadir, and the Aidos flow into the Black |(Ep., iii. 7) seems to us to be correct: Silius wrote with Sea, into which the Danube empties itself on the northern more industry than genius. His poem is in fact a very extremity of the province, after receiving the Dristra, the laboured composition, and the labour is apparent. NumeTaban, and the Karasu. It is chiefly an agricultural rous episodes interrupt the continuity of the narrative. couniry

Silius falls short of his model, Virgil, in simplicity and SILISTRIA, or Drystra, the antient name of which is clearness; and he endeavours to make up for force and preDorostero or Durosterum, in 44° 7' N. lat. and 27° 12' E. cision by rhetorical ornament and long-drawn description. long., 155 miles north-north-east of Constantinople, is the Instead of making a picture by a few striking touches, he capital of the sandjak which bears the same name. The fills it with detail till the whole is trivial. His invention is town is large, and defended by a citadel, which is kept in poor. There are few passages which excite our sympathies. good order, and surrounded by double walls and ditches. In short, the poem is a rhetorical history in verse. All his The city itself is surrounded by ditches from twelve to fif- contemporaries however did not judge so unfavourably of teen feet deep, and defended by strong palisades. The fort him. Martial on several occasions speaks very highly of is situated on the extreme west of the town, which, upon the him, and compares him with Virgil (Ep., iv. 14; vi. 64; vii. whole, is ill built; the streets are narrow and crooked, the 63; 'perpetui nunqnam moritura volumina Sili; viii. 66; houses low and dull; even the five mosques and the two ix. 86; xi. 49, 51): he also celebrates his eminence as an public baths partake of the general ugliness. There is how- orator. According to Martial, in an epigram written after ever at the eastern extremity of the town a custom-house in a Silius had enjoyed the consulate, he did not attempt to imibetter style of architecture. The large magazines which sur- tate Virgil till he had acquired distinction as an advocate. round it contain chiefly corn and flour. As it is a fortress Martial "mentions the court of the Centumviri as one of built on the northern frontier, in the neighbourhood of the the places in which he practised: Pliny the younger also Danube, and is principally of a military character, the com- practised in this court. [Pliny.] merce has never been flourishing; and although many mer- The poems of Silius seem to have been forgotten after his chants have lately settled in Silistria, it is not likely that death, if we may judge from the silence of subsequent any greater commercial activity will be the consequence. writers as to them. Sidonius Apollinaris is the only writer The population amounts to 20,000, the greater part of whom who mentions them. Poggio is said to have discovered a are Greeks.

MS. of Silius in the library of the convent of St. Gallen, in The environs of the town are rather pleasant, and the Switzerland, which was printed at Rome, 1471, folio.

Annumerous vineyards which border the Danube give them a other MS. was afterwards found at Cologne by Ludwig Carrio, cheering aspect. There are also ruins, which are said to from which the text of Silius was improved. It was to supply have formed part of the wall raised by the Greek emperors the loss of the Punica’ that Petrarca, as it is said, wrote his against the incursions of the barbarians.

* Africa.' It has been conjectured that Petrarca had a copy Silistria has frequently been the theatre of sharp actions of Silius, which he made use of, and carefully suppressed. between the Russians and the Turks. It was unsuccessfully Such conduct would be quite inconsistent with the character besieged by the Russians in 1773, and was again attacked by of Petrarca, and one would suppose that a comparison of the them in 1779, on which latter occasion they suffered a con- two poems would soon determine whether there is any founsiderable loss. In 1828 General Rosh was obliged to retreat dation for such a statement. after besieging the town for some months; but it fell into There are numerous editions of Silius. The editio printhe hands of the Russians in 1829, when Generals Diebitch ceps is that of Rome already mentioned. There is an edi. and Krassowski took it by assault on the 30th of June. tion by Drakenborch, Utrecht, 1717, and Mitau, 1775; by SI'LIUS ITA’LICUS, CAIUS. The place of this poet's Ernesti

, Leipzig, 1791-2; and by Ruperti, with a preface birth is unknown. It has sometimes been stated that the by Heyne, Göttingen, 1795-98. name is derived from Italica (near Seville) in Spain, and There is an English translation by Thomas Ross, London, that this was the birth-place of himself or of his ancestors. 1661, 1672, folio; and a French translation by Le Febvre But to this conjecture we must oppose the silence of Martial, de Villebrune, Paris, 1781, 3 vols, 12mo. who frequently mentions Silius without speaking of his SILIVRI, a seaport of Romania, in European Turkey, Spanish origin. The name also ought in that case, accord-in 41° 4' N. lat. and 28° 13' E. long., thirty-two miles west ing to analogy, to be Italicensis. Silius was of an illustrious of Constantinople, is built in the form of an amphitheatre, plebeian family. He studied oratory, in which Cicero was on the declivity of a small hill facing the Sea of Marmara. his pattern; and he also aspired to make himself a poet on It forms a beautiful object when seen from the sea, and the model of Virgil. He is said to have possessed himself commands a fine prospect of the Sea of Marmara. The top of a country-house that had belonged to Cicero, and of one of the hill is crowned by the ruins of a fort, which was that had belonged to Virgil. (Martial, Emig., xi. 48.) In built under the Greek empire. The population is 1500 the year A.D. 68, in the last year of the reign of Nero, he Greeks and 200 Jews. The part of the town below the fort was consul with M. Valerius Trachalus Turpilianus; and is solely occupied by Turks, who are about 4500. The Turks some time after he was governor of the province of Asia, have several mosques, and a market-place, which is much which he is said to have administered in a creditable man. admired. The harbour admits only small vessels, and is ner. He was a friend of Vitellius, and appears to be the generally filled with fishing-boats, which furnish the inhaSilius Italicus who is mentioned by Tacitus (Hist., iii. 65), bitants with a plentiful supply of food. The environs of There was, says Pliny ( Ep., iii. 7), a rumour that he had the town are covered with vineyards and corn-fields. The acted the part of an accuser or informer under the reign of antient name is Sely bria, often written Selymbria. (Steph. Nero; but while he enjoyed the friendship of Vitellius, he Byzant., Enivußpia; Strabo, p. 319, Casa ub., EnAußpia.) It conducted himself with prudence. He finally retired to his was a colony of the Megarians. estate in Campania, where he devoted himself to poetry and SILK. The manner in which raw silk is produced has philosophy. Silius was fond of objects of art, and he en-already been described [BOMBYCIDÆ], and its value when riched his residence with statues, paintings, and books. wrought and manufactured has also been noticed. [RIBAND.] When his old age became troubled with infirmities, he has- China was undoubtedly the country in which men first tened his death by starvation, in which he followed the availed themselves of the labours of the silk-worm. Serica fashion of those times, when suicide was not uncommon. (the country of the Seres) was a name by which the MaceSilius was a Stoic. The time of his death is fixed at a.d. donian Greeks designated the country which produced the 100, when he is said to have completed his seventy-fifth silk that came overland from the north of China. The auyear. He was married, and had two children. He enjoyed, thor of the ‘Periplus of the Erythræan Sea' speaks of silk says Pliny, unmingled happiness to the day of his death, in Malabar as an article imported from countries farther to with the exception of the loss of his younger child. the east; from which it may be inferred that the culture of

The only extant work of Silius Italicus is an epic poem the silk-worm and the manufacture of silk had not been inon the second Punic war, in seventeen books, entitled troduced even into India four hundred years after silk was Punica.' This poem, which may be called an historical known in Europe. In speaking of the country of the epic, comprises the chief events of the war from the com- Thinæ, the same author observes that both the raw matemencement of the siege of Saguntum (i. 268), to the defeat rial and manufactured article were obtained there. The of Hannibal in Africa and the triumph of Scipio Africanus. · Median robes,' spoken of by the Greek writers of the period [Scipio.] The materials of Silius seem to be chielly taken of the Persian empire, and extolled for their lustrous beauty from Polybius and Livy, and the poem has consequently a and brilliancy, were no doubt silken vestments, as Procokind of historical value. As a work of art, it has been va- pius, long afterwards, when silk had been introduced into riously estimated, but the judgment of the younger Pliny' Europe, states that 'the robes which were formerly called

But from the flow'rs that in the desert bloom

Median by the Greeks are now called silken.' Aristotle is and Malta, where the wages of labour have nearly reached the first Greek author who mentions the silk-worm (Nat. their minimum. The subject however has again recently Hist., v. 19), and he states that silk was first spun in the attracted attention in the American Union; and in 1831 a island of Cos, but the raw material was still an oriental pro- small quantity of raw silk was exported. The production of duct; and Pliny (xi. 22), in commenting on this passage, raw silk is fast extending in British India, and the quality states that the silk came from Assyria, and was worked up has been for some years gradually improving. There is by the Greek women: it may be remarked that Assyria was, every prospect of the English market being in time almost like Media, frequently used in an indefinite' sense by antient exclusively supplied with silk from our Indian possessions; writers. The probability is that silk was used in Western as labour is not only cheaper than in any part of Europe, Asia before it was known to the Greeks; and that it was in but three crops' of silk may be taken in the year, while use among the Greeks long before they knew whence the from countries west of India, including Turkey, only one substance came or how it was produced. Thus Virgil (Georg., can be obtained. In Graham's 'India,' it is said that in the ii. 121) supposes that the Seres carded the silk from leaves; Deccan the mulberry-trees may be deprived of their leaves and Dionysius Periegetes also supposed it to be a vegetable six times a year, and that six crops of worms may be obproduct : thus he says,

tained with ease in the same period. The Chinese method of

rearing silk-wormis, and their mode of treating the mulberry• Norflocks nor herds the distant Seres tend;

tree (described in Davis's China, p. 280), were introduced at Tinctur'd with every varying hue, they cull

St. Helena, under the auspices of the East India Company, The glossy down, and card it for the loom.'

but on the expiration of their charter the establishment Pausanias gives more precise information respecting the lieved to be better than that of any country in the world.

was given up. Some of the silk produced in France is besubstance from which the Seres formed their cloths. They The average price is twenty francs per lb., and the quantity have,' he says, “a spinning insect, which is kept in build, produced exceeds three million lus. The Italian silk is ings, and produces a fine-spun thread, which is wrapped also highly esteemed; the quantity produced is estimated at about its feet' (vi. 26). It was not until the sixth century from six io seven million lbs. In Russia Peter the Great that the obscurity which enveloped this subject was cleared forined mulberry plantations, and the rearing of silk-worms up. At this time silk was an article of general use among was strongly encouraged by the Empress Catharine, and the Romans, and was manufactured for them by the inha: at present those who engage in this business obtain many bitants of Tyre and Berytus in Phænicia. The Persians mo

important privileges. In Bavaria and other parts of Gernopulised the supply of the raw material, and guay their

many, with the exception of Saxony, the silk-worm is suctrade with so much jealousy, both by land and sea, that cessfully reared as a commercial object; also in Sweden, travellers from or to China were not allowed to traverse the where the silk is said to possess some valuable proPersian dominions; and in the time of Justinian, in conse- perties not found in that produced in a warmer latitude. quence of some interference with the trade, they had en- The last attempt to introduce the silk-worm in the United tirely stopped the importation of silk. The trade in silk Kingdom on a large scale was made in 1835, by a company was in this unsatisfactory state, when two Nestorian monks which commenced its operations by planting 80 acres in the of Persia, who had travelled to China, acquainted Justinian county of Cork with 4000 mulberry-trees; but the design with the mode of producing silk, and undertook to return has been abandoned as far as relates to the United Kingand bring back with them some of the eggs of the silk- dom, and the company has transferred its operations to worm. They were perfectly successful in their expedition, Malta. and a quantity of eggs, secured in a hollow cane, were

There are several works devoted to details of the managebrought in safety to Constantinople, hatched by the heat of

ment of silk-worms, one of the best of which is that of a dunghill, and fed witli mulberry-leaves. The monks also Count Dandolo, an Italian nobleman: it has been translated taught the subjects of Justinian the art of manufacturing into French. There are also works on the same subject silk.

in our own language. The breeding of silk-worms in Europe was for six centu- It is said that sixteen yards of gros-de-Naples of ordinary ries confined to the Greeks of the Lower Empire. In the quality, or fourteen yards of a superior description, are twelfth century the art was transferred to Sicily ; in the manufactured out of ilb. of reeled silk, to produce which thirteenth century the rearing of silk-worms and the manu- twelve lbs. of cocoons are required. The average weight of facture of silk were introduced into Italy, from whence it

a cocoon is from three grains to three grains and a quarter; was successively introduced into Spain and France, and in its average length when reeled off, about three hundred the fifteenth century the manufacture was established in yards. Taking ihe silk consumed in the United Kingdom England.

in a single year at 5,000,000 lbs. the following are the staJames I. was extremely solicitous to promote the breed- tistics of production:ing and rearing of silk-worms in England; and in 1608 is. sued circular letters, which were addressed to persons of Raw silk

5,000,000 lbs. influence throughout the country, recommending the sub- 12 lbs. of cocoons to 1 lb. of raw silk 60,000,000 lbs. ject to them, and arrangements were made for the distribu- 30,000 worms to 1 lb. of cocoons, 18,000,000,000 worms. tion of the mulberry in the different counties. Most of the old mulberry-trees found in the neighbourhood of antient

600,000 1 oz. of eggs to 100 lbs. of cocoons

eggs. mansions at the present day were planted at the above

lbs. of

16 lbs. of leaves to 1 lb. of cocoons period. The experiment was not successful, in conse


leaves, quence of our climate being unsuited to the silk-worm. 100 lbs. of leaves from each tree 9,600,000 trees. James also encouraged the introduction of the silk-worm into the English settlements in America. About a century Silk is obtained from the spider, not the cobweb, but the afterwards (1718) a company was incorporated, which ob- silky thread which the female spins round her eggs has been tained a lease for one hundred and twenty-two years of woven; the silken fibres of the pinna form a strong and Chelsea park, where mulberry-trees were extensively planted, beautiful fabric [MytiLIDÆ]; and some species of moihs and large buildings erected for managing the business of form cocoons which may be spun as a matter of experiment breeding silk-worms. This scheme also failed. An attempt and curiosity, but not with a view to commercial profit. was next made to introduce the silk-worm in the settlements The quantities of raw, waste, and thrown silk taken for of Georgia and Carolina ; the importation of raw silk from consumption in the United Kingdom in the following these colonies was permitted free of duty, and its production periods was as under :was further encouraged by direct bounties; but the quality of the silk proved indifferent, and after the trade had languished

1765 to 1767 (inclusive)

715,000 for some time, the hope of deriving any large supply from

1785 to 1787

881,000 this quarter was abandoned. About the year 1789 nurse

1801 to 1812

1,110,000 ries of mulberry-trees were planted in several states of the

1814 to 1822

1,940,902 American Union; but though the climate is not un favour

1824 to 1835

4,164,444 able to the rearing of silk-worms, which are found in their

1836 to 1840

4,999,791 natural state in the forests, the high rate of wages is an obstacle to this sort of employment, which is better adapted The countries from which we imported raw, waste, and to the social condition of China, Italy, the South of France, I thrown silk, in 1839, were as follows :


oz. of

Annual average.



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