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to whom the Greeks had paid a tribute for Antioch, which | again attacked, and Erivan taken in 1554; but a peace was Soliman refused to continue. Moslem was defeated and concluded with the Shah in the following year, which bekilled; but in attempting to pursue his advantage and came the basis of all subsequent treaties between the two occupy Aleppo, Soliman was opposed and overthrown by powers. Sultan Tulush, viceroy of Syria for his brother Malek Shah A great naval victory was gained in 1560, over the com(whose vassal Moslem had been), and either fell in the bined theets of the Christian powers at Djerbeh, on the battle, or, as some say, perished by his own hand, A.D. 1086 African coast, by Piali, who had succeeded, on the death of (A.H. 479). His sons were however restored by Malek-Shah Barbarossa, to the command of the Turkish navies; and a to the kingdom of Room, where one of them, Kilidj-Arslan, fresh truce with the empire (1562) left the Turks in posseswas reigning at the appearance of the first Crusaders, who sion of their Hungarian conquests. But the martial glories erroneously call him Soliman.
of Soliman were clouded by domestic dissensions. His SOLIMAN (often mentioned with the surname of Tche- eldest son, Mustapha, had been put to death in 1553, at the libi, 'gentle or noble,' which is however the general title of instigation of his stepmother Roxalana, who was solicitous the sons of the Ottoman sultans) was the eldest surviving to secure the succession for one of her own children ; and son of Bayezid I. After the fatal battle of Angora, in which jealousies of the two surviving princes, Selim and Bayezid, his father was defeated and made prisoner by Timour, A.D. having ended in the rebellion of the latter, he was defeated 7-102 (A.H. 804), he effected his escape to Europe with the and driven into Persia ; but the Shah surrendered the fugivizir Ali Pasha, and reigned several years in tranquillity at tive on the demand of Soliman, and he was put to death with Adrianople, while the fragments of Asia Minor were dis- his children (1561). puted by his three brothers. He was frustrated however in The united fleets of the Porte and of Barbary had ruled an attempt to possess himself of the Asiatic provinces (1406) | the Mediterranean since the battle of Djerbeh; but they by an insurrection excited against him at home by his were repulsed with great loss in the siege of Malta (1565) brother Mousa, which recalled him to Europe. Mousa was by the heroism of the grand-master John de la Valette. defeaied, and fled into Wallachia, but he returned in 1410 The war in Hungary meantime continued, notwithstanding with a fresh army, and Soliman, surprised in Adrianople, frequent partial pacifications; and in 1566 Soliman headed was slain in his fight. Mousa was himself dethroned three his armies for the last time for its invasion; but he died in years later by Mohammed I., under whom the Ottoman his tent before the walls of Szigeth, September 5, 1566 (Safar dominions were reunited.
2012, A.H. 974), the day before the capture of the town, at Soliman is not generally included in the list of the Turkish the age of 72 solar (or 74 lunar) years. His only surviving sultans, the interval between the death of Bayezid and the son, Selim II., succeeded him. final establishment of Mohammed being regarded as an Though the Ottoman empire did not fully attain its interregnum. He was a brave and generous prince, and the greatest territorial extent during the reign of Soliman, its first of the line of Othman who patronised literature ; but military power was undoubtedly during this period at its his good qualities were obscured by his excessive indolence greatest height and most complete organization, and de. and indulgence in wine.
clined irrecoverably in both these respects under his indoSOLIMAN (surnamed by the Turks Kanooni, or “the lent and voluptuous successors. The personal energy of the Legislator,' and by European writers 'the Magnificent'), the Sultan himself, and of the ministers and generals selected tenih and greatest of the Ottoman sultans, succeeded his by him and trained under his eye, maintained the efficiency father Selim I., A.D. 1520 (A.H. 926), in the twenty-seventh of every branch of the administration ; and the Kanoonyear of his age; and as he was an only son, his succession Nameh, or code of regulations, which was drawn up under was not disturbed, like those of his father and grandfather, his own superintendence, completed the reform which his by civil wars. His first exploit was an invasion of Hungary exertions had commenced. The finances, the military fiefs, (1521), in which he captured Belgrade, the key of that king the functions of the pashas and other employés, the police dom, a conquest often attempted in vain by his predeces and administration of justice, are all treated at length in sors; and in the following year Rhodes, which had defied this elaborate compilation, which long formed the basis of all the efforts of Mohammed II., was surrendered to him both the jurisprudence and political science of the Ottomans. after an arduous siege, by the knights of St. John. The But Soliman was not less distinguished as a patron of litesuppression of a rebellion in Egypt, and of a revolt of the rature and the arts than as a warrior and a legislator; the Janissaries (as a counterpoise to whom the corps of Bos. erection of the noble mosque of the Sulimaneyeh, and of tandjis was instituted), occupied the next three years ; but numerous public buildings both in the capital and the proin 1526 Hungary was again invaded; the king, Lewis II., | vinces, attest his architectural magnificence; and he is the and nearly all his army, slain in the fatal battle of Mohacz, only one of the Ottoman sovereigns who facilitated the inand the whole kingdom overrun by the Turks. The Hun- ternal communications of his dominions by the construction garian crown was conferred by Soliman on John Zapolya, of roads and bridges. He was hinself a poet of no mean who received it as a vassal of the Porte; but the rival pre- rank; and the encouragement which he afforded to the entensions of Ferdinand of Austria kindled the first of the ployment of the Turkish language in place of the Persian, long wars between the sultans and the German emperors; which the Ottomans had generally chosen as the vehicle of and in 1529 Vienna was þesieged without success by Soli- their sentiments, forms an æra in the literature of the man in person. A war with Persia followed, in which country. In an age remarkable for the eminent greatness Armenia and Irak, with the cities of Tabreez and Bagdad of the monarchs filling the thrones of Europe, few of them (1531), were subdued by the Ottomans; while Yemen and equalled Soliman the Magnificent either in the union of the Arabian coast were subjugated by the pasha of Egypt, princely qualities or in the glory and good fortune of their and armaments sent eren into Guzerat to aid the Indian reigns. Moslems against the Portuguese: the fleets of the vassal SOLIMAN II., a younger son of Sultan Ibrahim, was states of Barbary, under the famous corsair Khaireddin, or placed on the Ottoman throne A.D. 1687 (A.H. 1098), on the Barbarossa, at the same time swept the Mediterranean, and deposition of his elder brother, Mohammed IV. He was laid waste the Italian coasts; and Croatia was conquered nearly forty-six years of age at bis accession, and had (1537) after a great victory over the Imperialists at Essek. passed his winole life secluded in the seraglio and occupied The Turkish arms were everywhere triumphant, and the by the study of the Korán. A prince thus unacquainted powerful friendship of Soliman was courted by Francis I. of with active life was little fitted to stay the progress of the France, the alliance with whom (1536) was the first between Imperialists, who in the last years of the preceding reign the Porte and any Christian power. The death of John had almost expelled the Turks from Hungary. In the Zapolya (1541) wrought a fresh change in the affairs of campaign of 1688 Belgrade and Agria were lost; and in Hungary, great part of wliich was seized by the Turks; | 1689 the vizir Ragib was twice signally defeated by the Burla became the seat of a pasha; and the war continued, Austrians, who penetrated into the heart of Servia and took generally to the advantage of the Sultan, till a truce was Nissa. An abortive negotiation for peace followed ; but concluded in 1547, by which Austria agreed to pay a tribute the appointment of Mustapha-Pasha Kuprilu to the vizirat of 30,000 ducats for her remaining possessions in Hungary. changer the face of affairs, and in the two succeeding cam. In the same year a fresh invasion of Persia leit to the cap- paigns the Ottomans recovered Belgrade and most of the ture of Ispahan; but this conquest was not long retained. frontier fortresses. Soliman however died at Constantinoplo The war with the house of Austria for Hungary again broke in June, 1691 (A.H. 1102), after a reign of three years and out in 1552; and Transylvania was subdued and made a nine months; and leaving no children, was succeeded by his principality under the suzerainte of the Porte. Persia was next brother, Ahmed II.
SOLI'NUS, CAIUS JU'LIUS, a Roman writer of whose name of the king of Castile, and gave the name of Mar life and period nothing is known. It is however certain Fresca (Fresh sea) to that portion of the Atlantic which lay that he did not write in the Augustan age, as some have sup-before bim. Proceeding farther along the coast, he saw posed, for his work, entitled 'Polyhistor,' is merely a com several Indians, who told him of a river called Paraguaya, pilation from Pliny's · Natural History.' Indeed Salmasius i.e. great water, on the banks of which gold was said to be says (Prolegomena) that the work contains nothing which found in large quantities. Satisfied wiil this information, is not found in Pliny, and that he got together all ihat he Solis returned to Spain, and having obtained the requisite could out of Pliny's work, and put it in his compendium, leave to undertake the conquest of the lands watered by that keeping the same arrangement and nearly the same words. river, he sailed on the 8th of October, 1515, with ihree Solinus however never mentions Pliny, though he cites near caravels, having seventy soldiers on board. On his arrival one hundred authors. Salmasius endeavours to show that at Rio Janeiro, Solis left two of his ships behind, and sailed he lived about two hundred years after Pliny. The first with the third in a south-western direction in search of the writers who mention him are Hieronymus and 'Priscian. It | Indians with whom he had conversed on his first voyage. has often been said, and even in very recent works, that the He found them; but scarcely had he landed with the researches of Salmasius prove that there were two editions greater part of his crew, when they were surrounded and of the · Polyhistor.' But we certainly do not need the tes put to death by the Indians. This catastrophe happened timony of Salmasius to this point, as it is correctly observed near a small river between Maldonado and Montevideo, in the article • Solinus' (Biog. Univ.); for Solinus, in his which to this day is called “El Rio de Solis.' address to his friend Adventus (according to some readings)
SOLI'S, ANTONIO DE, was born at Placenzia, July says that the first edition was a hasty performance, and that 18, 1610, of an antient and illustrious family. His parenis it appeared under the title of Collectanea Rerum Memora- sent him to Salamanca lo study the law; but having a bilium;' and that he gave the name of ‘Polyhistor'to his natural turn for poetry, he gave it the preference, and culsecond and improved edition. The work of Solinus contains tivated the muses with great ardour and success. At ile a great variety of miscellaneous matter, which a large age of seventeen, and when still a student, he wrote a part is geographical. His style deserves no great com comedy called 'Amor y Obligacion' (Love and Duty), mendation, but it is sufficiently perspicuous. Some frag- which was received with the highest applause. This inments of a poem entitled • Pontica’ bave been attributed to troduced him to the notice of Caideron, with whom he was him, but it has recently been attempted to be shown that afterwards very intimate, occasionally writing the preludes this poem is the work of Varro Atacinus.
to his dramas. At six-and-twenty Solis applied himself 10 The first edition of Solinus is probably that of Rome about ethics and politics, as well as to the history and antiquities of 1473; but one also appeared about the same date at Milan, his native country. His great merit procured him a patrou edited by Bonini Mombriti. The pains that have been in the count of Oropesa, then viceroy of Navarre, and who taken with a work of little value are shown by the number appointed him his secretary. Solis seems to have taken parof editions. The principal edition is that of Salmasius, 2 ticular delight in recording the virtues of his Mæcenas, vols. fol., Paris, 1629; and 2 vols. fol., Utrecht, 1689; a whom he highly praises in several of his poems. On the work, says Morhofius (Polyhistor, ii., c. 2), accompanied birth of one of his sons he composed an heroic drama called with a most enormous commentary, in which the editor has Orpheo y Eurydice,' which was acted at Pampeluna durcollected all that he could find in ihe antient writers on the ing ihe festivities celebrated by the municipality on that topics which Solinus discusses, and has given also bis own occasion. In 1642 Solis was appointe:l to a lucrative office opinions ; but the editor, as usual, did his work in a hurry, in the secretary of state's department, and subsequently and made various blunders, which a little more attention raised to the honourable post of secretary 10 Philip IV. It might have prevented.
was then, and in order io celebrate the birib of a son of There is an English translation of Solinus, by Arthur this king, that Solis composed one of his best comedies, Golding, London, 1587 and 1590. The title of the former Triumfos de Amor y Forluna' (Triumphs of Love and Foredition is, The Excellent and Pleasant Worke of Julius Ca. tune), which met with the most brilliant success. After Solinus, Polyhistor, containing the Noble Actions of Human the death of Philip, Solis was nanied to the office of cronista Creatures, &c.'
de las Indias, or first historiographer of the transactions of SOLIPE'DES, Cuvier's name for his third family of the Spaniards in both Indies. In this capacity he wrote his PACHYDERMATA, which have only one apparent toe and a Historia de la Conquista de Mexico,' a work which has single hoof on each foot, although under the skin these ranked him among the best prose writers of Spain, and quadrupeds have on each side of their metacarpus and which was greatly esteemed at home and abroad. It conmetatarsus stylets which represent two lateral toes. The tains an account of the conquest of Mexico by Hernando genus Equus of Linnæus is the only recent form belonging Cortés, written with great spirit and in very elegant style, to this family known. (Horse.] The extinct HIPPOTHE- though it is deficient in the criticism which belongs to a true RIUM may find a place under it.
historical writer. The work is considered by the Spaniards SOLI'S, JUAN DIAZ DE, a Spanish navigator, was as the last relic of their classic literature. It appeared for born at Lebrixa, the antient Nebrissa, in the province of the first time at Madrid in 1682, folio, and went subseSeville. In 1506 he sailed, in company with the celebrated quently through several editions, of which the principal are: pilot Vicente Yañez Pinzon, on an expedition, the object of Barcelona, 1691, fol.; Madrid, 1777 and 1783, 4to. ; Venice, which was to endeavour to find the strait or passage sup- 1704, 410.; London, 1808, 2 vols. 8vo. We have an Eng posed by Columbus to lead from the Atlantic to a southern lish version of it by Townsend (Lond., 1724), and there are ocean. As no such passage exists, this of course proved un- besides French and Italian translations. successful, as did also another voyage which was undertaken Solis is better known out of Spain as an historian than by them for the same purpose in 1508. They however ex as a dramatic writer, yet he occupies a prominent place plored the northern coast of South America, and are sup- among the poets of that nation. His plays do not display posed to have discovered Yucatan. On their return to Spain, so much invention as those of Calderon, bút bis dramas are Solis and Pinzon were appointed royal pilots, and again more regular than those of that poet, because he was less entrusted with the command of an expedition for the dis- liable to be led away by the force of his imagination. Among covery of new lands. This time they doubled Cape St. his comedies, 'El Alcazar del Secreto' (the Castle of Mvs. Augustine, and sailing southwards along the coast, reached tery), and ‘La Gitanilla de Madrid' (the Gipsy-girl of Ma. the 40° of S. lat. However, on their return to Seville in drid), which is partly founded on Cervantes's novel of the 1509, the court was so much displeased with the unprofit- same title, are justly much valued. His comedy ‘Un Bobo able result of the expedition, that they were both deprived haze Ciento' (One Fool will make a Hundred) has, with many of their offices and emoluments, and Solis was put in prison. others, been imitated by the French dramatic writers. Á In 1512 Solis applied for and obtained permission to sail on volume of Solis's plays and dramas, in all fourteen, appeared a voyage of discovery; but as the government would not at Madrid in 1732, 4to. There is also a volume of Lyrio grant himn any assistance, he was obliged to raise among his Poems written by him on various subjects, ‘Varias Poesias de friends the funds required for the expedition. After touch- Don Antonio de Solis, Madrid, 1682, 4to.; and some leting at Teneriffe, he surveyed Cape St. Roque, then Cape ters published by Mayans in 1732. At the age of fifty-six St. Augustine; continuing his route to the South, he dis- |
- Solis entered into holy orders, and devoted himself almost covered Cape Frio, and entered the Bay of Rio Janeiro. exclusively to exercises of devotion. He now renounced all Thuking this to be the strait in search of which he had profane compositions, and wrote nothing but some dramatic sailed, Solis took possession of the northern coast in the pieces upon sacred subjects. He died April 19, 1686. His
friend Juan de Goyeneche wrote an account of his life and strengthened in his kingdom, he assembled all the congrewritings, which appeared for the first time at Brussels in gation of Israel at Gibeon, where the Tabernacle stood, and 1704, with the History of the Conquest of Mexico,' and offered burnt offerings to God. In the same night God has been prefixed to almost every subsequent edition of the appeared to him, and commanded him to ask what he same work.
would. Solomon asked for wisdom and knowledge, that he SOLITA'RIUS (the Hermit), an obscure constellation might judge the people. God was pleased with the request, of Lemonnier, which, having been admitted into the Astro- and promised him not only the wisdom which he asked for, nomical Society's lists, appears here. It is situated a little but also riches and long life, and power over bis enemies. above Centaurus, near the tail of Hydra. Its principal stars Solomon's wisdom was soon displayed in his decision of a are as follows:
singular case which came before him for trial. (1 Kings, iii.; 2 Chron., i.)
The kingdom of Israel was now at its highest pitch of Catalogue of
prosperity and extent. It reached from Egypt and the borders of the Philistines to the Euphrates, and southward as far as the head of the Red Sea. With the neighbouring kings of Egypt and Tyre, which city then held the suprem macy of Phænicia, Solomon was in close alliance. The
people of Israel were very numerous and prosperous, and (68) 1633
enjoyed profound peace; and the court of Solomon was
maintained on a scale of the greatest splendour, which was (116) 1647 7
supported by the encouragement that he gave to coinmerce, (190) | 1566 7
by which he made silver and gold as stunes, and cedar(206) 1576 7
trees made he as the sycamore-trees that are in the vale (282) 1716
for abundance. The fame of his wisdom spread abroad, SO’LLYA, a genus of plants of the natural family of' he spake three thousand proverbs, and his songs were a
and people and kings came from all countries to hear it, for Pittospores, named by Dr. Lindley in compliment to R. H. thousand and five. And he spake of trees, from the cedarSolly, Esq., a gentleman versed in the anatomy and physio; tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth logy of plants, and well known as a patron of science and out of the wall: he spake also of beasts and of fowl, and of
The genus is closely allied to Pronaya and Billardiera, creeping things, and of fishes.' (1 Kings, iv., X. ; 2 Chron., and the species are highly ornamental plants, which are in- ii., 13-17; ix.) digenous in New Holland and Van Diemen's Land, with voluble stems, oblong alternate, shining, dark-green leaves, the co-operation of Hiram, king of Tyre, he began to build
In the fourth year of Solomon's reign, having secured with the tlower-stalks terminal, or opposite to the leaves, the Temple of God at Jerusalem, for which David had and bearing bunches of bright-blue nodding flowers. S. already formed a plan and collected treasures, but which he heterophylia and S. angustifolia are two common species had not been allowed to build because he was a man of cultivated in our greenhouses, and were very common blood. (1 Chron., xxii., xxviii.) In seven years (B.c. 1005) everywhere until the severe winter of 1837-38. SOLMISATION, or Sol-fa-ing, in singing, is the art of V., viii.; 2 Chron., ii.-vii. [TEMPLE.) On this occasion God
the building was finished and dedicated to God. (1 Kings, applying to the seven notes of the scale certain syllables, appeared to Soloinon in a vision the second time, and prohaving no meaning in themselves, but containing the five mised that if he continued in piety and uprightness, his first vowels, according to the French method, and the four family should be established on the throne ; but that if he first according to the system adopted by the Italians and
or his children should fall into idolatry, Israel should be English. This art was practised by the Greeks ; but the six sylla- itself should be made a proverb and by-word among all
cut off out of their land, and both they and the Temple bles now in use are generally attributed to Guido d'Arezzo. [Guido D'Arezzo.] °These he selected, on account of their people. (1 Kings, ix. 1-9; 2 Chron., vii. 12-22.) furnishing all the vowel sounds, from the following stanza which passed between Solomon and Hiram concerning the
Josephus (Antiq., viii. 2, 8) states that copies of the letters of a monkish hymn to St. John the Baptist :
building of the Temple were preserved in his day among • Ut queant laxis,
the archives of Tyre.
Solomon adorned Jerusalem with other magnificent build
ings. He built a palace for himself, which took thirteen Solve pulluti
years to complete; and another palace, which was called
ihe House of the Forest of Lebanon, probably on account In what is called the hexachord system (H EXACHORD]
, of the quantity of cedar used in it, with porticoes where he these syllables were found sufficient. When, however, that sat in judgment; and also a palace for his wife, the daughter perplexing and absurd method began to be disused, the ad- of Pharaoh. (1 Kings, vii. 1:12; 2 Chron., viii
. 1.) He
also built several cities, and among them Tadmor in the dition of a name for the seventh of the scale became necessary, and Le Maire, a French musician of the seventeenth wilderness, which was afterwards called Palmyra ; but the century, has the credit of having introduced for this purpose Roman empire. (1 Kings, ix. 15-19; 2 Chron., viii. 1-6.)
splendid ruins which still exist belong to the age of the the syllable si. The Italians rejected the French ut, and substituted the more euphonous syllable do, which is also In all these buildings he used as workmen the descendants adopted in England. The syllables therefore now used by of the Canaanites who remained in the land, whom also be the Italians and English at least by such masters as under made to pay a tribute: the Israelites he employed in his stand and know how to value the art of Solmisation-are armies, and in superintending the works. (1 Kinys, ix. 20
23; 2 Chron., viii. 7-10.) He built a navy at Ezion-geber, as follows: Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si, Do.
which brought him the produce of Arabia and India. C, D E, F, G, A,
(1 Kings, ix. 26-28; X. 11, 12; 2 Chron., viii. 17-18. (OPHIR.] To these syllables the English give the Italian pronuncia- He had also another navy in the Mediterranean, in company
with a navy of Hiram, which made a voyage to Tarshish tion. SOLOMON (172. 50, Dalwhøv, Solojūs), the son of David every three years, bringing gold, silver, ivory, apes, and
peacocks. (i Kings, x. 22, 23; 2 Chron., ix. 21.) From and Bathsheba, was born B.c. 1033, and was named by God, Egypt be imported horses and linen-yarn. (1 Kings, x. through the prophet Nathan, · Jedidiah,' that is, ' beloved | 28, 29.) of the Lord.' (2 Sam., xii. 24, 25.) In the old age of David, While Solomon was thus at the height of his prosperity, his son Adonijah atternpted to seize the kingdom, upon he received a visit from the queen of Sheba, or Saba, in which David had Solomon proclaimed and anointed king, Ethiopia, who had heard of his wisdom and came to prove B.C. 1015. (1 Kings, i.; i Chron., xxiii.) In the same it with harı questions, to which Solomon gave such answers year David died, after giving certain charges to Solomon, that she confessed that the half of his wisdom had not been il Kings, ii.) The first acts of Solomon were to punish told her, and departed after an exchange of presents. (1 the enemies of David, and especially Adonijah and his ad- Kings, X.; Matt., xii. 42.) herents. He then contracted a close alliance with Pharaoh, Solomon's prosperity was at length too much for him. king of Egypt, whose daughter he married. Being thus Among bis magnificent establishments was a large harem, P. C., No. 1385.
VOL. XXII.-2 E
composed, in direct opposition to the divine command, of church considered it apocryphal; but it was pronounced women from the remnant idolatrous nations of Canaan. canonical by the third council of Carthage (A.D. 397) and These women seduced him in to idolatry, as a punishment for again by the council of Trent. which God threatened to divide his kingdom after his death; It consists of two parts. The first part (chap. i.-ix.) conand even during his life signs were given of the coming cala- tains the praise of wisdom, an exhortation to all, and espemity in the rebellion of Hadad the Erlomito, Rezon, king of cially to kings, to seek it, and the manner in which it is to Syria, and Jeroboam, the son of Nebai, who afterwards be obtained. The second part (chap. X.-xix.) brings ferbecame king of the len revolled tribes of Israel. (1 Kings, ward examples from bistry of the happiness that springs xi.; Nehem., xii. 26.)
from wisdom and the misery entailed by folly. Throughout It is genei all supposed that this threat had the effect of the bowk Sulomon is represented as si eaking; and the work recoverig Solomon from his Holairy, and that he then is evidenily an imitation of his proverbs. Ii is remarkable recorded in the book of Ecclesiastes his confessions of the as being the earliest Jewish work extant which contains a vanily of worldly wisdom, riches, and honour. This sup. clear statement of the doctrine of rewards and punishments position is rather favoured by the internal evidence of the in a future state. narrative in the buok of Kings, and by that of the book of Bishop Luwih says (Praelec., xxiv.): "The style is very Ecclesiastes itself Among ihe other works ascribed to him unequal; it is often pompous and turgid, as well as tedious are the Book of Proverbs,' of which he must be regarded and diffuse, and abounds in epithets, directly contrary 10 the as the compiler rather than the author [PROVERBS), the practice of the Hebrews; it is however sometimes temSONG OF SOLOMON, the Wisdom of Solomon (Solomon, perate, poetical, and sublime. The construction is occaWisdom of), the Psalms lxxit and cxxvii, and also a col- sionally sententious, and tolerably accurate in that respect, lesion of eighteen psalıns, entitled The Psalter of Solo. so as to discover very plainly that the author had the old mon,' which was found in Greek, in the library at Augsburg: Hebrew poetry for his model, though he fell far short of its by Schott, and translated into Latin by De la Cerda, and beauty and sublimity.' (The Introductions of Jahn and which are generally supposed to be the composition of some Horne) Hellenistic Jew, in imitation of the Psalms of David. Other SOLOMON, THE SONG OF, or THE BOOK OF writings ascribed to Solomon are mentioned by Suidas (s. v. CANTICLES (D'un ; "Aloua qopátwv, 'Canticum 'BÇexias), by Euseb. (Praepar. Evang., ix. 31). See also Fabric., Cod. Pseudepigraph., 1. 914, &c.; 1014, &c.; Bar- Canticorum,' which titles mean 'The Song of Songs,' that tolocc., Bibl. Rubb., i. 490. &c. Solomon died in the year is, 'the most beautiful song'), a canonical book of ihe Old 975 B.C., after a reign of forty years. (1 Kings, xi. 42, 43; Testament. 2 Chron., ix. 30, 31.)
The canonical authority of this book has been much disThe reign of Solomon was the period of the highest pro- puied. It is now admitted on all hands that it formed part sperity of Israel and the commencement of its decline, both of the Jewish canon. It is found in the oldest Christian in its religious and civil state. At its commencement the catalogues of the sacred books, and in all the antient rerkingdom had reached its utmost boundaries, and was in the sions. The argument that it is not quoted in the New enjoyment of profound peace and plenty, and the temple of Testament is of little weight against this mass of external God was built and dedicated; but before its close the king evidence. The same objection would apply to other parts had turned idolater, rebellion had broken out, and the king of the Old Testament. And although the book is not acdom was on the eve of a partition. The causes of this tually quoted, yet the canonical writers of both Testaments decline are obvious. They were in part judicial, for in the employ the same imagery which is used in it to describe the magnificent establishments of Solomon, especially in his connection between Christ and the church. Some critics treasures, his horses and chariots, and his concubines, he had have indeed found passages in the New Testament which transgressed the fundamental law which defined the duties they conceive to contain designed allusions 10 passages in of the king. (MOSES, p. 441.) But natural causes also may the Canticles, but it must be confessed that in most of easily be found. The government of Solomon was calculated these examples the allusion is not very obvious. The rather to promote the splendour of the court than the pro- objections to its canonical authority are now therefore desperity of the people. The wealth derived from commerce rived solely from its internal character, and may be summed went into the king's treasury, and the people were eren up in the following argument: that the book cannot forin a taxed in addition. (1 Kings, xii. 4, 10, 11.) The court set part of Holy Scripture, since it contains no religious truth, the example of luxury, which weakened and depraved the unless we interpret it after a fashion for which there is no whole nation, besides training up that race of insolent young authority. nobles whose bad advice to Rehoboam was the immediate The book is a poem, or collection of poems, describing in cause of the partition of the kingdom. (1 Kings, xii. 6-11.) imagery, which is certainly warm, but to an Oriental iaste The subject nations were of course ready, especially after perfectly delicate, the chaste loves of a bridegroom and his forty years of peace, to throw off the yoke, and it has even bride. It bears the name of Solomon in its title, · The Song o. been doubted whether the splendid scale on which Sulomon Sungs, which is Solomou's; and is supposed to be the only established the Temple worship was likely to support the remaining one of the thousand and five songs which we ari national religion. On the whole, therefore, this period of told that that munarch composed. According to the comthe history of Israel must be regarded as far less solid than mon opinion it was composed as an epithalamium at the splendid.
marriage of Pharaoh's daughter with Solomon, who are re Solomon has always had an extensive fabulous reputation spectively the bride and bridegroom of the poem ; but unde in the East. As early as the time of Josephus magical the guidance of divine inspiration it was so constructed a: powers were ascribed to him (Antiq. viii. 2, 5; comp. to form a mystical allegory representing the relation be Origen, Ad Matth., xxvi. 63; Nicet. Chon., Annal., ill. 7). tween Christ and his church. The similar traditions of the Arabians concerning him have First then with respect 10 its date and author. An ai been collected by Mr. Lane (Thousand and One Nights, tempt has been made, supported by the authoriiy of Kenni Index, under Suleyman Ibn Ddood).
cott, to prove the poem later than the Babylonish captivity (Winer's Biblisches Realwörterbuch; Calmer's Diction- simply from the insertion of the letter Yod in spelling ih ury.)
name of David, which was the spelling adopted after the SOLOMON, THE WISDOM OF (Copia Ladáuwv), an Captivity, but not before. But as the name in question apocryphal book of the Old Testament, ascribed to Solomon, occurs only once, and as all our MSS. of the Hebrew Bibl but manifestly written long after his time. It is not known are comparatively modern, what is more probable ihan ilia to have ever existed in Hebrew, and it contains Greek | the Yod was inscrted by mistake in an early copy, and after ideas and expressions which prove it to belong, if to a Jew wards retained by transcribers? Whether this be the tra at all, to one of the Alexandrian school. There are in it explanation or not, Kennicott's argument is of no weighi historical references utterly at variance with the state of against the clear allusions to Solomon in the poem, and i, i hings in Solomon's reign, and quotations from Isaiah and circumstances connected with his history, which prove i ha Jereiniah. Internal evidence would point to the end of the it must have been written in his time (i. 5, 9; vi. 12; in second or beginning of the first century B.c. as the time of 9, 10, &c.). its composition. It is commonly ascribed to Philo the Jew, The style and language are not more different from that o but the style is quite different from his genuine writings. the Book of Proverbs' than might be expected from th. I: was badly translated into Latin before ihe time of Je- difference of the subjects. But ihe structure and content rome, who did not revise the version. The fathers of the l of the poem are alleged as presenting iusuperabio ob
stacles to the supposition that Solomon was the author. It | similar imagery is used with a similar meaning in other is contended that the scene is laid among the beauties of the parts of the Bible (Psalms, xlv.; Isaiah, liv.; Ixii. 4, 5; cpea country, and not amongst courts and palaces; and that Rom., vii. 4; 2 Cor., xi. 2; Ephes., v. 23-32; Rev., xix. 7'; sfar from the bridegroom's portions of the poem being an xxi. 2-9), and also the opposite figure of representing expression of Solomon's feelings, they are the language of an idolatry and apostasy under ihe image of adultery or whorehumbler and happier man, who only refers to Solomon to dom. But it is said that in all such passages the allusions contrast his numerous concubines and unbounded wealth with are more distant, and enter less into detail than is the case the treasure he himself possesses in his sole and undefiled in Solomon's Song, and that in them the religious sense is spouse. (vi. 8-10; viii. 11, 12.) But besides those pas- made so prominent that one can scarcely fail to perceive it. sages which appear to place the scene in the country, others The first part of this assertion does not appear to be sus. might be quoted which refer to the splendours and luxuries tained by fact. Any one who examines the passages careof a royal palace; and some which seem to have a direct fully, especially those which relate to spiriiual adultery, allusion to Solomon's establishment, as it is represented to will find allusions inferior in delicacy to the grossest which us in history; and the passages which are thought to cast can be produced from Solomon's Song. The latter conreflections upon Solomon are quite capable of a different dition does not appear to be necessary (as has been argued interpretation. Again, with reference to the bride, it is above) to establish the allegorical meaning of such imagery, contended that the poem itself proves her to have been not when occurring in a canonical book ; neither is the spiritual an Egyptian princess, but an Israelite. This point is very sense always so obvious. For example, there is nothing in strongly if not conclusively brought out by Dr. Mason Good. the 45th Psalm, except one or two expressions which could On all these points the difficulty is much increased by the not by the greatest hyperbole refer to a human being, to highly coloured unagery of the poem. But the first dif- lead us to suspect its spiritual meaning. Passages of the ficulty may perhaps be explained by supposing one or more same kind might perhaps be adduced from Solomon's changes of 'scene: there seem in fact to be several. The Song; but even if not, does not the admission that one lovequestion respecting the person designed to be represented poem which we find in the sacred canon is to be interpreted by the bride, it has been attempted to solve in various ways. spiritually, furnish a presumption for putting a similar inA writer in the · Foreign Quarterly Review' (vol. xvi., p. terpretation upon another? 'The fact that the 45th Psalm 321) has adduced certain Egyptian hieroglyphics in support is quoted in the New Testament, and that the Song of of the comnron opinion that Pharaoh's daughter is referred Solomon is not so quoted, is no objection, for the quotation to. Dr. Mason Good imagines that the poem describes a of the one sanctions the general principle of interpretation, love-match which Solomon made with some Israelitish while the silence respecting the other proves nothing, woman after his political marriage with Pharaoh's daughter. knowing as we do that the New Testament writers adopted A third mode of explanation, which if adopted would cut the Old Testament canon as it existed in their day, and that the knot, is that of Dr. James Bennett, who supposes that this Song was in that canon. Nearly all expositors, both the poem never had any literal reference at all to an actual | Jewish and Christian, have adopted the allegorical intermarriage, but is purely an allegory descriptive of the pretation, though they have explained the allegory in difmutual love of Christ and his church. The reasons which ferent ways. The Chaldee Targum considers it as a figuraDr. Bennett adduces to prove that the poem would be most tive description of the love of God to Israel, as shown in unsuitable to the circumstances of an actual marriage, are, delivering them from the Egyptian slavery, supporting and 10 say the least, extremely fanciful but the great principle comforting them in the wilderness, and bringing them into for which he contends is one which the generality of critics the promised land. Christian expositors, from Origen admit in a case very nearly parallel to the present, namely, downwards, have generally understood it as descriptive of the 451h Psalm. But the minute allusions, especially those the union between Christ and the church ; but some few to Solomon, which are contained in this poem, are a most have explained it in a different way. Those who acknowformidable objection to such an explanation; and even those ledge its canonicity, but reject the idea of a reference either critics who contend most strongly for the purely allegorical literally to Solomon or åguratively to Christ, take its character of the 451h Psalm, maintain as strongly that the admission into the canon to be a divine recommendation
Song of Solomon' has a literal as well as a spiritual mean- and praise of a single virtuous marriage as opposed 10 polying. (See especially Bishop Horsley's 5th Sermon.) The gamy and concubinage. This appears to be now the distinction however between the two questions of who was opinion of the most distinguished modern opponent of its the author and who the parties described, ought not to be canonicity in England, Dr. J. Pye Smith. Various opinions lost sight of, as it too often has been. Finding the book in are held as to the structure of the Song, the best of which the Jewish canon, the presumption is that it is a genuine appears to be that which takes it to be a series of Idyls. part of Holy Scripture, and is intended to teach religious (The Introductions of Eichhorn, Augusti, Jahn, and truth. This presumption is strengthened, if it can be proved Horne; Dr. Smith's Scripture Testimony, vol. i., c. 1, note that Solornon was the author, since we have at least one A; Papers by Dr. Smith, Dr. Bennett, and others, in the other book of his in the sacred canon ; but it is not dis-Congregational Magazine' for 1837 and 1838; Calmet's proved even if the poem should be found to have nothing Dictionary, art. •Canticles,' with fragments in Taylor's to do with Solomon either as its author or its subject. edition ; The Song of Songs, by Thomas Williams, Lond.,
But this argument is met in another way, namely, by 1801; The Song of Songs, by Mason Good, Lond., 1803; denying that the book is intended to convey any religious other Commentaries in Horne, vol. ii., part il. ; Lowth's truth. This objection seems to proceed in a wrong direc. Prælections.) tion; for inasmuch as Christ and the Apostles referred to SOLOMON'S ISLANDS. [New GEORGIA.] the Jewish Scriptures, as they existed in their day, as con SOLON, son of Execestides, and a descendant of the taining the great body of religious truth, and we know royal house of Codrus, was born about B.C. 638, in the island that this book did form a part of the Jewish canon at that of Salamis. His father is said to have considerably dimitime, we ought to conclude that the diligent inquirer will nished his property by his liberality, and that Solon in his find a religious meaning in it, rather than first deny the youth engaged in mercantile undertakings in order to better existence of any such meaning, and then argue from this his circumstances. For this purpose, or, according to assumption against its canonical authority. But the ob- others, in order to satisfy his thirst for knowledge, he visited jection can be met upon its own merits. The composition, various countries. The time when be returned and settled it is said, is a mere love-song: it bears nothing on its face at Athens is not quite clear, but it seems very probable to mark it as allegorical, nor have we any inspired authority that it was soon after the Cylonian conspiracy (6 12 B.C.), for so regarding it.
when he must have been about twenty-six years old. Now it is admitted that from a very early period the Athens at this time was in a deplorable condition: it was Oriental nations have been accustomed to express religious distracted by internal feuds, and unable to maintain itself sentiments allegorically under the guise of amatory poems, against its hostile neighbours. It had shortly before been of which the Gitagovinda is an example. To this day the deprived of the island of Salamis by the Megarians, and in Egyptian Arabs, at their religious festivals, sing songs re the ensuing war Athens had suffered such losses, that at sembling this, in which the prophet is the beloved object, last a decree was made that any one who ventured to proand which are only intended to have a spiritual sense. pose the continuance or renewal of the war should be pun(Lane's Modern Egyptians, vol. ii., p. 195.)' Mr. Lane in ished with death. (Plut., Sol., 8; Diog. Laert., i. 45.) Solou, fact gives passages from these songs strikingly parallel to indignant at the humiliation of Athens and the pusillanipassages in Solomon's Song. Neither is it denied that mity of her citizens, devised a plan by which he hoped to