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error. This seems the most correct definition, but the word is goras understood it allegorically; and lastly, Hippo was renised loosely. Its general signification, viz. a specious proposi- garded as an open and avowed atheist. Euripides, Protation, is perhaps nearest the mark. Truly considerer, most goras, Diogenes, Prodicus, and Crtas, all denied the existerrors are sophisms, for errors are not direct contradictions ence of the gods. (Ritter, Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. to the truth, but simply the leaving out of view one or more i.) Everything human and divine had lost its earnest naelements of the truth, and seizing on only one or two ele- ture, and came to be regarded as an art-an exercise of inmenis, and declaring them to constitute the whole truth. genuity. The art of the Sophists was oratory. Assuming that Victor Cousin defines error to be 'One element of thought there was nothing right in its nature, but only by position considered exclusively, and taken for the complete thought (Tò dikalov xai tò aioxpòv ov dvoet, ámà vópy. Plato, Gorg., itself. Error is nothing but an incomplete truth converted p. 482), it was their boast that they could make the worse into an absolute truth. (Introduction à l'Hist. de Philo appear the better cause. (Aristotle, Rhet., ii. 24.) Their sophie, Leçon 7.) Spinoza had before defined ' falsity to be doctrines closely resemble those of the Sceptics, since they that privation of truth which arises from inadequate ideas.' equally denied the possibility of truth, and even interdicted (Ethica, b. ii., prop. xxxv.) A selection of some of the cele inquiry into it; but the distinction between these secis conbrated sophisms of antient philosophers will best illustrate sists in the Sophists' not masking their arrogance under the meaning of the definition. The ‘lying' sophism was doubt, but boldly and distinctly averring that ihere was no this: if, when you speak the truth, you say you lie, you lie ; truth at all, and seeking to communicate this wisdom to but you say you lie, when you speak the truth, therefore in others, to save them ihe trouble of investigation. speaking the truth you lie. The occult’sophism : Do you The doctrine of Protagoras tends to deny the possibility know your father?' Yes. Do you know this man who is of anything objective being represented by thought, and by veiled? No. Then you do not know your father, for it is making human ihought the standard of all truth (Trávtwy your father who is veiled. The “sorites:' Is one grain a xonuárwv uérpov ävbpwroc, Plato, Craty.. 385), and allirming heap? No. Two grains ? No. Three grains? No. Go that each manner of viewing things has its contrary, so that on adding one by one, and if one grain be not a heap, it will there is as much truth on one siue as on the other, it is debe impossible to say what number of grains make a heap. duced as a consequence that the end of philosophy is per(Enfield, Hist of Philos., 1., p. 200.) In all of these we see suasion; and oratory being the art of persuasion, it was to ihat that important omission, or confusion of ideas or names, which they directed their greatest attention. (Plato, Thecconstitutes the apparent contradiction. In the common ex tetus.) Ritter however observes that · Plato, it is certain, ample of-Bread being better than paradise; because bread attributed much to Protagoras that did not actually belong is beiter than nothing, and nothing is better than paradise to him.' (Geschichte der Phil., vol. 1.) -the confusion arises from both the 'nothings' being used But Protagoras, however sophistical his doctrines, apsubstantively; whereas it is only the first that is so used; the pears to have been in earnest, and to have deduced them second is affirmative, and expresses 'there is nothing better.' rigorously from his preinises. Among his followers, as A sophism is therefore the use of some word in a different always happens, this earnestness was wanting, and accordsense in the premises from that in the conclusion, and this ingly we find Gorgias (as sketched by Plato) without a is the definition of Aristotle (Top., viii. il): “When the single claim to respect; and Euthydemus a despicable babdiscourse is a demonstration of anything, if it contains any. | bler. With these latter men it was truly sophistrything which has no relation to the conclusion, there will be quackery; and answered their purposes, for they amassed no syllogism; and if there appears to be one, it will be considerable wealth thereby. (Ritier, vol. i.) a sophism, and not a demonstration.'

Gorgias wrote a work on nature, or non-being, fragments This confusion of words and ideas, though carried to a of which are preserved in Aristotle and Sextus Empiricus, ridiculous excess in the above examples, is the origin of all in which he endeavoured to prove that nothing is; that errors and sophisms; but though errors and sophisms are if anything is, it cannot be an object of knowledge; and logically constituted alike, yet the instinctive sense of man- finally, that if even anything is, and can be knowri, it cankind marks the difference between incomplete views (error) | not be imparted to others. (Ritter; Tennemann, Manuel, and wilful perversion (sophism). In all cases a sophism is p. 123.) He reasons thus: if anything is, it must be either supposed to be recognised as such by the sophist. It is an being or non-being, or even at one and the same time both endeavour on his part to make the worse appear the better being and non-being. (Sextus Emp. adv. Math., vii. 66.) reason.' It is the consciousness then of the sophist which All these cases are impossible; for a non-being cannot be, distinguishes and renders odious his error as a sophism. because it is the opposite of being; and therefore, if the

SOPHIST (Poplotns). • It is well known,' says Dr. latter is, the former cannot be; because if it were, it Wiggers, 'that the word copioths at first had an honourable must be at the same time being and non-being: Aristotle, meaning, and was synonymous with copós, a sage, a scholar according to Ritter, gives the reasoning and proofs difin its widest sense, for even artists were comprehended in ferently, but his text is so corrupt as to prevent any conit. Protagoras was the first who adopted the name of fidence being placed in it. Nor is being possible : for it copestńs, to distinguish more decidedly one who makes canno: be either produced or unproduced, neither one, nor others wise, especially one who taughi eloquence, the art of many, nor yet both at once. Nor can it be at once being governing, politics, or, in short, any kind of practical know- and non-being; for if there is both that which is and that ledge. From that time the word sophist acquired that odious which is not, then must they, in reference to being, be one meaning which it retains at the present day. Afterwards, and the same. But if they are the same, then that which is in the time of the Roman emperors, the name of sophist is also that which is not; the non-being however is not, and again became an honourable appellation, and was applied consequently the being cannot be. (Sext. Emp. adv. Muth., to the rhetoricians.' (Life of Socrates, p. xiii., trans.) vii. 75; Ritter.) As consequences of this arid sophistry, be

The race of Sophists, whose enmity to Socrates, their great deduces ihat if we suppose being to be an object of thought, opponent, has perhaps been the principal cause of their it must be similar to being; or in other words, that it must celebrity, was not without influence on the philosophy and be being itself, for otherwise being cannot be an object of literature of Greece. They were a class of men who went thought. Now if thought is being, then every thought about Greece discoursing and debating, and sometimes edu- must be true, and non-being is inconceivable. În vain do cating the youthful sons of rich and noble families. The we object that only those thoughts are true which are concause of their success lay in the very nature and habits of firmed by perception; for as the object of sight is true, the Greek people, who were so much addicted to talk and though it be not heard, so a thoughit may be true, though it so little to study—who were so passionately fond of and so cannot be perceived. (Sextus Emp., ib., 77, et seq.) A easily led by rhetoric. And the easy triumph which a fluent notable instance of the sophistical argument which assumes talker can always attain by a rapid and artful confusion of an analogy as a proof, taking care the analogy itself shall be words and ideas, must also have operated in their favour. false. The period at which the Sophists flourished was one of ob It is curious to contemplate a highly intellectual nation solete creeds-one lifeless from the want of some vivifying delighting in such barren quibbles as ihese, and the fact of faith. Religion was atiacked by open scepticism; the whole the prevalence of sophistry indicates an important phasis in sect of the Eleatæ, with the exception of Empedocles, ap- Greek history. We have a parallel in our schoolmen of the pear to have handled the history of the gods with arbitrary middle ages, who were quite as sophistical and as trilling. and allegoris'ng boldness. Even the pious Pythagorean But it is also important io notice the intluence which such adopted ihe oli religion merely in a peculiar sense of his a sect had on philosophy and literature. It was the praoown; Heraclitus argued against its probability; Anaxa- tical demonstration of the incompetence of a’l previous phiP. C., No. 1391.


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losophy, by carrying out their principles to the ludicrous from Anaea in Caria (whence the Greek biographer calls it extreme (as Hume's doctrines were but the consummation the war of Anaea), and endeavoured to induce the Samians of all the materialism of Hobbes and Locke), and thereby to revolt against Athens. In this campaign Sophocles was necessitating an entire reformation and rebuiiding of prin- the colleague of Pericles. No military feat is recorded or ciples. In the person of Socrates, philosophy again recom- him, and it is only stated tbat he availed himself of the uppormenced its attempts to solve its own mysteries. We must tunity to enrich himself. In Samos he is said to have made also add what Ritter says with regard to the effects on lan- | the acquaintance of Herodotus, for whom he wrote a poem. guage. It is not to be denied, he thinks, that the Sophists (Plut., An Seni sit gerenda resp., 3.) Whether Sophocles, contriouted greatly to the perfection of prose; which was in after this expedition, which ended in 439 B.C., took any itself a great benefit to philosophy. The Sophists applied further part in public affairs, is not certain. His life seems themselves to manifold arts of persuasion, and in their to have passed in the glorious career of a successful dramaattacks upon each other, labouring to expose and lay bare tist, and has left no traces in history; we only hear that the delusions of appearance, they acquired great nicety in several kings invited him to their courts, but that he prethe distinction of terms. Prodicus was celebrated for his ferred staying at home. He was married twice. His first skill in the distinctions of synonymous terms (as we learn wife was Nicostrate of Athens, by whom he had a son, from Plato, who ridicules him for it (Protag., p. 337; Crat., lophon; his second wife was Theoris of Sicyon, by whom p. 384); but Prodicus is honourably mentioned by him he had a son called Ariston. Ariston again had a son (Euthyd., p. 277-305). The sophisms turning upon the called Sophocles, who is generally distinguished from his words to learn,''to understand,' to know,' also contributed grandfather by the epithet the Younger.' Sophocles was to the more accurate knowledge of these terms. The very very partial to this grandson, and it was believed that circumstance that their rules were intended to be subser- during his lifetime he intended to transfer to him a corvient to the ends of fallacy and deception, must have afforded siderable part of his property. Iophon, fearing lest his ina stronger motive to the philosophical spirit to bring under heritance should be diminished, brought a charge of mental investigation the true forms of thought and expression incapacity against his father before the members of his phrawhich had been neglected by earlier philosophers; and tria, and proposed ibat he should not be allowed to have the accordingly we find that they occupied much of the atten- control over his property. Sophocles is said to have made tion of Socrates. (See Ritter's Remarks on the Sophists, no reply to this charge, but with a strong conviction of the Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. i.)

excellence of the Edipus in Colonus,' which he had just SOʻPHOCLES, son of Sophilus, was born in the Attic composed, to have only read to his phratores, who had to demus or village of Colonus, and, according to the most examine him, the parodos of this play. The consequence authentic accounts, in the year B.c. 495, fifteen years before was that he was allowed to retain the management of his the battle of Salamis, when Æschylus was thirty years old. property. He appears to have received as good an education as could Sophocles died in the year 406 B.C., at the very advanced be had at the time. In music he was instructed by Lam-i age of ninety. The accounts of the cause of his death are prus, and in this art, as well as in gymnastic exercises, he not consistent. Some state that he was choked by a graps, gained laurels even when a youth. At the age of fifteen, which stuck in his throat; others, that in the loud reading when the Greeks had defeated the Persians in the battle of of the Antigone' he exerted himself so much, that at last his Salamis (480 B.C.), Sophocles, on account of his beauty, was voice failed him and he expired; and others again, that lie selected by those who had the management of the solemni- died of joy at the announcement of a victory gained by one ties which followed the victory, as leader of the chorus which of his dramas. He was buried in the tomb of his fathers danced around the trophies in Salamis and sang the hymn near Decelea. of victory. (Athen., i., p. 20.) The anonymous Greek As regards the private life of Sophocles we know nothing, biographer of Sophocles states that Æschylus was his master except ihat he was addicted to sexual pleasures (Athen. in tragedy, but such a relation between the two poets is xii., p. 510); but the anecdotes in Athenæus (xiii., p. 603, improbable, and is contradicted by a passage in Athenæus &c.) seem to belong to that sort of scandal from which to (1., p. 22), where Sophocles says of Æschylus, that he fol- great man can escape. lowed the rules of his art without knowing them. It is a Sophocles is said to have written 130 dramas, but Aris. favourite practice with antient historians and grammarians tophanes of Byzantium declared seventeen of them spurious, to describe the relation of two persons who lived at the same which would leave 113 genuine dramas, which number intime and practised the same art, as that of master and cludes his satyric dramas. At the age of forty-five he had pupil, when there is no evidence of such fact, except that written 32 dramas, so that more than two-thirds of his ihe one was younger than the other. The first time that works were composed during the latter half of his life. The Sophocles produced a tragedy on the Attic stage was in the Edipus in Colonus,' his last production, was written a year B.C. 468, and the piece was probably the • Triptolemus,' short time before his death, but was not brought out till which is now los.. (Euseb., Chron., p. 167; Plin., Hist. Nat., the year B.c. 401. With these plays he disputed the prize xviii. 12.) Æschylus was at this time the great dramatist with the greatest dramatists of the day, Aschylus, Ėute of the Attic stage, but his young rival, who ventured to con- pides, Cherilus, Aristias, Iophon, and others; and gained tend with him for the prize, won the victory, which was twenty times the first prize, several times the second, brut attended by the following memorable circumstance. On never the third. Of all his plays there only remain sere: ; the day when the drama was acted, Cimon had just returned of others we only possess some fragments, and sometimes from the island of Scyrus, bringing with him the remains of no more than the tiles. The earliest of the extant pieces is Theseus, who was believed to have been murdered and the · Antigone,' and the probable chronological order in buried in that island. When Cimon, with his nine col- which the others followed' is this : * Electra," • Trachiniæ,' leagues, entered the theatre to offer the customary liba-King Edipus,' • Ajax,' • Philoctetes' (first acted in B.C. tions to Dionysus, he was detained by the chief archon 409), and the 'Edipus in Colonus,' which was first acted in Aphepsion, whose duty it was to preside at the dramatic per- B.C. 401. formances and to nominate the judges. Aphepsion ap The antients themselves regarded Sophocles as the most pointed no judges, but called upon Čimon and his lleagues perfect of all dramatic poets; thev called him the tragic to determine the prize. Cimon, recognising the great genius Homer, and the Attic bee, to express the unrivalled beauty that the tragedy displayed, gave the prize to Sophocles. and sweetness of his productions. Their admiration was well(Plut., Cim., 8.)

founded, for the tragedies of Sophocles, as far as we can From this time twenty-eight years of his life passed with judge, excel everything of the kind that appeared in Greece out any memorable event being recorded, though Sophocles either before or after him. Sophocles abandoned the pomp, must have been extremely active in the exercise of his art, grandiloquence, and harshness of Æschylus, for which he for during this period he is said to have composed thirty-one substituted the noble simplicity and tenderness which the dramas, not including the . Triptolemus.' (Aristoph. Byz., antients admired: his heroes are not beings of a superior Argum. ad Antig.)

nature, his men are not the sport of an inscrutable destiny: In the year B.C. 440 he brought out the Antigone,' his the world which he represents is peopled by men, agitated thirty-second drama; and he gained the prize. The Athe- indeed by sufferings and passions, but the good and the nians, who perceived in this play the wisdom of a statesman beautiful do not appear under the iron rule of destiny, and general, appointed him one of the commanders to conduct all his characters are men in the truest sense of the word, the war against the aristocrats of Samos, who, after being beings with whom we can sympathise. Hence his dramas expelled from the island by the Athenians, had returned are of an ethical and practical character, while those of

Eschylus are more calculated to inspire religious awe. I leading idea of each play, as far as this can be made out Sophocles knew the laws of his art and what it required, as from the fragments. appears from an expression ascribed to him by Plutarch The translations of Sophocles are very numerous. The (De Prof. Virt., Sent. 7). During his whole career he best German is that by Solger, the last edition of which appears to have been striving to realize the idea which he appeared at Berlin, 1824, 2 vols. 8vo. There are numerous had formed of tragedy. In the three earliest of the extant English translations: in prose, by George Adams, London, plays there appear occasionally traces of an artificial style 1729, 2 vols., and others subsequently; in verse, by Franklin, and studied obscurity, but the remaining four are entirely London, 1758.9, 2 vols. 4to., and 1766 and 1788, 8vo.; by free of this fault. But even the ‘Antigone' is so different Robert Potter, London, 1788; and by Thomas Dale, 1824. from any play of Æschylus in design and execution, that SOPHONISBE. [Numidia.] he must have long before been aware of the necessity of the SOPHORA, a genus of planis of the natural family of changes which he introduced. The more particular changes Leguminosæ, said to be so named from an Arabic name to which we here allude are as follows. Each drama of (Sophera) of one of the species. These are ornamental Sophocles turns upon one great action, the · Antigone' shrubs and trees, found in central and tropical Asia, also in perhaps excepted; and one idea, which is the leading idea the warm parts of North America and the equinoctial and of the drama, is perfectly developed in one play; while with subtropical parts of South America. The genus is characterAschylus the three plays of a trilogy are like so many acts ised by having a 5-toothed campanulate calyx; corol papiliof one drama. Although therefore Sophocles may usually onaceous, petals of the keel usually united together at their have brought out three tragedies at once, each of them was apex; stamens 10, distinct; legumes moniliform, without complete in itself. The lyric part, or the chorus, in Sopho- joints or wings, and containing several seeds; the leaves cles has no longer that prominent place which it has in are impari-pinnate, usually exstipulate and terminal; ine Æschylus, nor does it take part in the action in the same inflorescence is in racemes or panicles of yellow, winie, or degree ; it no longer expresses the feelings supposed to be blue flowers. The species best known in England are S. called forth in the audience; but the tragic development of japonica and S. chinensis, which, being from ihe northern the characters of the drama, or, in other words, the action, latitudes of the countries from which they are named, are is the most prominent part of the drama. The chorus is hardy enough to withstand the climate of England; and it subordinate, and it would seem that Sophocles used it as a has been proposed to engraft the Nepaul S. velutina on the means to let the spectator see what was going on in the S. japonica. Being handsome trees, with both leaves and minds of the actors rather than in that of the spectators. trees differing much from European trees, they are well As the action was thus extended, Sophocles also introduced adapted for standing singly in lawns. They are raised from a third actor, or the tritagonistes, so that now three actors layers, but also from see and require a little protection might appear upon the stage at once, whereas before his when young. time there had not been more than two at a time, which SO'PHRON, son of Agathocles, a native of Syracuse, rendered the action, as well as the dialogue, monotonous. was born about the year B.C. 420. He is believed to have Lastly Sophocles introduced several improvements in been the inventor of a peculiar kind of poetry called mimes. scene-painting and in other mechanical parts of stage per- [MIMES.! He wrote his works in the vulgar dialect of the formance. At first he is said, like Æschylus, to have Doric Greek as spoken in Sicily, and in a kind of rythmical acted in his own dramas, but as his roice was too weak, he prose. Plato, who had become acquainted with the progave it up.

ductions of Sophron through Dion of Syracuse, valued them Besides his dramas, Sophocles also wrote an elegy, very highly, and is said to have made the Athenians acseveral paeans, and other minor poems, and also a prose quainted with this species of poetry. (Quinctil., i. 10, 17.) work on the chorus, which was directed against Thespis and Besides the few fragments of the mimes of Sophron which Choeri Several antient grammarians, such as Didymus, yet remain, we only know the titles of some others of his Horapollon, Aristophanes of Byzantium, Androtion, Praxi- poems, so that we are scarcely able to form an exact idea of phanes, and others, wrote commentaries upon the dramas of ihis species of poetry. The circumstance that Sophron Sophocles.

wrote in a popular dialect full of peculiarities and solecisms, Respecting the life and works of Sophocles, see the Life, was probably the reason why his works were studied by the by an anonymous Greek writer, which is prefixed to several grammarians. Apollodorus of Athens wrote a commentary editions of his works; Suidas, s. v Popoklñs ; the masterly upon them. treatise of Lessing, Leben des Sophocles,' which has un The fragments are collected by C. J. Blomfield, in the fortunately been left a frazment by the author; Ferd. • Classical Journal,' vol. iv., p. 380, &c., to which a suppleSchultz, .De Vita Sophoclis Poetæ,' Bonn, 1836, 8vo.; ment and some corrections were added by the same scholar Adolph Schöll, Sophocles, sein Wirken und Leben,' Frank in the · Museum Criticum.' No. VII., p. 640, &c. Compare furt, 8vo.; Müller, Hist. of the Lit. of Antient Greece,'| Grysar, ' De Sophrone Mimographo,' Coloniæ, 1838. i., p. 337-356; A. W. v. Schlegel, “Lectures on Dramatic ŠOPORIFICS. (ANODYNES; Narcotics.] Literature,' vol. i., lect. 4.

SOPRANO (Italian), the highest of the various voices; The works of Sophocles were first printed by Aldus, the Treble. (Voice.) Venice, 1502, 8vo. The best of the subsequent editions are SORA. (Lavoro, TERRA DI.] those of H. Stephens, Paris, 1568, 4to., with valuable notes, SORA'NUS ('wpavós), an eminent antient physician, and that of Brunck, Strassburg, 1786, 2 vols. 8vo., with a the son of Menander, was born at Ephesus, probably about Latin translation and notes. In the same year Brunck the end of the first century after Christ, and raised ihe sect published his great edition in 2 vols. 4to., or 4 vols. 8vo. It of the Methodici to its highest degree of reputation. He was reprinted in London, 1823, in 3 vols. 8vo., with some had been brought up at Alexandria, but under the reign additions by Burney. The text of Brunck has served as the of Trajan and Hadrian he came to Rome, where he taught basis for all subsequent editions. The best among them are and practised medicine with great success. (Pseudo-Gal., that of Musgrave, Oxford, 1800, &c., 2 vols. 8vo. ; of F.H. Introduct., cap. 4, p. 184, tom. xiv., ed. Kühn; Suidas.) Bothe, Leipzig, 1806, 2 vols. 8vo., the last edition of which He passed some time also in Aquitania, and very successfully appeared in 1827 and 1828; of Erfurt, Leipzig, 1802, &c., treated the leprous diseases which prevailed there. (Marceli. 7 rols. 8vo.; of Elmsley, 1826, reprinted at Leipzig in 8 Emp., De Medicam., cap. 19, p. 321, ed. H. Steph.) In his vols. 8vo.; of Erfurt and G. Hermann, Leipzig, 1823-25, time the leprosy, which had been brought from the East into 7 vols. 12mo. An edition by G. Hermann including the Italy and Gaul, was making there the greatest ravages; and notes of Erfurdt has been published in parts. The plays the physicians, who were not yet well acquainted with this that were published last are: Antigone' (1830), • King disease, were anxious to recommend certain preparations Edipus' (1833), and Philoctetes' (1839), forming vols. 1, 2, against each of its particular symptoms. Some of those and 6; vols. 3, 4, 5, and 7 having appeared before, at employed by Soranus have been preserved to us by Galen. Leipzig, 1822-1825. The most useful edition of Sophocles (Gal., De Compos. Medicam., sec. Loca, lib. i., cap. 2, 8, p. for students is that by E. Wunder, Gotha and Erfurt, 1831-414 et sq., 493 et sq., tom. xii.) Their object was in a great 1841. The editions of single plays and dissertations upon measure to effect a metasyncrisis, or the re-establishment of them are almost innumerable. The titles and remains of the pores in their natural state. To him we are indebted the lost pieces of Sophocles have been collected by Welcker, for ihe first observations (Paul. Ægin., De Re Med., lib. in his Die Griechischen Tragödien,' p. 59, &c. He has iv., cap. 59, p. 73, ed. Ald.) upon the species of worm called classed them according to the legendary cycles to which by the Greeks aparóvtrov, by the Latins Gordius, Filariu, they belong, and also given the probable contents or the or Vena Medinensis ; for an account of which see a disser

tation by Justus Weihe, entitled De Filaria Medinensi Gmel. | (which is of little or no anthority) is prefixed to several Comenturiolum, Berol., 1832, 8vo., and especially the very editions of his works, and is also inserted by Fabricius in learned work by Georg. Hieron. Velschius, entitled Erer- his Biblioth. Græca, vol. xii., p. 675, ed. Vet., and by Idleler citatio de Vena Medinensi, ad Mentem Ebnsince (i.e. Avi- in his collection above mentioned. A work which exists cenræ), sive De Dracunculis Veterum, 4to., August.-Vin- only in Latin, and which bears the title In Artem Medendi del., 1674. He made the interesting remark, that children | Isagoge, is undoubtedly the production of a later writer, as while at the breast are sometimes attacked with hydropho. Galen is mentioned in it by name (cap. 13). It is in the bia. (Coel. Aurel., De Morb. Acut., lib. iii., c. 11, p. 221, collection edited by Torinus, Basil., 1528, fol., and in that ed. Amman.) His theory on the Nightmare (Id., De Morb. published . apud Aldi Filios,' Venet., 1547, fol. Chron., lib. i., c. 3, p. 289), and his opinion on the use of SORBONNE, a celebrated College which existed in magical songs and incantations in the treatment of diseases, France for several centuries. Its founder was Robert de prove how little he was imbued with the prejudices of his age. Sorbonne, an ecclesiastic of the thirteenth century, born He seems to have been the first to reduce the opinions of his (A.D. 1201) at the village of Sorbon, in the territory of predecessors to certain principles (Id., De Morb. Acut., lib. Rethel, now in the department of Ardennes, of poor and ii., cap. 9, p. 91), and therefore did not, like them, show con- obscure parents. His talents and acquirements introduced tempi for the antients, but tried to refute them by the him to the notice of Louis IX. (St. Louis), king of France, arguments of the Methodici. (Id., ibid., cap. 19, p. 127; who retained him at his court as his confessor and chaplain, cap. 29, p. 142.) Indeed he was the first who gave a and showed him great favour. In 1251 he was made a plausible reason for the necessity of rejecting purgatives, canon of Cambray, and, mindful of the difficulties which he in saying that they evacuated indiscriminately the healthy had experienced in early life, he formed the plan of an inhumours as well as the bad ones. (Id., ibid., cap. 9, p. 91.) stitution for the assistance of poor students His intention He always employed renesection in pleurisy, because it was to establish a society of secular priests, for whom a mainproceeds evidently' from the strictum, and had no regard to tenance in common should be provided, and who should deihe difference of climate. (Id., ibid., cap. 22, p. 132.) In vote themselves wholly and gratuitously to the work of pneumonia he considered that the whole body suffered, but instruction in theology. A society on this plan was founded ihat the lungs are particularly affected; for Soranus did by him with the aid of his friends, all of them ecclesiastics, not admit a single local disease, in the strict acceptation of A.D. 1252 or 1253; and was encouraged by the liberal pathe term. (!d., ibid., cap. 28, p. 139.) The cholera morbus, tronage of the king. Robert de Sorbonne was the first head said he, is a relaxation of the stomach and intestines, ac of the establishment, directeur ; and it was not until after companied with imminent danger. (Idl., ibid., lib. 111., cap. eighteen years' oflicial experience that he settled the consti19, p. 254.) Sprengel (Hist. de la Méd.) thinks that he tution and regulations of the establishment, which were not is not the Soranus who is mentioned by Coelius Aure- in any respect changed until the suppression of the college lianus (De Morb. Chron., lib. ii., cap. 10, p. 391) as having at the Revolution. Robert established another college, for recognised three causes of hæmorrhage, viz. eruption, the study of the humanities and philosophy, that of Calvi, lesion, and putrefaction, because the study of these parti- sometimes called the little Sorbonne,' near his principal cular causes would not agree with the spirit of the school foundation, to which it seems to have been preparatory. of the Methodici. We know also from Suidas that at least This minor establishment was destroyed in order to erect the two different physicians bore the name of Soranus. His church when Richelieu rebuilt the college premises. In work, slepi Tuvalcélwv Nabūv, De Arte Obstetricia Morbis- A.D. 1258 Robert was made canon of the cathedral at Paris, que Mulierum, shows that he possessed very considerable and died in 1274, bequeathing all his property to the college anatomical knowledge, though he introduces the descrip- which he had founded. tion of the sexual organs by saying that the study of ana The members of the college were all either doctors or betomy is quite useless (axonoros), and thatthe only inserted chelors of theology. There has been some difference of opinion these chapters in order that people might not say he dispa- as to their number in the first instance. Du Boulay, in his raged anatomy because he was himself ignorant of it (cap. 3, Historia Universitatis Parisiensis (History of the Unirer. p. 5, ed. Dietz). Indeed he described the uterus in such sity of Paris), gives it as sixteen; but Ladvocat, himself a a manner as to prove (what he binself assures us) that he professor of the Sorbonne, contends strenuously that the derived his ideas of anatomy from the dissection not of number was larger. The original regulations indicate that ubimals, but of human bodies. (Ibid., cap. 4, 5, p. 11, 13.) the members were more than thirty; but these were not He denies the existence of the cotyledons (Ibid., cap. 4, p. finally settled till the college had been established eighteen 10), but he still gives to the ovaries the name of testicles, years. The members of the college consisted of two classes, compares the form of the uterus to that of a cupping.glass, - socii et hospites,' or ' fellows and commoners,' and persons points out the relations of this viscus with the os ilii and the of any nation or country were eligible. The socii, if not the sacrum, and mentions the changes that its orifice experi- hospiies, were in holy orders. The hospites were bachelors ences during pregnancy. (Ibid. p. 10, sq.) He attributes of the faculty of theology at Paris, and were elected by a the prolapsus of the uterus to the separation of its internal majority of the socii, after a triple scrutiny, having premembrane (ibid., p. 11); he speaks of the sympathy that viously maintained a thesis called Robertine, after the exists between it and the mammæ (ibid., p. 12), and accu name of the founder. The hospites were boarded and rately describes the hymen and the clitoris (ibid., cap. 5, maintained in the college, and were allowed to study in p. 13).

the library, but they had no voice in the assemblies of its A fragment by Soranus, Iepi Enueiwv Karaypátwv, De members, and they were obliged to quit it upon taking a Signis Fracturarum, was published by Cocchi, in his Græ- doctor's degree. The socii were either bachelor's or doce corum Chirurgici Libri, Gr. et Lai., Florent., 1754, fol. tors, were obliged to pass through the same ordeal as the It is also inserted by Jul. Lud. Ideler, in his Medici et hospites, besides having to deliver gratuitously a course of Physici Græci Minores, Berol., 1841, 810., Gr. His work lectures on philosophy, and then to be elected by the fellows De Arte Obstetricia Morbisque Mulierum consisted origi. after two additional scrutinies. A bursary of tritling value nally of one bundred and sixty-four chapters, of which was granted from the revenue of the college to those felonly one hundred and twenty-seven remain, which were lows whose yearly revenue, whether arising from private first published, Regim. Pruss., 8vo., 1838, Græcè, from a property or from an ecclesiastical benefice, was under forty manuscript prepared for the press before his death, by the livres of Paris (the livre of Paris was equal to twenty-five late learned professor F. R. Dietz. An anatomical frag. sous, or rather more than a shilling): these bursaries were ment of this work, slepi Mntpas kai l'uvaukciov 'Aidoiov, De granted for a limited terın, ten years, not for life; and Utero et Pudendo Muliebri, was published in Greek, toge- ceased immediately upon the bursar acquiring a private inther with Rufus Ephesius, Paris, 1554, 8vo., and is to be come of forty livres a year: after the decree of the Council found in Ideler's collection mentioned above. A Latin of Trent, which required a certain income as a title to priests' translation is added to the edition of Oribasius, by Rasarius. orders, they sunk into disuse. At the end of seven years There is also a dissertation by H. Häser, De Sorano Ephe- the bursars were strictly examined, and those who were sio, ejusque Ilepi ruvauksiwv Natūv, Liber nuper reperto, found incapable of serving the public usefully as teachers or Jenæ, 1840, 410. Whether the Life of Hippocrates, that preachers, or in some other way were deprived of their burgoes under the name of Soranus, was written by the saries. The fellows who were not bursars (sncii non bur author who is the subject of this article, is uncertain; and sales) paid to the college a sum equal to that which, as bur. indeed the writer is not quite sure that all that has been sars, they would have received. Every fellow bore the title Enil refers to the same individual. The Life of Hippocrates of doctor or bachelor of the House and Society of the Sos.

bonne; the commoners were doctors or bachelors of the for the group, were it not highly expedient to preserve a House of the Sorbonne. The whole management of the uniformity of nomenclature throughout the animal kingsociety, and, so far as appears, its property, were vested in dom; and he acts upon the rule of naming every family the fellows, among whom there was no gradation of authority; from the typical genus by which it is represented. all were equal; there was neither •Superior' nor. Principal;' Mr. Swainson enters among these carnivorous mice, some distinctions of office and precedence there appear to as he terms them, by the genus GYMNURA, wbich bears the have been, but no power of one over another; and so strictly closest affinity to Cladobates [TUPAIA), and also bears a was this equality observed, that no regular ecclesiastic could strong resemblance to Didelphys. Cuvier, he remarks, be a fellow, because he was subject to his 'principal' or 'su was of the same opinion, and adverted to the affinity of perior;' and a fellow entering into any religious order, for- Gymnura with the shrews, as seen in its pointed snout and feited his fellowship thereby. The fellowships appear to have scaly tail, &c., although he omitted to reruark that the been appointments for life. The officers appear to have stiff setæ, or bristles, interspersed among the woolly hairs of been elected by the fellows from among themselves; they the body, point out another and a very important link of were- the superintendant (proviseur), who was always a man connection, namely, to the Hedgehogs, close to which howof eminence; the prior, who presided at their assemblies, erer he admits that Cuvier arranged that interesting examinations, &c., and was always chosen from anong the genus. bachelor-fellows; the elder (senieur); the professors, the li • The Sorecidæ,' says Mr. Swainson, in continuation, and brarian, the conscripteur, the procureurs, &c. There were following Curier, 'like the bats, hare the grinders' furapartments in the college for thirty-six persons, and latterly nished with conical points; but they are destitute of wings thirty-seven. The doctors and bachelors were from the first or lateral membranes, and they possess clavicles: they have allowed to receive poor scholars as pupils They taught no cócum, and they all press the entire sole of the foot on theology gratuitously, and from 1253 to the suppression of the ground in walking. In their economy they are nocthe college there were at least six professors who gave gra- turnal, leading for the most part a subterraneous life, and tuitous instruction in the different branches of theology. deriving their principal support from insects: those that

The college was from time to time enriched by legacies are natives of cold countries pass the winter in a lethargic and donations. Robert de Sorbonne took great pains in state: their feet are short, and their motions, when on the the establishment of a library, which became one of the surface of the earth, slow and feeble.' Mr. Swainson, then, most valuable in France: in 1289-90, when a catalogue was after some remarks tending to show that Cuvier's views made, it consisted of above a thousand volumes, worih more indirectly favour the natural analogy which Mr. Swainson than 30,000 livres, or 15001., a large sum in those days, and holds to exist between the Sorecidæ, Tarsius, the Glires. so far increased in 1292, that it became necessary to make and the Vespertilionidæ, each of which, in Mr. Swainson's out a new catalogue. The accessions between this year and opinion, truly represents the other in their respective 1338 amounted in value to 3812 livres, or 1901. All the circles, observes, that in the moles there are four large more valuable books were antiently chained to little desks canine teeth, separated from each other, between which are or stands (tablettes), and were arranged according to their small incisors; an arrangement, he remarks, more in unison subjects. Antient catalogues of the dates of 1289-90 and with the general dentition of the Quadrumana and the 1338 were in existence when Ladvocat wrote (A.D. 1760). Carnivora.

The buildings of the college, which are in ihe souih of Mr. Swainson then proceeds to notice the group more Paris, near the palace of the Luxembourg; having become particularly, observing, that the genus Gymnura will promuch dilapidated, were rebuilt by Cardinal Richelieu, who bably cunnect the hedgehogs, so well known by their demolished the college of Calvi in order to build the church. prickly spines, and their remarkable property of rolling He had engaged to restore this smaller college, but died ihemselves up into a ball when disturbed, either with Cla. before he could effect his purpose, and it was never restored. dobates, or that the latter may come in between the shrews The church itself, after the suppression of the college, was and the hedgehogs, the former being much the most numeappropriated to other purposes, but has since been restored These, wiih but two exceptions, he remarks, one of to its original use as a place of public worship. The other which is the Sorex Indicus, are peculiar to the European buildings of the college are occupied by the three faculties continent. They are remarkable, he observes, for having of theology, science, and literature of the Académie Uni on each flank, under the ordinary skin, little band of versitaire of Paris.

stiff and close hairs, from which an odoriferous humour The college of the Sorbonne was one of the four consti can be distilled. They dig holes in the earth, which they tuent parts of the faculty of theology in the university of seldom quit until the evening, when they search for insects Paris ; and though the least numerous part, yet from the and worms. He then notices the Desmans (Mygale) as number of eminent men belonging to it, this college fre- being also European animals, and much resembling the quently gave name to the whole faculty; and graduates of shrews, from which they chiefly differ in their teeth. the university of Paris, though not connected with this col- Scalops, in his opinion, seems to represent either these lege, frequently styled themselves doctors or bachelors of the animals, or the moles in the New World. Lastly, he obSorbonne. The high reputation of the college caused it to serves, we find in the African CHRYSOCALORIS a represenbe continually appealed to for the judgment of its members tation of this little group. Macroscelides does not appear on questions of theology or morals. One question referred to have been known to Mr. Swainson, though the genus to their decision, illustrative of the character of the age, was described in the fourth volume of the • Zoological was the validity of the gift made by Philippe le Bel, king of Journal,' in 1829; neither does he seem to have been aware France, of the heart of his father (Philippe le Hardi) to of Brandt's description of SOLENODON (1832). one of the churches of the Dominicans; and which heart The second division of the family, according to the same the monks of St. Denis claimed to have interred in their author, is composed of mole-like animals, apparently conabbey. It was more to the honour of the doctors of the nected to the shrews by the American Scalops, and the African Sorbonne that the first printing-presses in Paris were esta Crysochloris, and includes three genera, the Tenrecs (Cenblished in their house. They supported the faction of the tetes, Ill., Centenes, Desm.) [TENREC), Talpa, and CondiGuises in the religious wars of the sixteenth century.

At the end of the volume, the Family Sorecidæ is (Ladvocat, Dictionnaire Historique ; Duvernet, Histoire made to contain the Shrews, Moles, and Hedgehogs, with de la Sorbonne; Biographie Universelle ; Dulaure, His- the following character :toire de Paris.)

Muzzle lengthened, pointed ; legs short, feeble ; feet penSORBUS, the Linnæan name of a genus of plants, com tadactylous; Tower incisors generally very long, pointing prising the mountain-ash, rowan-tree, and service-tree. It forwards; no lateral membranes; mammæ ventral. The is now made a subgenus of Pyrus. [PYRUS ; Rowan- family thus characterized includes the genera Erinaceus, TREE.)

L.; Sorer, L.; Mygale, Geoff.; Scalops, Cuv.; ChrysoSORE'CIDÆ, or, more accurately, Soricidæ, Mr. chloris, Cuv.; Talpa, L.; Centenes, Cuv.; and Condylura, Swainson's name for the family of Shrews or Shrew-mice, Desm. genus Sorex of Linnæus.

The Insectivora of Cuvier consist of the Hedgehogs Mr. Swainson observes, that the Shrew-mice stand at (Erinaceus); the Tenrecs (Centenes); the Shrews i Sorex the head of the Sorecidæ, The second aberrant family of the and Scalops); the Desmans (lygale); Chrysochloris ; order Feræ, according to bis views, and which, he states, Talpa; and Condilura. corresponds, without any variation, to the INSECTIVORA of The genus Sorex of Linnæus is placed between Talpa Caviar a name which he says that he would have retained and Erinaceus ; and this article will be confined to the true



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