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serve the antient institution by an oath would be almost a ) totle, entitled • Summulæ,' Salamanca, 1525, 4to. So high matter of course. Again, Diodorus Siculus (i. 50) says, that was his reputation for ecclesiastical learning, that in 1515 the Egyptians add five days and a quarter to the 360 days the emperor Charles V. sent him as his first theologian of their 12 months, which statement is generally supposed to the council of Trent, where he became one of the most to refer to a more correct year which had been introduced active and esteemed members of that assembly. As he among the people, while their religious festivals continued spoke frequently, and was consulted on difficult points of to be regulated by the old year. The propriety of this canonic law, he was one of the members charged with remode of reconciling the two authorities is made probable cording the decisions of the assembly and drawing up its by the known existence of the Sothiac period (also called decrees. This peculiar distinction was the more remark. the Canicular year, Annus Magnus, &c., derived from So- able, as there were above ifty bishops and several eminent this, a name for the star Sirius) mentioned by Geminus, and theologians of the same order as his in the assembly. Findalso by Censorinus and Clement of Alexandria, from older ing that a brother of his own order, named Carharin, diswriters. It is obvious that 146 1 years of 365 days each, make sented from him on several material points, he composed 1460 years of 3654 days. This period of 1460 Julian years his. A pologia contra R. Patrem Ambrosium Catharinum, was the Sothiac period. It is impossible to fix any time at qua ipse de certitudine gratiæ respondet,' which was after which this period was introduced, or to say whether, during wards published at Antwerp, 1556. fol., and Salam., 1574, its existence as a recognised cycle, it had time to run its fol. On his return from the council Charles V. appointed whole career. Had it been a real cycle of experiment, it him his confessor, and offered him the bishopric of Segovia, must be imagined that it would have been found to be which he declined. He was soon after chosen by that wrong, to the extent of requiring an addition to the cath; monarch to arbitrate in a dispute pending between Las for 1508 real years is nearer to the time in which a year of Casas and Sepulveda respecting the Indians, which he de365 days would have its beginning in all the seasons suc- cided in favour of the former. (SEPULVEDA.] In 1550 cessively, and recommence the same process. It is obvious Soto left the court and retired to Salamanca, where he died that such a cycle of recurrence was the intention of the on the 17th of December, 1560, at the age of sixty-six. Egyptians in constructing the period : their vague year (an Besides the above-mentioned works, Soto wrote the follownus vagus) of 365 days, combined with their nearly fixed fes- ing:- In Dialecticam Aristotelis Conmentarii.' Salmantivals, depending upon the heliacal rising of Sirius, made i ticæ, 1580, fol. ; •In Categorias Aristotelis Commentarii,' the latter take all consecutive positions among the monihs Venetiis, 1583, 410.; ‘De Natura et Gratia Libri ini.,' Antof the former, gradually falling later and later. Again, if werp, 1550 ; ' De Justitiâ et Jure,' Antw., 1568. In this last the Egyptians had really gone through a whole recorded treatise Soto defends the proposition which he had mainperiod, it is difficult to see how they would avoid discovering tained at the council, 'that ihe residence of bishops is of that another cycle would be necessary. In the time of their divine right.' • De Cavendo Juramentorum Abusu,' Salantient kings the heliacal rising of Sirius would have ad- manticæ, 1552, and several more, a list of which may be vanced, by the precession of the equinoxes, about 12 days seen in Nicolas, Ant., Bib. Hisp Nova, vol. i., p. 332. in one Soihiac period. The beginning of the vague year
SOUBISE, BENJAMIN DE ROH AN, baron of Fron(365 days) was continually falling back; so that if at the tenai, and brother to the famous Duc de Rohan. (RoHAN.] beginnilig of a period they had noted the day of their vague He was born in 1589. Unde: Maurice of Nassau, in Holland, year on which the equinox fell, and also the day on which he learnt the art of war. Soubise was through life a zealous Sirius ruse heliacally, they would have found that the latier reformer, and figures in all the assemblies of the Huguenots came again to the same day of the vague year fifty years, for putting in force the Edict of Nantes. In 1615 he joined or thereabouts, before the equinox was similarly restored. ihe party of the Prince de Condé, but the civil war termiThis, so far as the star was concerned, would fit their erro- nating shortly after, he has little opportunity for exhibitneous period very well (1460 instead of 1508); but it is diffi- ing that audacity and those talents for intrigue which he subcult to suppose that astronomers who had discovered the sequently displayed in the religious wars which commenced odd quarter of a day which the year requires, should not in 1621. His reputation for courage and his talents as a know within 12 days the time of the equinox. But, on the leader induced ihe assembly of Rochelle to give him the other hand, those who incline to believe in a very long general command in Bretagne, Anjou, and Poitou. Unperiod of star-gazing, 100 rude to be called observation, dazzled by the brilliant offers which had seduced so many may assert the possibility of a period of 1460 years, or there- of the corrupt chiefs to submit to the court, Soubise, with his abouts, being discovered by noting the period elapsed! brother, the Duc de Rohan, remained true to their party. But between successive heliacal risings of Sirius on the same seeing themselves deserted by their friends and reduced to day of the vague year, and the theory of the discovery of despair, they resolved on a decisive blow, and proclaimed the additional quarter of a day must be looked upon as a open war against the king. Louis XIII. marched against subsequent (and of course mistaken) mode of explaining them in person, and commenced the siege of Saint Jean the period.
d'Angeli. Soubise undertook its defence, and with his The epoch of commencement of a Sothiac period is not usua: audacily, when summoned to surrender, he wrote the well determined, and only from comparatively modern following reply :-'I am bis majesty's very humble servant, writers. Censorinus asserts that the consulship of Ulpius but the execution of his commands is not in my power. and Pontianus (usually placed in A.D. 238) was in the hun. Benjamin de Rohan.' The siege was vigorously pressed, dredth year of such a period : accordingly B.c. 1322 was the but it was not till after a month's hard fighting ihat the beginning of the preceding period. Clement of Alexan- place surrendered. On the entrance of the royal army, dria says that the period began 345 years after the migra- Soubise, throwing himself on his knees before Louis
, vowed tion of the Israelites from Egypt, a date which differs inviolable fidelity. Serve me better than thou hast done considerably from that of Censorinus, according to modern hitherto,' replied the king, and pardoned him. chronologers. The point is however of no importance, as The inviolable fidelity' of Soubise disappeared with the no dates were ever recorded in written history by means of absence of danger, and accordingly we find him very soon Sothiac periods.
after tlying to Rochelle, there to form new intrigues. He SOTIES. (ENGLISH DRAMA, p. 416.)
was not so warmly seconded however as he had anticipated. SOTO, DOMINGO, a learned Spanish ecclesiastic, was He soon after collected a few troops and seized Royan; born at Segovia, in 1494. His father, who was a gardener, and in the winter of 1622 made himself master of Basdestined him for the same occupation, but seeing him Poitou, together with the islé of Ré, Perier, and Mons. This make rapid progress in his studies, he gave him as good an success drew 8000 men to his standard, with whom he education as his means could afford, and placed him as seized Olonne, and threatened Nantes.
Louis again sacristan to the church of a neighbouring village. Having. marched to meet him, and routed his army after a short whilst there, rendered bimself qualified for the study of phi- conflici. Soubise escaped to Rochelle, whence he passed losophy, Soto repaired to the university of Alcalá, where he over to England to ask for succour, but failing, he went to made the acquaintance of a young nobleman named Saare- Germany, and with no better success. The king declared dra, who took him to Paris as one of his suite. Buto pursued him a rebel, but by the edict of pacification published at his studies there, and received the degree of master of arts. Montpellier, October 19, 1622, he was restored to his honours On his return to Spain, in 1519, he taught philosophy, first and estates. at Alcalá, and then at Salamanca; and in 1524, entered into Peace tired him, inactivity was abhorrent to him; and the Dominican order. It was about this time that he pub- restless unless plotting, Soubise soon recommenced in. lished his treatise on the Dialectics and Physics of Aris- triguing with Spain and England, and, in the beginning of
1625, he again appeared as a traitor ; and publishing a chamberlain of France. She died soon after the birth of manifesto, seized the isle of Ré, with three hundred soldiers her first child, a daughter, whom he subsequently (1753) and one hundred sailors. Encouraged by this success, he married to the Prince de Condé. In 1745 Soubise married descended on Blavet in Bretagne, where the royal fleet was the Princess Christina of Hesse-Rheinfels. He served at that moment; and suddenly attacking one of the largest Louis as aide-de-camp in all the campaigns of 1744 to 1748, ships, boarded it, sword in hand. He took the other ships and is thus alluded to by Voltaire :in succession, and then attacked the fort. He was repulsed
• Maison du roi, marchez, assurez la victoire ; in his attack on the fort; and after a fruitless siege of three
Soubise et Pecquigny vous meuent à la gloire.' weeks, he set sail for the isle of Ré with fifteen ships. He His services were rewarded by the appointment of fieldseized the isle of Oleron, and was thus master of the sea marshal in 1748, and in 1751 with the government of from Nantes to Bordeaux.
Flanders and Hainault. Being defeated by the Prussians His daring had surprised every one; and the Huguenots, at Rosbach, he returned to court, the object of a thousand who had hitherto regarded these exploits as those of a bri- malicious epigrams. The favourite of Madame Pompadour, gand, now acknowledged him chief of the reform. The he was hated as a favourite by all the other courtiers; but king, occupied with the Spanish war, offered him the com- Louis remained firm in his aitachment to him, and made mand of a squadron of ten ships in an expedition against him minister of state, with a pension of 50,000 livres. Genoa, as an honourable way of returning to his allegiance. In 1758 he commanded a new army, burning to efface Soubise refused the offer; and naming himself admiral of the disgrace of Rosbach, and defeated the Hessians, Hanothe Protestant church, persisted in the war. Attacked by verians, and English, first at Sondershausen, July 13, and the Royalists near Castillon, he regained his ships with a next at Sutzell rg, Oct. 10, by which he completed the precipitation very unfavourable to his reputation for courage. conquest of the landgraviat of Hesse. When Louis XV. We may observe that his life exhibited a contrast of audacity had taken Madame Dubarry as his mistress, and presented and cowardice. He was more reckless than bold, more ve her at court, the ladies refused to receive her, or acknowhement than courageous. On his return to the isle of Ré, ledge her presence, except in the most distant manner he was met by the royal fleet, augmented by twenty Dutch Soubise induced the Countess de l'Hôpital, his mistress, to vessels. As he was still in negociation with the court, he rece 'e her at her house. This delighted Louis, and made Maobtained a suspension of arms, and the two admirals ex dame Dubarry his friend. Soubise indeed carried his venalchanged hostages. Without awaiting the result of the ity so far as to consent to the marriage of his cousin Malle.de negociation, Soubise redemanded his hostages, which were Toromon with the Vicomte Dubarry, the favourite's nephew; returned by the Dutch admiral, on the condition that the but we must add however, as a set-off to this baseness, that suspension of arms should not terminate till news was re on the death of Louis, Soubise alone of all the courtiers ceived from the court; but Soubise suddenly attacked the followed the funeral procession, which consisted only of a feet, and fired the admiral ship. The result of this per- few valets and pages, and never left the remains of his kind fidy was the confirmation of Louis in his pacific intentions master till he saw them fairly deposited in the tomb. He with regard to the Protestants; but the people of Rochelle, had resolved to retire from the court, but Louis XVI. blinded by prosperity, were more exacting in proportion 10 touched with his fidelity, requested him to retain his place the concession of the court, and the war continued. On as minister, which he did. He died on the 4th July, 1787. the 15th September, after a sharp conflict, Soubise was (Biographie Universelle ; Voltaire, Siècle de Louis XIV.) beaten by the royal tleet; and quitting his ship, he regained SOUFFLOT, JACQUES GERMAIN, was born af the isle, where the victorious royalists had landed, and Irancy, near Auxerre, in 1713. His parents gave him a attacked them with 3000 men. Here too his army was van- good education, but without any intention of bringing nim quished, and he saved himself by ignominious flight. up to the profession to which his own inclination strongly
He again came to England. Charles I., interposing on prompted him. Fortunately, instead of attempting 10 behalf of the French Protestants, obtained for them a new thwart this bias, his father assisted him in pursuing the edict of pacification, April 6, 1626. Soubise was created a requisite preparatory studies. At what time he went to duke; but he still remained in England, endeavouring to Rome, where, through the influence of M. de Saint-Aignant, win over the Duke of Buckingham to support the Hugue the ambassador, he was admitted as a pensionary at the nois, and he succeeded. Louis seriously determining to French academy, is not precisely known, but he remained besiege Rochelle, Soubise prevailed on Buckingham to put there three years, after which he spent several more at Lyon himself at the head of a fleet, which Soubise conducted to where he commenced the practice of his profession; and Rochelle; but the Rochellois refused to admit the English besides the Exchange (now converted into the Protestant ships into their port, or Soubise within their walls. Soubise church), and some other works of less importance, he exereturned to England and solicited a second tleet, which, cuted one of the largest public edifices in that city, the Great commanded by Denbigh, Buckingham's brother-in-law, was Hospital, the façade of which is somewhat more than 1000 equally unsuccessful. Nothing daunted, he again returned feet in extent. The distinction he thus acquired caused to England; and after pressing Charles for some time, hed him to be invited to Paris, where he was admitted into a third fleet granted, under the command of Buckingham. the Royal Academy of Architecture. Within a short time This tleet was at Plymouih, ready to start; but Buckingham, an opportunity presenting itself of revisiting Italy, in combaving quarrelled with Soubise, annoyed him by all sorts pany with M. de Marigny (Madame Pompadour's brother) of delays. On the 2nd September, 1628, the two had an ihe superintendent of the crown buildings, he availed him animated discussion in French on the point, which the officers self of it, and examined the antiquities of Pæstum in 1750. who were present, not understanding the language, viewed (PÆSTUM, ARCHITECTURE OF.] In 1754 he was again en as a quarrel. A few hours after this Buckingham was ployed at Lyon to erect the Grand Theatre, which was stabbed by Felton. In the first moment of horror at the capable of containing 2000 spectators, and was considered murder, the officers accused Soubise and the deputies of to be excellently contrived in every respect, but has since the deed, and the infuriated people were about to sacrifice been replaced by another structure. them, when Felton declared himself.
It having been determined to rebuild the antient and The command of the fleet was then bestowed on the Earl greatly decayed church of St. Généviève, several architects of Lindsey: When they arrived before Rochelle, Lindsey presented designs for the new edifice, among which those repulsed all Soubise's proposals, and it was found impossible by Soufflot obtained the preference; and in 1757 the works for them to act in concert. Meanwhile Rochelle capitulated : commenced, but they proceeded so slowly, that the cerebut Soubise, refusing the conditions proposed by Louis, re- mony of laying the first stone by Louis XV. did not take turned to England, where he ceased not to intrigue against place till the 6th of September, 1764. (PARIS, page 257.] nis country His restless career was terminated in 1641, in this work Soufflot entirely changed ihe system wbich when he died, regretted by few and less respected. (Biog. had till then prerailed in all the modern churches of Univ. ; Voltaire, Suècle de Louis XIV.)
Paris; and although he could not attempt to rival the SOUBISE, CHARLES DE ROHAN, born July 16, magnitude of St. Peter's at Rome, or St. Paul's, London, 1715. He was an inefficient general, but a fortunate his aim seems to have been to produce greatness of effect of courtier; for, befriended by Louis XV., he became maréchal a different kind, together with decided difference of characof France, minister state, and allied to royalty itself. ter. Avoiding two orders, as in the latter building, and the His life was tinged with many licentious and foolish acts, attached columns and heavy attic of the former, he has but his bravery and generosity gilded over his faults and employed a single order of insulated columns 60 feet high vices. He married Malle. de Bouillon, daughter of the ) as a prostyle, occupying the entire width of the façade at
that extremity of the cross; and has moreover confined the the mouth of the speaker should be a little behind the focus order to that feature of the building, the entablature alone of the retiector. Mr. Blackburn's reflector, or soundingbeing continued along the other elevations, which else board, was made of pine-wood, and so ornamented as to present little more than unbroken surface of solid wall, a have a handsome appearance. The surface,' he states, 'is circumstance that gives the whole a degree of severity, not concave, and is generated by half a revolution of one branch to call it nakedness, that contrasts most strongly with the of a parabola on ils axis.' The axis is inclined forward at breaks and multiplicity of parts in the two other buildings. an angle of about 10° or 15o to the plane of the floor, so The portico itself is therefore a feature which strikingly that the sounding-board comes partly over, but chietly bedistinguishes this from both the Italian and the English hind the speaker. Models of the pulpit and soundingchurch. Like St. Paul's, Soufllot's edifice has a Corinthian board were exhibited to the Royal Society in 1828, and peristyle of thirty columns, encircling the tambour of the subsequently deposited in the museum of 1 ae Society of dome, with the difference that all the columns are insulated, Arts; and full descriptions have appeared in the Philosowhereas in the other instance eight of them are attached to phical Transactior s'vol. cxviii., p. 361; the 'Transactions' four massifs, or piers. Another marked distinction in regard of the Society of Arts, vol. xlviii., p. 192 ; and in an octavo to the effect of the dome in the exterior composition gene- pamphlet, published in 1829, entitled “Description of a rally is, that the plan of the building being a Greek cross, Parabolic Sounding-Board erected in Attercliffe Church,' it comes in the centre, consequently is not thrown so far Mr. Blackburn concludes his pamphlet by suggesting back from the front as in the other two instances. In the whether, in erecting a new church, it might not be advisainterior, again, Soufflot's design differs from them still ble to give to the east end of the building itself the form more : it has colonnades, comparatively shallow as to depth, of a paraboloidal concave, and to place the pulpit in its instead of aisles separated from the naves by massive focus. piers and arches; neither has it any windows, except in the SOUNDINGS, in hydrography, are properly the depths tambour of the dome and the arches in the vaultings of the of water in rivers, harbours, along shores, and even in the roof, so that the light is admitted entirely from above. In open seas; but the term is also applied to the nature of the consequence however of settlements and fractures taking ground at the bottom of the water. place, it was afterwards found necessary to deviate from the If the operation of taking soundings is to be performed original plan, filling up the spaces between the columns at while the vessel is in motion, and the depth of the water is the four angles beneath the dome, so as to convert them comparatively small, a man who is stationed for the purinto solid piers. These remarks might be greatly extended, pose in the main or mizen chains, on the wind ward side, but the only one we will add is, that a detailed parallel throws out a mass of lead, which is attached to one end of a between this edifice, St. Peter's, and St. Paul's, might be line between 20 and 30 fathoms in length. On this line are rendered a highly interesting architectural disquisition, espe- fixed, at intervals of two or three fathoms, pieces of leather cially if illustrated with drawings made to the same scale. or cloth of different colours; and the mark which is next
Soutflot did not live to see his great work completed, for above the surface of the water when the lead strikes the he died on the 29th of August, 1781, after which period bottom affords an indication of the depth. many repairs in the construction took place, an account of The sounding-lead is usually in the form of a frustum of which, and criticisms npon the building, may be found in a cone, and weighs eight or nine pounds. The man takes Wood's ' Letters of an Architect,' vol. i. At the time of the care to throw it towards the head of the vessel, so that as Revolution, the destination of the building was changed, and the latter advances the line may be nearly in a vertical it was then called the Pantheon, by which name it is still position when he observes the mark. That which is called generally spoken of, although now restored to its original the deep sea lead is a mass of metal, weighing from 25 to purpose, and the dome, &c. decorated with paintings by 30 lbs., and attached to a line of great length, on wbich at Gros and others. Among other buildings by Soufllot may the distance of every ten fathoms are knots expressing the be mentioned the Ecole de Droit (1775) in the Place du | number of times ten fathoms in the depth (thus five knots Panthéon (which last formed part of his plan for a uniform denote 50 fathoms, &c.): it is used nearly in the same architectural area round the church), the Orangery at the manner as the hand-lead, but generally the motion of the Château de Menars, the sacristry of Notre Dame, and ship is stopped before it is thrown, in order that the line several private hotels.
may be as nearly as possible in a vertical position when the SOUI-MANGA. (Sun-BIRDS.)
depth is observed. The bottom of the lead is covered with SOULTZ. (Rhin, Haut.]
a coating of tallow for the purpose of ascertaining, by the SOUND-BOARD, TUCS SOUNDING-BOARD, a board nature of the ground!
sand, shells, or other matter which may adhere to it, the placed over a pulpit or other place occupied by a public When soundings are to be taken in the survey of a coast, speaker, to reflect the sound of his voice, and thereby ren a harbour, or the mouth of a river, the surveying ship and der it more audible. Sounding-boards are usually flat, and its boats are disposed at convenient distances from each placed horizontally over the bead of the speaker; but a other (suppose from two to five miles), so that the lines different form and position, contrived by the Rev. J. Black- imagined to join them and any remarkable objects, should burn, of Attercliffe-cum-Darnell, near Sheffield, has been there be such, on the shore, may form triangles as nearly as adopted in some cases with great advantage. In the new possible equilateral. If the number of boats are not sufchurch erected at that place in 1826, it was found that the ficient, the deficiency may be supplied by beacons formed of speaker's voice was rendered so indistinct and confused as water-casks. The distances of the boats or beacons from to be scarcely audible, and the common sounding-board was one another and from the ship, when all have been moored, tried, but with very imperfect success. The body of the may be ascertained by the velocity of sound, guns being church is 95 feet long, and 72 feet wide; but the extreme fired for this purpose, or by observing the angle subtended length is increased to 105 feet by an elliptical recess at the by the known disiance from the surface of the water to the east end, 32 feet wide, and 10 feet deep. The extreme top of a mast; but the officers in the ship and boats observe height from the tloor to the roof is 56 feet, and the roof is also the angles which lines supposed to join their several groined and vaulted. In the hope of overcoming the stations make with one another, and thus the positions difficulty, the pulpit was tried in several different situations; which they occupy may be determined. The boats then but that finally chosen was in the centre of the church, 15 row or sail along the directions of the lines joining each foet in advance of the altar rails; the floor of the pulpit other, sounding as they proceed at equal intervals, suppose was about 9 feet above that of the church. All other ten minutes, of time. If it be necessary to sound close to a means having failed, Mr. Blackburn conceived that the reef or sliore, or within the mouth of a river, the boats object might be attained by the use of a concave parabolic move from one remarkable point to another, taking such sounding-board, so placed as to intercept and reflect to a angles as may be necessary to determine the positions of distance the sound ihat would otherwise escape behind the those points, and sounding as before: thus the outline of the speaker, and echo in the vaulted roof. The experiment suc shoal, reef, coast, or river will be determined, as well as the ceeded perfectly, and similar sounding-boards have been depth of the water. All the soundings must be afterwards erected in other places with great advantage. The Rev. reduced to the depths below the surface of the sea at the W. Farish, Jacksonian professor in the university of Cam- level of low-water. bridge, had one put up in his church, and states that he In order that the rise and fall of the tide may be ascer could, by its assistance, converse in a low whisper with a tained, the ship should remain in its position during twentyperson in any part of the building He recommends that four hours, and at certain intervals of time the depth of the
water should be observed. For this purpose the ship is orbits, as in the A. Richardsonii. It resembles the A. usually provided with a graduated pole about fifty feet long, Parryi very closely in the colours and markings of its furi and having at its lower extremity a heavy mass of lead; though it has not, when recent, one-third of the weight of this pole, being let fall into the sea, retains a vertical posi- that animal, and its feet and claws are much smaller, tion in consequence of the ballast attached to it, and the being less than those even of the A. lateralis. I have been graduation at the surface of the water expresses the depth. able to collect no particular information respecting its When this depth exceeds the length of the pole, the sound habits. It seems to be confined to the western declivity of ing-lead must of course be used.
the Rocky Mouniains. Buffon mentions that the name of It is sometimes difficult to ascertain the precise moment Souslik, given to the A. guttatus on the Wolga, is intended wlien the lead strikes the bottom; and to meet this inconve- to express the great avidity that animal has for salt, which nience an electro-magnetic sounding apparatus has been induces it to go on board vessels laden with that commoinvented by Mr. Bain, who has contrived also some other dity, where it is often taken.' recently ingenious machines for rendering available the power The description of the Prairie Marmot, or, as it is often of electricity. The line itself is formed of wires, proiecter called, the Prairie Dog (Arctomys (Spermophilus P) Ludufrom the action of the water; and it is so arranged that the vicianus) will be found under WisTONWISH. electrical current shall be uninterrupted so long as the ring SOUTH FERRY, properly and generally called Ferryattached to the weight remains in contact with the ring or port-on-Claig, a small seaport village in the county of Fife hook at the lower end of the line, but shall be broken when, situated about 12 miles north-east from Cupär, the county owing to the lead touching the bottom, the contact of the town, and 10 north from St. Andrews. It lies on the rings is interrupted. The effect thus produced is instan- margin of the left banks of the Tay, sloping towards the taneously communicated through the wires to an apparatus river, and near to its mouth. There is a good and conveon deck, where it causes a bell to ring. This invention is nient stone pier, where vessels of considerable burthen can exbibited at the Polytechnic Institution, in Regent Street, discharge at high water, and great numbers not unfreLondon.
quently come to anchor in the roads, to wait for favourSOUSLIK, the name of certain marmots with cheek- able weather previous to putting out to sea. A passage-boat pouches (Spermophilus, F. Cuv.).
crosses at every aliernate hour to Broughty Ferry, which The European and Asiatic Souslik, or Zizel (Mus Ci- stands close on the opposite shore, and a trader sails tellus, Linn.), has i he face cinereous and a white line over daily to Dundee, whence steam-boats ply regularly to and each eye. The teeth are yellow and the whiskers black from Perth, and during the greater part of the year the and long. It is grey-brown above, undulated or spotted steam-vessels which ply betwixt Edinburgh and Dundee with white below.
touch here in landing and taking passengers ou board. The There appear to be several varieties. One spotted (gut. salmon fishery, both by coble and stake net, and shiptátus); one undulated (the Zizel); and a third of a yel. building, are carried on to a pretty considerable extent. The lowish uniform brown (Yevrashka or Jevraschka, the Sibe: inhabitants are chiefly employed in weaving and navigation. rian Marmot). Length a foot : that of the tail to the end A line of railway is at present in contemplation through of the hairs four inches and a half.
the county as a means of communication betwixt the shores Geographical Distribution.— Bohemia, Austria, Hun. of the Forth and the Tay, crossing the latter river at or near gary; from the banks of the Wolga to India and Persia, this village, and joining the Dundee and Arbroath railway ihrough Siberia and Great Tartary to Kamtchatka; some on the opposite side. In 1831 the population was 1680 of the intervening isles, such as Karjak; and even the con- (Communication from Scotland.) Tinent of America itself. (Pennant.)
SOUTH POLAR COUNTRIES. Tlc southern hemi. Habits, fc.- This marmot or ground-squirrel (as these sphere, as is now well known, contains a much less proSpermophili have been termed from their more slender portion of land to sea ihan the northern. But it was forms) burrows and provides for its winter food by laying up formerly supposed that the remote and then unknown paris a magazine of corn and nuts. Some inhabit the fields, and of the southern hemisphere were occupied by an extensive their holes have a double entrance: others inbabit grana- continent, which surrounded the antarctic pole, and exries, and these are said not to sleep in winter like the field tended to a great distance from it. This imaginary contisousliks, but to remain in motion during the cold season. nent, called Terra Australis Incognita, makes a conspiThey sit in multitudes near their holes, and only one inha cuous figure on all maps which are more than a century bits each burrow. The females remain separate from the old. Nothing could be adduced in support of the supposed males except during the breeding season, which is in May, existence of this continent, except the fact that a coast had and produce from five to eight young ones: these they been seen in 1599 by Dirk Gerritz, a Dutchman, west of bring up in their burrows and cover with hay.
Cape Horn, but in a much higher latitude. His vessel, Trie sousliks are very quarrelsome among ihemselves, and which belonged to a Dutch tleet commanded by James bite very hard. They whistle like the common marmot. Mahu, ou leaving the straits of Magalhaens for the Pacific, They are supposed to be very fond of salt, and have been had been separated from the other vessels, and carried by taken in numbers on board the barges laden with that com winds and currents as far south as 64o, where he found a modity at Sulikamsky, which drop down into the Wolga lofty coast, which Gerritz compared with that of Norway. below Casan The sousliks are said to have an appetite for He was unable however to determine the position of this flesh, and to feed on the young of little birds and the lesser newly discovered coast. It is probable that the coast which mice, as well as on corn, nuts, &c.
he saw was that which Biscoe discovered in 1832, and called Utility to Man.- Pennant says that the Bohemian ladies Graham's Land. were wont to make cloaks of ihe skins of these animals; In the middle of the last century, when the spirit of and adds, ' we see them at this time made use of for linings, maritime enterprise was active in Great Britain, and the and appear very beautiful for that purpose, especially the Pacitic particularly attracted attention, it was determined to spotted kind.'
solve the problem of the existence of this Terra Australis, Dr. Richardson, in his Fauna Boreali Americana, 110tices and Cook undertook his second voyage (1772-1775) for the the American Souslik (* Arctomys (Spermophilus) guttatus purpose. He found large masses of floating ice, and only Mus Citillus var. guttata, Pallas ?. Spermophilus guttatus, in three places succeeded in penetrating beyond the ant. Temm. P') Dr. Richardson says, ' Mr. Douglas brought a arctic polar circle. In one place he attained 71° 10'S. lat., small marmot from the western side of the Rocky Moun. but he was generally unable to go much farther south than tains, and several injured specimens of the same species 60° S. lat. This was the case between 90° and 150° E. exist in the museum of the Hudson's Bay Company. I can long., within which limits the most extensive and continu. detect no 'external characters (except that the spots on its ous line of coast was discovered two years ago. This line fur are more crowded and indistinct) to distinguish it from of coast however lies between 4 and 5 degrees south of the Mus Noricus of Agricola, or Hungarian Souslik, which Cook's track. As Cook liad found no land south of 60°, the I know only from the descriptions and figures given by Terra Australis disappeared from our maps, though he him. authors; but a skull of the latter preserved in the College of self thought that there must be land in the vicinity of the Surgeons, although of the same size with the American pole, being convinced that ice can only be formed in the animal, differs from it in having a more arched fac al line, neighbourhood of land. and in possessing an uniform degree of curvature from the Thus the matter rested up to 1819, when the South occiput to the end of the nose. The American Souslik has Shetland Islands were seen by William Smith, on a voyago & convex nose, with the frontul bone depressed between the from Monte Video to Valparaiso. This discovery rekindled
the spirit of enterprise in Great Britain and other countries. I than 1800 miles of the coast of the Antarctic Continent In 1821 Powell discovered Trinity Land, south of the South have been discovered south of New Zealand and Australia, Shetlands and the South Orkneys, between 60° 30' and 61° between 170° and 97° E. long. S. lat., and 44° 30' and 46° 30' w. long. Palmer, an The discoverers of these new countries have only in a American, discovered a coast-line west of Trinity Land, very few cases been able to effect a landing, the coasts being which is called Palmer's Land; and the Russian navigator skirted with a bank of either solid or broken ice, which Bellingshausen discovered Alexander's Land, south-west of generally extends from five to ten, and, in some places, Palmer s Land. All these lands are south and west of the even to iwenty miles from the shore. The land is elevated, South Shetland Islands. In 1823, Weddell tried to find and even mountainous, at no great distance from the shores. land east of the meridian of these islands. He did not find Dumont d'Urville estimates the average elevation of the land, but he succeeded in advancing as far as 74° 15' S. lat., mountains in Adélie Land at about 1500 feet. They are where he found a sea clear of ice. In 1831 and 1832 Biscoe covered with snow, even in February, and might easily be sailed round the icy masses which enclose the south pole, mistaken for ice-bergs, if some rocks did not rise from them, and added to former discoveries Enderby's Land and to the perpendicular sides of which the snow cannot adhere. Graham's Land. The first lies at a great distance from the Between the mountain-ridges valleys are observed, but they countries south of the Shetland Islands, between 49° and are filled with snow and ice nearly to the summits of the 51° E. long: ; but Graham's Land is between Alexander's mountains, and these icy masses, being converted into Land and Palmer's Land. Thus a nearly continuous coast. glaciers, protrude into the sea. In summer enormous pieces line has been discovered south and west of the South are broken off from them, and to this cause are owing the Shetland Islands, extending from 36° to 70° W. long., and numerous icebergs which render the navigation along these comprehending from east to west Trinity Land, Palmer's coasts more difficult and dangerous than in the most northLand, Graham's Land, and Alexander's Land. In 1833 ern latitudes which have been visited by our whalers. Kemp sailed towards Enderby's Land, and found certain some portions of the coasts are of volcanic origin, espeindications of land to the east of it, though he was pre- cially those which lie south of the South Shet and Islands. vented by ice from approaching near enough to see it. In Bellingshausen found an active volcano near 69° S. lat., 1837 the French government sent some vessels to these and there is another on Palmer's Land. These volcanoes parts, under the command of Dumont d'Urville, who ex seem to be connected with those in the South Shetland plored the coast which Powell named Trinity Land, and Islands. [New South SHETLAND ISLANDS A' volcano changed its name to that of Louis-Philippe's Land. In occurs also on Balleny's Islands, which continually emits the following year Balleny directed his course to those parts smoke, and Mount Erebus and Mount Terror have been of the ocean which are south of New Zealand and Austra- noticed above. lia, and discovered some islands near 165° E. long., which No traces of vegetation have been discovered on any part he called Balleny Islands. He also discovered a projecting of ibis coast, nor any terrestrial quadrupeds. The birds coast-line near 116° E. long., which was called Sabrina were albatrosses, penguins, eaglets, Cape pigeons, king Land. But the largest tract of sea-coast was discovered in birds, and nellies. Whales have been observed in several 1840. In 1839 the French government and that of the places, especially hump-backed and fin-backed whales; as United States of North America sent out expeditions for also several kinds of seals. the purpose of making discoveries in the antarctic seas. (Weddell's Voyage towards the South Pole ; Biscoe's DisThe French expedition ronsisted of two vessels, under the coveries in the Atlantic Ocean, in London Geogr. Juurnal, command of Dumont d'Urville, and the American of four vol. ii.; Wilkes's Voyage in the Globe newspaper, 14th vessels commanded by Charles Wilkes. Both directed Aug., 1840 ; Dumont d'Urville, Expédition au Pole Ant their course to the seas which the year before had been arctique ; and Nautical Magasine
, for Sept., 1841.) visited by Balleny. Wilkes found a coast-line in 154° 27' SOUTH, ROBERT, was the son of Mr. South, an emi. E. long.; and in continuing his course westward for four nent London merchant. He was born at Hackney in Middleweeks, he had either always a coast in sight or unequivo- sex, in 1633. In 1648 lie was a king's scholar in the colcal indications of land being at no great distance. He lege of Westminster, at which time Dr. Busby was master advanced as far as 97° 30'' E. long., so that, including of the school. He read the Latin prayers in the school on Sabrina Land, he discovered a coast-line extending over the day of the execution of Charles I., and prayed for his near fifty degrees of longitude. Dumont d'Urville reached majesty by name; apparently an indication that even then the same coast in 140° 41' E. long., and pursued his course he had embraced those principles of attachment to the esiawestward to 130° E. long. He called it Adélie Land. It blished form of government in church and state, of which is remarkable that the coast of this Antarctic Continent, for he was all through his long life a most strenuous and able this appellation cannot be denied to it, lies near the polar champion. In 1651 he was admitted a student of Christ circle, either to the south or to the north of it, and this is Church, Oxford, having been elected at the same time with also the case with Enderby's Land and Graham's Land, John Locke. In 1655, in which year he took his degree of both of which are traversed by that line. Only the tract Bachelor of Arts, he wrote a copy of Latin verses for the of coast south of the South Shetland Islands extends purpose of congratulating Oliver Cromwell on the peace farther north, and approaches to 63o S. lat.
which he had made with the Dutch Those who have An expedition was fitted out in England for the purpose reflected upon South for this compliment to the Protector, of making an attempt to reach the south magnetic pole, need to be informed that the copy of Latin verses was a Uniand placed under the command of Captain James Clarke versity exercise of the kind which was then usually imposed Ross. He directed his course several degrees cast of on bachelors of arts and undergraduates. He met with some Balleny Island, and on the first day of this year (1841) passed opposition to taking his degree of Master of Arts, in 1657, the antarctic polar circle, near 178° E. long. On the 11th from Dr. John Owen, who then filled the place of dean of of January he discovered land near 70° 41' S. lat. and 172° Christ Church, and was, or pretended to be, favourable to 36' E. long., and soon found that it was a continuous coast the principles of those who were then in power. In 1658 trending southward, and rising in mountain peaks to the South was ordained by a deprived bishop, and in 1660 he height of 9000 to 12,000 feet, and covered with snow. On was made University orator, for which he was perhaps partly the 12th of January he effected a landing, and took posses- indebted to his excellent sermon preached before the king's sion of it in the name of the queen. He continued his commissioners, entitled the 'Scribe Instructed' (Matth., course along the shores to 78° 4' S. lat. In 71° 32' S. lat. and xiii. 52). After describing the qualifications of a scribe as 167° E. long. he saw a mountain about 12,400 feet above the result of habitual preparationi, by study and exercise, he the sea-level, which sent forth abundance of fire and takes the opportunity of observing on the qualifications or smoke, to which he gave the name of Mount Erebus. East the sectarists then lately in power, and this passage is a good of this volcano he observed an extinct crater of somewhat sample of the kind of warfare which he carried on to the less elevation, which he called Mount Terror. At 78° 4' end of his life against those who dissented from the ecclesiasS. lat. bis progress to the south was prevented by a barrier tical constitution as established by law, and also of his style. which presentea a perpendicular face of at least 150 feet, The teachers of those days, he says, “first of all seize upon along which he sailed eastward until he attained 191° 23' in some text, from whence they draw something (which they cal. 78° S. lat. The coast-line discovered by Ross is above 600 doctrine), and well may it be said to be drawn from the miles. Adding to these the discoveries of Balleny, Wilkes; words, forasmuch as it seldom naturally flows or results from and Dumont d'Urville, which comprehend a coast exceed them. In the next place, being thus provided, they branch ing 1200 miles, we find that within the ast two years more it into several heads, perhaps twenty or thirty or upwards.